|Country of origin||Ethiopia|
|Introduced||(around) 800 CE|
Coffee is a widely-consumed stimulant beverage prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. Stimulant drugs are Drugs that temporarily increase alertness and awareness A drink, or beverage, is a Liquid specifically prepared for Human consumption A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored A coffee bean is the seed of the coffee plant (the pit inside the red or purple fruit This article discusses the coffee plant for information on the beverage see Coffee. Coffee was first consumed in the 9th century, when it was discovered in the highlands of Ethiopia. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page  From there, it spread to Egypt and Yemen, and by the 15th century had reached Armenia, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe and the Americas. The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest  Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. 
Coffee berries, which contain the coffee bean, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. In Botany, an Evergreen plant is a plant having leaves all year round A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic The two most commonly grown species are Coffea canephora (also known as Coffea robusta) and Coffea arabica. Coffea canephora ( Robusta Coffee; syn Coffea robusta) is a Species of Coffee which has its origins in western Coffea arabica (əˈræbɪkə is a species of Coffee indigenous to Ethiopia and Yemen. These are cultivated in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. The seeds are then roasted, undergoing several physical and chemical changes. They are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. Brewing is an important technique in cookery and involves Boiling or Simmering. Coffee can be prepared and presented by a variety of methods.
Coffee has played an important role in many societies throughout modern history. In Africa and Yemen, it was used in religious ceremonies. As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its consumption until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in transliterated Amharic: Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Emperor Menelik II GCB, GCMG, ( Ge'ez ምኒልክ baptized as Sahle Maryam ( August 17, 1844 &ndash December 12  It was banned in Ottoman Turkey in the 17th century for political reasons, and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish
Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions; whether the effects of coffee are positive or negative is still disputed. .
The English word coffee first came to be used in the early- to mid-1600s, but early forms of the word date to the last decade of the 1500s. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States  It comes from the Italian caffè. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. The term was introduced to Europe via the Ottoman Turkish kahveh which is in turn derived from the Arabic: قهوة, qahweh. Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlıca or tr ''Osmanlı Türkçesi'' Ottoman Turkish ota-Latn ''lisân-ı Osmânî'' is the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language  The origin of the Arabic term is uncertain; it is either derived from the name of the Kaffa region in western Ethiopia, where coffee was cultivated, or by a truncation of qahwat al-būnn, meaning "wine of the bean" in Arabic. The Kingdom of Kaffa (c1390&ndash1897 was an ancient state located in what is now Ethiopia, with its capital at Bonga. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page In Eritrea, "būnn" (also meaning "wine of the bean" in Tigrinya) is used. Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Tigrinya ( Ge'ez: ትግርኛ tigriññā) also spelled Tigrigna, Tigrina, less commonly Tigrinian, Tigrinyan, is  The Amharic and Afan Oromo name for coffee is bunna. Amharic (አማርኛ amarəñña) is a Semitic language spoken in North Central Ethiopia by the Amhara. Oromo, also known as Afaan borana Oromoo, Oromiffa(a ( Ethiopic: ኦሮሚኛ and sometimes in other languages by variant spellings of these names
Coffee use can be traced at least to as early as the 9th century, when it appeared in the highlands of Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Highlands are a rugged mass of mountains in Ethiopia, Eritrea (which is sometimes referred to as the Eritrean Highlands) and northern  According to legend, Ethiopian shepherds were the first to observe the influence of the caffeine in coffee beans when the goats appeared to "dance" and to have an increased level of energy after consuming wild coffee berries. A goatherd (ˈgoʊtˌhɜrd or a goatherder is a person who herds Goats for a living Caffeine is a bitter white crystalline Xanthine Alkaloid that acts as a Psychoactive Stimulant Drug and a mild Diuretic  The legend names the shepherd "Kaldi. " From Ethiopia, coffee spread to Egypt and Yemen. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya  It was in Arabia that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed similarly as they are today. By the 15th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan
|“||A beverage as black as ink, useful against numerous illnesses, particularly those of the stomach. Leonhard Rauwolf (also spelled Rauwolff) ( Augsburg, June 21 in either 1535 or 1540 &ndash September 15, 1596, Waitzen, B Syria - Belka Woman from Damascus Arab from Baghdadjpg|thumb|Inhabitants of the Near East late nineteenth century Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health or ail) can be defined as a state of poor Health. Its consumers take it in the morning, quite frankly, in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu.||”|
From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa, Egypt, and the Middle East brought many goods, including coffee, to the Venetian port. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. From Venice, it was introduced to the rest of Europe. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600, despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink". Not to be confused with Antipope Clement VIII. Pope Clement VIII ( February 24, 1536 &ndash March 3, 1605 The first European coffee house opened in Italy in 1645.  The Dutch were the first to import coffee on a large scale, and they were among the first to defy the Arab prohibition on the exportation of plants or unroasted seeds when Pieter van den Broeck smuggled seedlings from Aden into Europe in 1616. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Aden (ˈeɪdən Arabic: عدن) is a city in Yemen, 170 kilometers east of Bab-el-Mandeb.  The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon. Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island  Through the efforts of the British East India Company, coffee became popular in England as well. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or It was introduced in France in 1657, and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna, when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The Battle of Vienna ( German: Schlacht am Kahlenberg, Polish: Bitwa pod Wiedniem or Odsiecz Wiedeńska, Turkish: İkinci The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish 
When coffee reached North America during the colonial period, it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe. During the Revolutionary War, however, the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically; this was partly due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands  After the War of 1812, during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports, the Americans' taste for coffee grew, and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South 
Noted as one of the world’s largest, most valuable, legally traded commodities after oil, coffee has become a vital cash crop for many Third World countries. In Agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for Money. Over one hundred million people in developing countries have become dependent on coffee as the primary source of income (Ponte 1). Coffee has become the primary export and backbone for African countries like Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, and Ethiopia as well as other Central American countries (1)
The Coffea plant is native to subtropical Africa and southern Asia. This article discusses the coffee plant for information on the beverage see Coffee.  It belongs to a genus of 10 species of flowering plants of the family Rubiaceae. A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group Rubiaceae is a family of Flowering plants variously called the Madder family, Bedstraw family or coffee It is an evergreen shrub or small tree that may grow 5 meters (16 ft) tall when unpruned. In Botany, an Evergreen plant is a plant having leaves all year round The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually 10–15 centimeters (3. 9–5. 9 in) long and 6. 0 centimeters (2. 4 in) wide. It produces clusters of fragrant, white flowers that bloom simultaneously. The fruit berry is oval, about 1. 5 centimeters (0. 6 in) long, and green when immature, but ripens to yellow, then crimson, becoming black on drying. Each berry usually contains two seeds, but from 5 to 10 percent of the berries have only one; these are called peaberries. Peaberry, also known as caracoli, is a type of Coffee bean Normally the fruit of the coffee plant develops as two halves of a bean within a single  Berries ripen in seven to nine months.
Coffee is usually propagated by seeds. See also Coffee Coffee varieties refers to the diverse forms derived through selective breeding or natural selection of coffee plants The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season; half are eliminated naturally. Coffee is often intercropped with food crops, such as corn, beans, or rice, during the first few years of cultivation. 
The two main cultivated species of the coffee plant are Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica. Coffea canephora ( Robusta Coffee; syn Coffea robusta) is a Species of Coffee which has its origins in western Coffea arabica (əˈræbɪkə is a species of Coffee indigenous to Ethiopia and Yemen. Arabica coffee (from C. arabica) is considered more suitable for drinking than robusta coffee (from C. canephora); robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor than arabica. For this reason, about three-fourths of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. arabica.  However, C. canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. arabica and can be cultivated in environments where C. See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and arabica will not thrive. Robusta coffee also contains about 40–50 percent more caffeine than arabica.  For this reason, it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. Good quality robustas are used in some espresso blends to provide a better foam head and to lower the ingredient cost. Espresso or caffè espresso ( often mispronounced as expresso) is a concentrated Coffee beverage brewed by forcing very hot water  Other cultivated species include Coffea liberica and Coffea esliaca, believed to be indigenous to Liberia and southern Sudan, respectively. Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the west coast of Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. 
Most arabica coffee beans originate from either Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, or Asia. East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa, throughout southeast Asia, and to some extent in Brazil. Central Africa is a core Region of the African Continent often considered to include Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad  Beans from different countries or regions usually have distinctive characteristics such as flavor, aroma, body, and acidity. Mouthfeel is a product’s physical and Chemical interaction in the mouth  These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing. In Botanical nomenclature or biological nomenclature variety is a low-level Taxonomic rank below that of species and signifies members of different populations can  Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java, or Kona. Colombian Coffee is a Protected designation of origin granted by the European Union (September 2007 that applies Kona coffee is the market name for a variety of Coffee ( Coffea arabica) cultivated on the slopes of Mount Hualalai and Mauna Loa in
Brazil is world leader in production of green coffee followed by Vietnam and then Indonesia. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia.
|Top Ten Green Coffee Producers — 2005|
|Country||Production (Int $1000)||Footnote||Production (MT)||Footnote|
|No symbol = official figure,F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial figure, C = Calculated figure;|
Production in Int $1000 have been calculated based on 1999-2001 international prices
Originally, coffee farming was done in the shade of trees, which provided habitat for many animals and insects. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. Is socially responsible coffee helping America take one sip towards a healthier environment? Changes in how coffee plants are grown have resulted in effects on the environment Coffea arabica (əˈræbɪkə is a species of Coffee indigenous to Ethiopia and Yemen. Shade is the blocking of Sunlight (in particular direct sunshine by any object and also the Shadow created by that object  This method is commonly referred to as the traditional shaded method. Many farmers (but not all) have decided to modernize their production methods and switch to a method where farmers would now use sun cultivation, in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides.  Traditional coffee production, in the other hand, caused berries to ripen more slowly and it produced lower yields compared to the modernized method but the quality of the coffee is allegedly superior. In addition, the traditional shaded method is environmentally friendly and serves as a habitat for many species. Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation, pesticide pollution, habitat destruction, and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices. Habitat destruction is the process in which natural Habitat is rendered functionally unable to support the species originally present  The American Birding Association has led a campaign for "shade-grown" and organic coffees, which it says are sustainably harvested. The American Birding Association (ABA is a Non-profit organization of people interested in birding. Organic coffee is Coffee that has been grown according to Organic farming techniques usually without the use of artificial fertilizers pesticides or herbicides  However, while certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems, they still compare poorly to native forest in terms of habitat value. 
Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation, but in recent years Vietnam has become a major producer of robusta beans. See also Coffee Consumption In the year 2000 in the US coffee consumption was 22 |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially  Colombia is the third exporter and the largest producer of washed arabica coffee. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Robusta coffees, traded in London at much lower prices than New York's arabica, are preferred by large industrial clients, such as multinational roasters and instant coffee producers, because of the lower cost. Four single roaster companies buy more than 50 percent of all of the annual production: Kraft, Nestlé, Procter & Gamble, and Sara Lee. Kraft Foods Inc ( is the second-largest Food and Beverage company headquartered in North America (behind PepsiCo) and the third Nestlé is a multinational packaged food company founded and headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland Procter & Gamble Co ( P&G,) is a Fortune 500, American global corporation based in Cincinnati Ohio, that manufactures a wide  The preference of the "Big Four" coffee companies for cheap robusta is believed by many to have been a major contributing factor to the crash in coffee prices, and the demand for high-quality arabica beans is only slowly recovering. Many experts believe the giant influx of cheap green coffee after the collapse of the International Coffee Agreement of 1975–1989 led to the prolonged price crisis from 1989 to 2004.  In 1997 the price of coffee in New York broke US$3. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 00/lb, but by late 2001 it had fallen to US$0. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass 43/lb.  In 2007, wholesale coffee was about US$1/lb (e. g. 69 cents in London in March to 134 cents in New York in October), with robusta being about 70% of the price of arabica. Retail prices varied from an average of $3 in Poland to $3. 50 in the US to $17 in the UK. 
The concept of fair trade labeling, which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated pre-harvest price, began with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labelling program in the Netherlands. Fair trade is an organized Social movement and market-based approach to empowering developing country producers and promoting sustainability Stichting Max Havelaar (or the Max Havelaar Foundation in English is the Dutch member of FLO International, which unites 23 Fairtrade producer In 2004, 24,222 metric tons out of 7,050,000 produced worldwide were fair trade; in 2005, 33,991 metric tons out of 6,685,000 were fair trade, an increase from 0. 34 percent to 0. 51 percent.  A number of studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a positive impact on the communities that grow it. A study in 2002 found that fair trade strengthened producer organizations, improved returns to small producers, and positively affected their quality of life. Quality of life is the degree of well-being felt by an individual or group of people  A 2003 study concluded that fair trade has "greatly improved the well-being of small-scale coffee farmers and their families" by providing access to credit and external development funding and greater access to training, giving them the ability to improve the quality of their coffee.  The families of fair trade producers were also more stable than those who were not involved in fair trade, and their children had better access to education.  A 2005 study of Bolivian coffee producers concluded that Fairtrade certification has had a positive impact on local coffee prices, economically benefiting all coffee producers, Fairtrade certified or not. Fairtrade (one word redirects here For the more general article on the fair trade movement see Fair trade (two words 
The production and consumption of "Fair Trade Coffee" has grown in recent years as some local and national coffee chains have started to offer fair trade alternatives. 
Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the familiar roasted coffee. See also Coffee Processing of coffee is the method converting the raw fruit (cherry of the coffee plant into the commodity green coffee Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted Coffee products First, coffee berries are picked, generally by hand. Then, they are sorted by ripeness and color and the flesh of the berry is removed, usually by machine, and the seeds—usually called beans—are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the bean. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. Mucilage is a gooey polar Glycoprotein; an exopolysaccharide; a Polymer produced by most plants and some microorganisms When the fermentation is finished, the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue, which process generates massive amounts of highly polluted coffee wastewater. Fermentation in Food processing typically refers to the conversion of Sugar to Alcohol using Yeast under Anaerobic conditions Processing techniques The unpicked Fruit of the coffee tree known as the coffee cherry must undergo a long process to make it ready for consumption. Finally the seeds are dried, sorted, and labeled as green coffee beans. 
The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state, and all coffee is roasted before it is consumed. It can be sold roasted by the supplier, or it can be home roasted. Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted Coffee products Home roasting is the process of roasting green Coffee beans on a small scale for personal consumption  The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost and increases in volume, causing it to become less dense. The density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches 200 °C (392 °F), though different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724  During roasting, caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches in the bean, changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown, changing the color of the bean. Caramelization or caramelisation is the Oxidation of Sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting nutty flavor and brown color Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single sacchar: sugar are the most basic unit of Carbohydrates They consist of one sugar and  Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. During roasting, aromatic oils, acids, and caffeine weaken, changing the flavor; at 205 °C (400 °F), other oils start to develop.  One of these oils is caffeol, created at about 200 °C (392 °F), which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor. 
Depending on the color of the roasted beans, they will be labeled as light, medium-light, medium, medium-dark, dark, or very dark. Darker roasts are generally smoother, because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor. Lighter roasts have more caffeine, resulting in a slight bitterness, and a stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times.  A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing.  Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement, though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans.  Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. Decaffeination is the act of removing Caffeine from coffee beans, mate, Cocoa, Tea leaves and other caffeine-containing materials Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee, but all involve either soaking beans in hot water or steaming them, then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils. A solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid liquid or gaseous Solute, resulting in a Solution.  Decaffeination is often done by processing companies, and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry. 
Once roasted, coffee beans must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the bean. Ideal conditions are air-tight and cool. Air, moisture, heat and light are the environmental factors in order of importance to preserving flavor in coffee beans.
Folded-over bags, a common way consumers often purchase coffee, is generally not ideal for long-term storage because it allows air to enter. A better package contains a one-way valve, which prevents air from entering. 
Coffee beans must be ground and brewed in order to create a beverage. See also Coffee Coffee preparation is the process of turning Coffee beans into a beverage Brewing is an important technique in cookery and involves Boiling or Simmering. Grinding the roasted coffee beans is done at a roastery, in a grocery store, or in the home. They are most commonly ground at a roastery then packaged and sold to the consumer, though "whole bean" coffee can be ground at home. Coffee beans may be ground in several ways. A burr mill uses revolving elements to shear the bean, an electric grinder smashes the beans with blunt blades moving at high speed, and a mortar and pestle crushes the beans. A burr mill or burr grinder is a device to grind hard small food products between two revolving abrasive surfaces separated by a distance usually set by the user
The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used. Turkish grind is the finest grind, while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grind. Turkish coffee (see name and variants for other names is coffee prepared by boiling finely powdered roast coffee beans in a pot ( Cezve) possibly with A coffee percolator ( caffettiera in Italian it is a type of pot used to brew Coffee. A French press, also known as a press pot, coffee press, coffee plunger or cafetière, is a simple Coffee brewing The most common grinds are between the extremes; a medium grind is used in most common home coffee brewing machines. 
Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled, steeped, or pressured. Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method, and Turkish coffee is an example of this method. Turkish coffee (see name and variants for other names is coffee prepared by boiling finely powdered roast coffee beans in a pot ( Cezve) possibly with  It is prepared by powdering the beans with a mortar and pestle, then adding the powder to water and bringing it to a boil in a pot called a cezve or, in Greek, a briki. A pestle and mortar is a Tool used to crush grind and mix substances A cezve is a Turkish Coffee pot designed specifically to make Turkish coffee. This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface. 
Machines such as percolators or automatic coffeemakers brew coffee by gravity. A coffee percolator ( caffettiera in Italian it is a type of pot used to brew Coffee. A coffeemaker is a Kitchen appliance used to brew Coffee without having to boil water in a separate container In an automatic coffeemaker, hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter made of paper or perforated metal, allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while absorbing its oils and essences. A coffee filter is a Coffee -brewing utensil, usually made of disposable paper but recently Stainless steel. Gravity causes the liquid to pass into a carafe or pot while the used coffee grounds are retained in the filter. See also Coffee Coffee preparation is the process of turning Coffee beans into a beverage  In a percolator, boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by pressure created by boiling. The water then passes downwards through the grounds due to gravity, repeating the process until shut off by an internal timer. 
Coffee may also be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetière). A French press, also known as a press pot, coffee press, coffee plunger or cafetière, is a simple Coffee brewing Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a coffee press and left to brew for a few minutes. A plunger is then depressed to separate the coffee grounds, which remain at the bottom of the container. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water, all the coffee oils remain in the beverage, making it stronger and leaving more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine. 
The espresso method forces hot, but not boiling, pressurized water through ground coffee. Espresso or caffè espresso ( often mispronounced as expresso) is a concentrated Coffee beverage brewed by forcing very hot water As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9-10 atm) the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the amount of coffee to water as gravity brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution. A well prepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface.  The drink "Americano" is popularly thought to have been named after American soldiers in WW II who found the European way of drinking espresso too strong. Café Américano or simply Americano (the name is also spelled with varying capitalization and use of Diacritics: e World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Baristas would cut the espresso with hot water for them.
Once brewed, coffee may be presented in a variety of ways. A latte (also referred to as a caffè latte) is a type of coffee drink made with hot Milk. Drip brewed, percolated, or French-pressed/cafetière coffee may be served with no additives (colloquially known as black) or with either sugar, milk or cream, or both. When served cold, it is called iced coffee. Iced coffee is a cold variant of the normally hot beverage Coffee.
Espresso-based coffee has a wide variety of possible presentations. In its most basic form, it is served alone as a "shot" or in the more watered down style café américano—a shot or two of espresso with hot water. Café Américano or simply Americano (the name is also spelled with varying capitalization and use of Diacritics: e  The Americano should be served with the espresso shots on top of the hot water to preserve the crema. Milk can be added in various forms to espresso: steamed milk makes a cafè latte, equal parts espresso and milk froth make a cappuccino, and a dollop of hot, foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato. A latte (also referred to as a caffè latte) is a type of coffee drink made with hot Milk. Cappuccino is a Coffee -based drink prepared with Espresso, hot Milk, and steamed milk foam Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. Caffè macchiato (maʔˈkja(ːto sometimes called Espresso macchiato) a type of Coffee, is Espresso with a small amount of hot foamed Milk 
A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee. Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water. Instant coffee is a beverage derived from brewed Coffee beans Through various manufacturing processes the coffee is dehydrated into the form of powder or granules Freeze drying (also known as lyophilization or cryodesiccation) is a Dehydration process typically used to preserve a perishable material  Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years, particularly in Japan and South Korea. is ubiquitous in Japan, with a large number of companies competing fiercely and offering various types for sale For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee, much like brewed or percolated coffee, available both hot and cold. A vending machine is a machine that provides various snacks beverages and other products to consumers Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks, which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee and costs about 10 cents a cup to produce. The machines used can process up to 500 cups an hour, or 1,000 if the water is preheated. 
Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. At least 1,000 years ago, traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern day Yemen), where Muslim monks began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. At first, the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies.
Coffee became the substitute beverage in place of wine in spiritual practices where wine was forbidden.  Coffee drinking was briefly prohibited to Muslims as haraam in the early years of the 16th century, but this was quickly overturned. Haraam (حرام is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden" Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca, accused of being a heretic substance, and its production and consumption was briefly repressed. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Murad IV ( Ottoman Turkish: مراد رابع Murād-i rābi‘) ( June 16, 1612 February 9, 1640  Coffee, regarded as a Muslim drink, was prohibited to Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889; it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to its banning in England, among other places. 
A contemporary example of coffee prohibition can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known  The organization claims that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee.  This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health, given in 1833 by Mormon founder Joseph Smith, in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom. Word of wisdom is regarded among Charismatics and Pentecostals to be the Supernatural revelation of wisdom through the power of the Holy Spirit It does not identify coffee by name, but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly", which has been interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea. Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market 
Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe. Coffee contains several compounds which are known to affect human body chemistry Tap water ( running water) is part of indoor Plumbing, which became available in the late 19th century and common in the mid-20th century  Worldwide, 6. 7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 1998–2000, and the forecast is a rise to 7 million metric tons annually by 2010. This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton. 
Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption. 
Coffee appears to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, cirrhosis of the liver, and gout, but it increases the risk of acid reflux and associated diseases. Alzheimer's disease ( AD) also called Alzheimer disease or simply Alzheimer's, is the most common form of Dementia. Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the Central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's Heart disease is an Umbrella term for a variety for different diseases affecting the Heart. Diabetes mellitus type 2 or Type 2 Diabetes (formerly called non - Insulin -dependent Diabetes mellitus (NIDDM or adult-onset diabetes is a metabolic Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic Liver Disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrous Scar tissue as well as regenerative The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals Gout (also called metabolic arthritis) is a disease created by a buildup of Uric acid. Gastroesophageal reflux disease ( American English and Canadian English) or Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease ( British English, Hiberno-English  Some health effects of coffee are due to its caffeine content, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components. Caffeine is a bitter white crystalline Xanthine Alkaloid that acts as a Psychoactive Stimulant Drug and a mild Diuretic  For example, the antioxidants in coffee prevent free radicals from causing cell damage. An antioxidant is a Molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules In Chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atoms molecules or ions with Unpaired electrons on an otherwise Open shell 
Coffee's negative health effects are mostly due to its caffeine content. Caffeine is a bitter white crystalline Xanthine Alkaloid that acts as a Psychoactive Stimulant Drug and a mild Diuretic Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.  Excess coffee consumption may lead to a magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesaemia, and may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Magnesium deficiency refers to an absolute lack of Magnesium, the result of numerous conditions The prefix hypo- means low (contrast with hyper- meaning high Coronary disease (or coronary heart disease) refers to the failure of Coronary circulation to supply adequate circulation to Cardiac muscle and surrounding Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory, by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought, but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information. Short-term memory, sometimes referred to as "primary" "working" or "active" Memory, is said to hold a small amount of information for about 20 The train of thought, stream of thought, or chain of thought refers to the interconnection in the sequence of ideas expressed during a connected Discourse  About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn, and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects.  Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults. 
An American scientist Yaser Dorri has suggested that the smell of coffee can restore appetite and refresh olfactory receptors. Olfaction (also known as olfactics or smell) refers to the Sense of smell. He suggests that people can regain their appetite after cooking by smelling coffee beans, and that this method might also be used for research animals. 
Coffee enemas may have properties which may help cancer patients. Coffee enemas are the Enema -related procedure of inserting Coffee into the Anus to cleanse the Rectum and Small intestines. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled 
Depending on the type of coffee and method of preparation, the caffeine content of a single serving can vary greatly. Caffeine is a bitter white crystalline Xanthine Alkaloid that acts as a Psychoactive Stimulant Drug and a mild Diuretic On average, a single cup of coffee of about 207 milliliters (7 fluid ounces) or a single shot of espresso of about 30 mL (1oz) can be expected to contain the following amounts of caffeine: