Coincidence is the noteworthy alignment of two or more events or circumstances without obvious causal connection. The word is derived from the Latin co- ("in", "with", "together") and incidere ("to fall on").
The index of coincidence can be used to analyze whether two events are related. In Cryptography, coincidence counting is the technique (invented by William F A coincidence does not prove a relationship, but related events may be expected to have a higher index of coincidence. From a statistical perspective, coincidences are inevitable and often less remarkable than they may appear intuitively. The odds that two people share a birthday, for example, reaches 50% with a group of just 23 (see the Birthday problem). In Probability theory, the birthday problem, pertains to the Probability that in a set of Randomly chosen people some pair of them will have the same
In The Psychology of the Psychic the author David Marks describes four distinct meanings of the term "coincidence". The Psychology of the Psychic is a work by David Marks and Dr Richard Kammann written while both were lecturers in psychology at New Zealand 's University David F Marks is a Psychologist and professor at City University in London, United Kingdom. Marks suggests that coincidences occur because of "odd matches" when two events A and B are perceived to contain a similarity of some kind. For example, dreaming of a plane crash (event A) would be matched by seeing a news report of a plane crash on the next morning (event B).
In optics, coincidence is also used to refer to two or more incident beams of light that strike the same point at the same time. Light, or visible light, is Electromagnetic radiation of a Wavelength that is visible to the Human eye (about 400–700
Remarkable coincidences sometimes lead to claims of psychic phenomena or conspiracy theories. Parapsychology is a discipline that seeks to demonstrate the existence and causes of Psychic abilities and life after death using the Scientific method A conspiracy theory attributes the ultimate cause of an event or chain of events (usually Political, Social or Historical events or the concealment Some researchers (see Charles Fort and Carl Jung) have compiled thousands of accounts of coincidences and other supposedly anomalous phenomena (see synchronicity). Charles Hoy Fort ( 6 August, 1874 &ndash 3 May, 1932) was a Dutch-American writer and researcher into anomalous phenomena Synchronicity is the Experience of two or more events which are causally unrelated occurring together in a meaningful manner The perception of coincidences often leads to occult or paranormal claims. It may also lead to a belief in fatalism, that events are pre-destined to happen in the exact manner of a prior plan or formula. Fatalism is a Philosophical doctrine emphasizing the subjugation of all events or actions to fate or inevitable predetermination This lends certain events an aura of inevitability.
- Jung, Carl G.: Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle. In Mathematics, a mathematical coincidence can be said to occur when two expressions show a near-equality that lacks direct theoretical explanation In Mathematics, a coincidence point (or simply coincidence) of two mappings is a point in their domain having the same image point under both A Bible code (also Torah code) is the notion that there are information patterns encrypted or Coded form in the text of the Bible, or more specifically Littlewood's Law states that individuals can expect a Miracle to happen to them at the rate of about one per month Post hoc ergo propter hoc, Latin for "after this therefore because (on account of this" is a logical fallacy (of the Questionable cause variety Déjà vu ( pronounced; French "already seen" also called "paramnesia" from Greek παρα "para" "near" + μνήμη "mnēmē" Extrasensory perception (ESP is the apparent ability to acquire information by Paranormal means independent of any known physical Senses or deduction from previous Randomness is a lack of order Purpose, cause, or predictability In Metaphysics and Esoteric cosmology, a plane, other than the Physical plane, is conceived as a subtle state of Consciousness that transcends The Roots of Coincidence, written by Arthur Koestler, is an accessible introduction to theories of Parapsychology, including Extra-sensory perception Synchronicity is the Experience of two or more events which are causally unrelated occurring together in a meaningful manner Serendipity is the effect by which one accidentally discovers something fortunate especially while looking for something else entirely Coincidence detection in the context of neurobiology is a process by which a Neuron or a neural circuit can encode information by detecting the occurrence of simultaneous yet An omen (also called portent or presage) is a phenomenon that is believed to foretell the Future, often signifying the advent of change Princeton, N. J. : Princeton UP, 1973.
- Arthur Koestler: The Roots of Coincidence
- David Marks: The Psychology of the Psychic (pages 227-246)
External links Arthur Koestler CBE ( September 5, 1905, Budapest &ndash March 3, 1983, London) was a David F Marks is a Psychologist and professor at City University in London, United Kingdom. The Psychology of the Psychic is a work by David Marks and Dr Richard Kammann written while both were lecturers in psychology at New Zealand 's University Jill Neimark is an American Writer. Neimark has written one adult novel a thriller titled Bloodsong, which was published in both hardcover Psychology Today is a bi-monthly magazine published in the United States.
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- Of objects, the property of being coincident; occurring at the same time or place.
- Of events, the appearance of a meaningful connection when there is none.
- (analysis) A coincidence point.
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