Location of Cluj-Napoca
|Metropolitan area||Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area|
|Founded||1213 (first official record as Clus)|
|- Mayor||Emil Boc (Democratic Liberal Party)|
|- Deputy Mayor||Adrian Popa (none)|
|- Deputy Mayor||Boros János (UDMR)|
|- City||179. The coat of arms of Cluj-Napoca is the heraldic symbol standing for the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania List of counties See also List of Romanian Counties by Population The Judeţe (translated in English as "counties" are administrative Cluj (kluʒ Hungarian: Kolozs) is a County ( Judeţ) of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Cluj-Napoca The current legislation in Romania regulates the status of the 265 cities according to their population and regional importance Rank 0 - Bucharest, the Capital } The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area has a population of 360000 Romania 's administration is relatively centralised and administrative subdivisions are therefore fairly simplified A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Emil Boc (b September 6, 1966 in Răchiţele, Cluj County) is a Romanian politician The Democratic Liberal Party (Partidul Democrat-Liberal PD-L) is a centre-right party in Romania. The Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, (also Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania; Hungarian: Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. 5 km² (69. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 3 sq mi)|
|- City||310,243 (July 1, 2,007)|
|- Density||1,771/km² (4,586. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 9/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|- Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Area code(s)||+40 x642|
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People's Republic of China
|1x, y, and z are digits that indicate the street, part of the street, or even the building of the address|
2x is a digit indicating the operator: 2 for the former national operator, Romtelecom, and 3 for the other ground telephone networks
3used just on the plates of vehicles that operate only within the city limits (such as trolleys, trams, utility vehicles, ATVs, etc. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central Eastern European Time ( EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 Time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. UTC+2 corresponds to the following Time zones Eastern European Time Egypt Standard Time Central Africa Time Daylight saving time ( DST Eastern European Summer Time ( EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 Time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. UTC+3 is used in the following locations Moscow Time Eastern European Summer Time West Asian Summer Time Postal codes were first introduced in Romania in 1974. Beginning with 1 May 2003, postal codes have six digits and represent addresses to street A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating Telephone number ranges to countries regions areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks Country Code: 40 Access code 0. As of 2002 the area codes are county codes This is a list of " twin towns " or " sister cities " — that is pairs of towns or cities in different countries which have Town twinning arrangements Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Dijon ( diʒɔ̃ is a city in eastern France, the capital of the Côte-d'Or departement and of the Bourgogne region Nantes (Naoned Gallo: Naunnt) is a city in western France, located on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Cervia is a town and Comune ( Municipality) in the Province of Ravenna ( Emilia-Romagna) in Italy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest São Paulo ( is the largest city in Brazil, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Columbia is the state capital and largest city in the US state of South Carolina. East Lansing is a city in the US state of Michigan. The city is located directly east of Lansing, Michigan, the state's capital Rockford is a mid-sized city located on both banks of the Rock River in far northern Illinois The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Zagreb (ˈzɑːgrɛb is the Capital and the largest city of Croatia. Pécs, (IPA, approximate pronunciation Pitch known by alternative names) is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located in the south-west of the country close Korçë (Korçë or Korça is a major city in the Korçë District of south-eastern Albania, located at near the border with The City of Makati, or simply The Chacao Municipality is one of the five political and administrative subdivisions of the city of Caracas, Venezuela. Caracas (kaˈɾakas is the Capital and largest city of Venezuela. Suwon ( Suwon-si) is the provincial capital of Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. Zhengzhou ( formerly called Zhengxian is a Prefecture-level city, and the capital of Henan province, People's Republic of China. Beersheba (בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע Be'er Sheva, بئر السبع, Birüssebi is the largest City in the Negev desert of southern Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The standard Romanian License plate consists of a blue vertical strip (the European strip on the left side of the plate displaying the 12 stars of the Romtelecom is the largest Telecommunications company in Romania; the majority of shares are held by the Greek telecommunications company OTE (54 A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train )
Romanian: /'kluʒ na'poka/; Hungarian: Kolozsvár; German: Klausenburg; Latin: Napoca, Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; Yiddish: קלויזנבורג), until 1974 Cluj, is the third largest city in Romania, and the seat of Cluj County, in north-western Transylvania. Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Yiddish (yi [[wiktייִדיש ייִדיש]] yidish or yi [[wiktאידיש אידיש]] idish, literally "Jewish" is a nonterritorial High Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Cluj (kluʒ Hungarian: Kolozs) is a County ( Judeţ) of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Cluj-Napoca Geographically, it is roughly equally distant from Bucharest (426 km / 265 mi), Budapest (397 km / 247 mi) and Belgrade (455 km / 283 mi). Bucharest ( Romanian: Bucureşti) is the Capital city, industrial and commercial centre of Romania. Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, Belgrade (Београд Beograd is the Capital and largest city of Serbia. The city lies in the valley of the Someşul Mic River and is the capital of the historical province of Transylvania. The Someşul Mic River ( Little Someş, Hungarian: Kis-Szamos) is a River in north-western Romania ( Cluj County At various times during its history Romania extended over the following historical regions Transylvania and Partium Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian(pronunciation in
As of July 2007, 310,243 inhabitants live within the city limits, a slight decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census.  The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area has a population of 360,000 people, while the population of the peri-urban area (Romanian: zona periurbană) exceeds 400,000 residents. } The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area has a population of 360000  The new metropolitan government of Cluj-Napoca should be functional as early as June 2008.  Lastly, according to the 2007 data provided by the County Population Register Service, the total population of the city is as high as 392,276 people.  However, this number does not include the floating population of students and other non-residents—an average of over 20 thousand people each year during 2004-2007, according to the same source. 
The city spreads out from St. Michael's Church in Unirii Square, built in the 14th century and named after the Archangel Michael, the patron saint of Cluj-Napoca. The Church of Saint Michael is a Gothic-style Roman Catholic church in Cluj-Napoca. Unirii Square ( Romanian for Union Square) is the largest plaza in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca. Michael (מִיכָאֵל Micha'el or Mîkhā'ēl; Μιχαήλ Mikhaíl; Michael or Míchaël; ميخائيل Mikhā'īl) is an The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members  The boundaries of the municipality contain an area of 179. 52 square kilometres (69. 31 sq mi). An analysis undertaken by the real estate agency Profesional Casa indicates that, because of infrastructure development, communes such as Feleacu, Vâlcele, Mărtineşti, Jucu and Baciu will eventually become neighbourhoods of the city, thereby enlarging its area. A commune ( comună in Romanian) is the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania 
Cluj-Napoca experienced a decade of decline during the 1990s, its international reputation suffering from the policies of its mayor of the time, Gheorghe Funar. Gheorghe Funar (b September 29, 1949 in Sânnicolau Mare) is a nationalist Romanian politician who rose to fame as Mayor  His acts of ethnic provocation against the Hungarian-speaking minority did much to deter investors; however, the situation changed dramatically after his ouster, with the city entering a period of rapid growth in terms of economics and demographics—the city's population is projected, according to Sorin Apostu, a manager at City Hall, to more than double by the late 2010s.  Today, the city is one of the most important academic, cultural, industrial and business centres in Romania. Among other institutions, it hosts the largest university in the country, Babeş-Bolyai University, with its famous botanical garden; nationally renowned cultural institutions; as well as the largest Romanian-owned commercial bank. The Babeş-Bolyai University (UBB—Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai in Cluj-Napoca is the largest University in Romania. The Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden (officially the Botanical Garden of the Babeş-Bolyai University) in Cluj-Napoca, Romania was founded in 1920 Monocle magazine identified Cluj-Napoca as one of the top five places worldwide that are due their turn in the international spotlight during 2008. Monocle is a magazine and Web site founded by Tyler Brûlé, a Canadian journalist and entrepreneur  According to the American magazine InformationWeek, Cluj-Napoca is quickly becoming Romania's technopolis. InformationWeek is a multimedia brand with a weekly print magazine online site face-to-face and virtual events and research 
The first written mention of its name – as a Royal Borough – was in 1213 under the Latin name Castrum Clus. The Latin word castra, with its singular castrum, was used by the ancient Romans to mean buildings or plots of land reserved to or constructed for use as a military  However, despite the fact that Clus as a county name was recorded earlier, in the 1173 document Thomas comes Clusiensis, it is believed that the county's designation derives from the name of the castrum—which might have existed prior to its first mention in 1213—and not vice versa.  With respect to the name of this camp, it is widely accepted as a derivation from the Latin term clausa – clusa, meaning "closed place", "strait", "ravine".  Similar senses are attributed to the Slavic term kluč and the German Klause – Kluse (meaning mountain pass or weir).  An alternative hypothesis relates the name of the city to its first magistrate, Miklus – Miklós / Kolos. 
The Hungarian form, first recorded in 1246 as Kulusuar, underwent various phonetic changes over the years; the variant Koloswar first appears in a document from 1332.  Its Saxon name Clusenburg/Clusenbvrg appeared in 1348, but from 1408 the form Clausenburg was used.  The Romanian name of the city used to be spelled alternately as Cluj or Cluş – the latter being the case in Mihai Eminescu's Poesis. However, the city's name was finally changed to Cluj-Napoca in 1974 by the Romanian Communist authorities.  Possible etymologies for Napoca or Napuca include the name of some Dacian tribes like the Naparis or Napaei, the Greek term napos (νάπος), meaning "timbered valley" or the Indo-European root *snā-p- (Pokorny 971-2), "to flow, to swim, damp". Dacia, in ancient geography was the land of the Dacians. It was named by the ancient Hellenes ( Greeks) " Getae " The Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch ( IEW, "Indo-European Etymological Dictionary") was published in 1959 by the Austrian-German comparative  Independent of these hypotheses, scholars agree that the name of the settlement predates the Roman conquest (AD 106). 
In Slovak the city is known as Kl'už. The Slovak language ( slovenčina, slovenský jazyk, not to be confused with Slovenščina) sometimes referred to as "Slovakian" In Yiddish it is known as קלאזין (Klazin) or קלויזענבורג (Kloyznburg). Yiddish (yi [[wiktייִדיש ייִדיש]] yidish or yi [[wiktאידיש אידיש]] idish, literally "Jewish" is a nonterritorial High 
The Roman Empire conquered Dacia in AD 101 and 106, during the rule of Trajan, and the Roman settlement Napoca, established thereafter, is first recorded on a milestone discovered in 1758 in the vicinity of the city. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Dacia, in ancient geography was the land of the Dacians. It was named by the ancient Hellenes ( Greeks) " Getae " Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan ( September 18 53 &ndash August 9 117) was a Roman Emperor who  Trajan's successor Hadrian granted Napoca the status of municipium as municipium Aelium Hadrianum Napocenses. Publius Aelius Hadrianus (January 24 76 &ndash July 10 138 as emperor Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus, and Divus Hadrianus after A municipium (pl municipia) belonged to the second highest class of Roman cities being Later, in the 2nd century AD, the city gained the status of a colonia as Colonia Aurelia Napoca. A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it Napoca became a provincial capital of Dacia Porolissensis and thus the seat of a procurator. A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office The colonia was evacuated in 274 by the Romans.  There are no references to urban settlement on the site for the better part of a millennium thereafter. 
At the beginning of the Middle Ages, two groups of buildings existed on the current site of the city: the wooden fortress at Cluj-Mănăştur (Kolozsmonostor) and the civilian settlement developed around the current Piaţa Muzeului (Museum Place) in the city centre.  Although the precise date of the conquest of Transylvania by the Magyars is not known, the earliest Magyar artefacts found in the region are dated to the first half of the 10th century. Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary.  In any case, after that time, the city became part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946 King Stephen I made the city the seat of the castle county of Kolozs, and King Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary founded the abbey of Cluj-Mănăştur (Kolozsmonostor), destroyed during the Tatar invasions in 1241 and 1285. Saint Stephen I ( Hungarian: I (Szent István) (967/969/975 Esztergom, Hungary – August 15, 1038, Esztergom-Szentkirály For other monarchs with similar names please see Ladislaus I (disambiguation. Mănăştur ( Hungarian Kolozsmonostor, German Abtsdorf) is a district of the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca, built during Tatars ( Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар sometimes spelled Tartars, are a Turkic -speaking ethnic group or multiple ethnic groups  As for the civilian colony, a castle and a village were built to the northwest of the ancient Napoca at the earliest in the late 12th century.  This new village was settled by large groups of Transylvanian Saxons, encouraged during the reign of Crown Prince Stephen, Duke of Transylvania. The Transylvanian Saxons (Siebenbürger Sachsen Erdélyi szászok Saşi are a people of German ethnicity who settled in Transylvania (Siebenbürgen from the 12th Stephen V (V István Stjepan VI Štefan V (before October 18 1239 Buda, Hungary &ndash August 6 1272 Csepel Island, Hungary) King  The settlement's first reliable mention dates to 1275, in a document of King Ladislau IV the Cuman, when the village (Villa Kulusvar) was granted to the Bishop of Transylvania.  On 19 August 1316, during the rule of the new king, Charles I of Hungary, Cluj was granted the status of a city (Latin civitas), as a reward for the Saxons' contribution to the defeat of the rebellious Transylvanian voivode, Ladislau Kan. Events 43 BC - Octavian, later known as Augustus compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul. Charles I of Hungary (Károly Róbert Karlo Robert Karol Róbert (1288 Naples, Italy &ndash 16 July 1342, Visegrád, Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. A voivode or waywode is a Slavic title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force 
Many craft guilds were established in the second half of the 13th century, and a patrician stratum based in commerce and craft production displaced the older landed elite in the town's leadership. The Palace of Justice in Cluj-Napoca, on Dorobanţilor Street no  Through the privilege granted by Sigismund of Luxembourg in 1405, the city opted out from the jurisdiction of voivodes, vice-voivodes and royal judges, and obtained the right to elect a twelve-member jury every year. For other nobles of the same name please see Sigismund. Sigismund ( February 14, 1368 – December 9,  In 1488, King Matthias Corvinus (born in Klausenburg in 1440) ordered that the centumvirate—the city council, consisting of one hundred men—be half composed from the homines bone conditiones (the wealthy people), with craftsmen supplying the other half; together they would elect the chief judge and the jury. Matthias Corvinus ( Matthias the Just; February 23 1443 &ndash April 6 1490) was King of Hungary and  Meanwhile, an agreement was reached providing that half of the representatives on this city council were to be drawn from the Hungarian, half from the Saxon population, and that judicial offices were to be held on a rotating basis.  In 1541, Klausenburg became part of the independent Principality of Transylvania after the Ottoman Turks occupied the Hungarian Kingdom; a period of economic and cultural flourishing followed. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish  Although Alba Iulia served as a political capital for the princes of Siebenbürgen (Transylvania), Klausenburg enjoyed the support of the princes to a greater extent, thus establishing connections with the most important centers of Eastern Europe at that time, like Košice, Kraków, Prague and Vienna. Alba Iulia ( Latin: Apulum, German: Karlsburg / Weißenburg, Hungarian: Gyulafehérvár, former Erdel Belgradı Košice (; Hungarian: Kassa; (also known by other alternative names) is a city in eastern Slovakia. Kraków, in English also spelled Krakow or Cracow (ˈkrækaʊ M-W: krăk'ou krāk'ō is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland 
In terms of religion, reforming ideas first appeared in the middle of the 16th century. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time During Gáspár Heltai's service as preacher, the Lutheran trend grew in importance, as did the Swiss doctrine of Calvinism. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the  By 1571, the Turda Diet had adopted a more radical religion, Ferenc Dávid's Unitarianism, characterised by the free interpretation of the Bible and denial of the dogma of the Trinity. Turda (Thorenburg Hungarian: Torda) is a city and Municipality in Cluj County, Romania, situated on the Arieş River. Ferenc Dávid (occasionally rendered as Francis David; c 1510 &ndash November 15, 1579) was a Transylvanian Nontrinitarian and Unitarianism as a theology is the belief in the single personality of God in contrast to the doctrine of the Trinity (three persons in one God SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных  Stephen Báthory founded a Jesuit academy in Klausenburg in order to promote an anti-Reform movement; however, it did not have much success. This article is about the ruler of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th century The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order  For a year, in 1600–1601, Cluj became part of the personal union of Michael the Brave. A personal union is the combination by which two different States are governed by the same Monarch, while their boundaries their laws and their interests remain distinct Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazul Vitéz Mihály 1558 - 9 August 1601) was the Prince of Wallachia (1593-1601 of Transylvania  With the Treaty of Carlowitz in 1699, Klausenburg became part of the Habsburg Monarchy. The Treaty (Peace of Karlowitz (Karlovci was signed on January 26, 1699 in Sremski Karlovci ( Serbian Cyrillic: Сремски Карловци Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor 
In the 17th century, Cluj suffered from great calamities, being subjected to plague and devastating fires.  The end of this century brought the end of Turkish sovereignty, but found the city bereft of much of its wealth, municipal freedom, cultural centrality, political significance and even population.  It gradually regained its important position within Transylvania as the headquarters of the Gubernium and the Diets between 1719 and 1732, and again from 1790 until the revolution in 1848, when the Gubernium moved to Hermannstadt. The events leading to the revolution The Hungarian Diet (parliament was reconvened in 1825 to handle financial needs Sibiu (si'biw Hermannstadt Nagyszeben Сибињ/Sibinj הערמאנשטאדט ( Hermanshtadt) or סזעבען ( Szeben)) is one of the largest cities in  In 1791, a group of Romanian intellectuals drew up a petition, known as Supplex Libellus Valachorum, which was sent to the Emperor in Vienna. Supplex Libellus Valachorum Transsilvaniae ( Latin for Petition of the Vlachs of Transylvania) is the name of two petitions The petition demanded the equality of the Romanian nation in Transylvania in respect to the other nations governed by the Unio Trium Nationum, but it was rejected by the Cluj Diet. Unio Trium Nationum ( Latin for "Union of the Three Nations" was a pact of mutual aid formed in 1438 by three Estates of Transylvania: the (largely 
Beginning in 1830, the city became the centre of the Hungarian national movement within the principality.  This erupted with the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, where at one point the Austrians were gaining control of Transylvania, trapping the Hungarians between two flanks. However, the Hungarian army, headed by the Polish general Józef Bem, launched an offensive in Transylvania, recapturing Klausenburg by Christmas. The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. Józef Zachariasz Bem, Bem József (March 14 1794 - December 10 1850 was a Polish general and a national hero of Poland and Hungary, and a figure intertwined  After 1848 an absolute regime was established, followed by a liberal regime that came to power in 1860. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout the European It was in this period when equal rights were granted to the Romanians, but only briefly, as in 1865, the Diet in Cluj abolished the laws voted in Sibiu, and proclaimed the 1848 Law concerning the Union of Transylvania with Hungary. The Romanians (dated Rumanians or Roumanians; Romanian: români or historically and today rather seldom and only regional rumâni  Before 1918, the city's only Romanian-language schools were two church-run elementary schools, and the first printed Romanian periodical appeared in 1903. 
After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Klausenburg and all of Transylvania were again integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich Kiegyezés established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946 During this time, Kolozsvár was among the largest and most important cities of the kingdom, and was the seat of Kolozs County. Kolozs is the name of a historic administrative county ( Comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. However, the situation of ethnic Romanians in Transylvania was poor, due to the oppression and persecution they underwent.  This found expression in the Transylvanian Memorandum, a petition sent in 1892 by the political leaders of Transylvania's Romanians to the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph. The Transylvanian Memorandum was a Petition sent in 1892 by the leaders of the Romanians of Transylvania to the Austro-Hungarian Franz Joseph I Karl (- German, in English Francis Joseph I Charles, see the name in other languages) (18 August 1830 &ndash 21 November It asked for equal rights with the Hungarians and demanded an end to persecutions and Magyarisation attempts. Magyarization (also "Magyarisation" "Hungarisation" "Hungarization" "Hungarianization" "Hungarianisation" is a designator applied  The Emperor forwarded the memorandum to Budapest, and its authors, among them Ioan Raţiu and Iuliu Coroianu, were tried and sentenced to long prison terms for "homeland betrayal" in Kolozsvár/Cluj in May 1894. Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political,  During the trial, approximately 20,000 people who had come to Cluj demonstrated on the streets of the city in support of the defendants. 
On 26 September 1895, Emperor Franz Joseph visited nearby Bánffy-Hunyad following the end of the Hungarian Army manoeuvres in Transylvania and was given an enthusiastic welcome by the townspeople, who built an arch decorated with the region's flowers and plants for the occasion. The Lucian Blaga Central University Library of Cluj-Napoca (Biblioteca Centrală Universitară "Lucian Blaga" din Cluj-Napoca serves Babeş-Bolyai Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a Year 1895 ( MDCCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year  In 1897, the Hungarian government decided that only Hungarian place names should be used and therefore prohibited the use of the German or Romanian versions of the city's name on official government documents. 
In the autumn of 1918, as World War I drew to a close, Cluj became a centre of revolutionary activity, headed by Amos Frâncu who, on 28 October 1918, made an appeal for the organisation of the "union of all Romanians". World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  Thirty-nine delegates were elected from Cluj to attend the proclamation of the union with the Kingdom of Romania in Alba-Iulia on 1 December 1918, later acknowledged by the Treaty of Trianon. Union of Transylvania with Romania was declared on. The national holiday of Romania, the Union Day (also called Unification Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Treaty of Trianon is the peace treaty concluded at the end of World War I by the Allies of World War I, on one side and Hungary, seen as a successor  The interwar years saw the new authorities embark on a "Romanianisation" campaign: a Capitoline Wolf statue donated by Rome was set up in 1921; in 1932 a plaque written by historian Nicolae Iorga was placed on Matthias Corvinus' statue, emphasising his Romanian (paternal) ancestry; and an imposing Orthodox cathedral begun in a city where only about a tenth of inhabitants belonged to the state church. The Capitoline Wolf Statue (Statuia Lupoaicei in Cluj-Napoca, Romania is located on Eroilor Boulevard in the city center on the banks of the Someşul Mic Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Nicolae Iorga (his name may also be rendered as Nicolas Jorga in foreign works January 17, 1871, Botoşani – November 27,  However, this endeavour had mixed results: by 1939, Hungarians still dominated local economic (and to a certain extent) cultural life—for instance, Cluj had five Hungarian daily newspapers and just one in Romanian.  After the Germans occupied Hungary in March 1944 and installed a puppet government under Döme Sztójay there, large-scale antisemitic measures were taken in the city. Döme Sztójay born Demeter Sztojakovich ( January 5, 1883 &ndash August 22, 1946) was a Hungarian Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility The headquarters of the local Gestapo were located in the New York Hotel. The ( contraction of ge heime Sta ats' po' lizei: "Secret State Police" was the official Secret police of Nazi Germany That May, the authorities began the relocation of the Jews to the Iris ghetto. The Cluj Ghetto was one of the lesser-known Jewish Ghettos of the World War II era  Liquidation of the 16,148 captured Jews occurred through six deportations to Auschwitz in May-June 1944. "Auschwitz" redirects here For the town see Oświęcim Auschwitz-Birkenau () was the largest of Nazi Germany  Despite facing severe sanctions from Miklós Horthy's Hungarian administration, some Jews escaped across the border to Romania with the assistance of intellectuals like Emil Haţieganu, Raoul Şorban, Aurel Socol and Miskolczy Dezső, and various peasants from Mănăştur. Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya ( Vitéz nagybányai Horthy Miklós vitez nɒɟbaɲɒi horti mikloʃ German Nikolaus von Horthy und Nagybánya Emil Haţieganu ( December 9, 1878 &mdash May 13, 1959) was a Romanian politician and jurist a prominent member of the Romanian Raoul Şorban ( September 4 1912 - July 19, 2006) was a Romanian painter journalist writer essayist art historian academic and  On 11 October 1944 the city of Cluj was captured by Romanian and Soviet troops, being formally restored to the Kingdom of Romania by the Treaty of Paris in 1947. Events 1138 - A massive earthquake struck Aleppo, Syria. 1531 - Huldrych Zwingli is killed Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Land Forces, Air Force and Naval Forces are collectively known as the Romanian Armed Forces ( Romanian: Forţele Armate Române The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya See also Kings of Romania The Kingdom of Roumania (or ' Romania ' in post-1969 and also current spelling was the old Romanian state based on a form of The Paris Peace Conference ( July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris Peace Treaties signed on February 10, 1947 On 24 January, 6 March and 10 May 1946, the Romanian students who had come back to Cluj after the restoration of northern Transylvania rose against the claims of autonomy made by nostalgic Hungarians and the new way of life imposed by the Soviets, resulting in clashes and street fights. Events 41 - Gaius Caesar (Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel Despotism, is Assassinated by his disgruntled Events 1079 - Omar Khayyám completes the Iranian calendar. 1454 - Thirteen Years' War: Delegates of Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 produced a powerful echo within the city; there was a real possibility that demonstrations by students sympathizing with their peers across the border could escalate into an uprising. The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 ( Hungarian: 1956-os forradalom) was a spontaneous nationwide Revolt against the Stalinist government of  The protests provided the Romanian authorities with a pretext to speed up the process of "unification" of the local Babeş (Romanian) and Bolyai (Hungarian) universities, allegedly contemplated before the 1956 events.  Hungarians remained the majority of the city's population until the 1960s, when Romanians began to outnumber Hungarians, due to the population influx that was a consequence of the policy of forced industrialisation of the city.  During the Communist period, the city recorded a high industrial development, as well as enforced construction expansion.  On 16 October 1974, when the city celebrated 1850 years from its first mention as Napoca, the Communist government changed the name of the city by adding "Napoca" to it. Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. 
During the Romanian Revolution of 1989, Cluj-Napoca was one of the scenes of the rebellion: 26 were killed and approximately 170 injured. The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of increasingly violent riots and fighting in late December 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae  After the end of the tolitarian rule, the nationalist politician Gheorghe Funar became mayor and governed for the next 12 years. Gheorghe Funar (b September 29, 1949 in Sânnicolau Mare) is a nationalist Romanian politician who rose to fame as Mayor His tenure was marked by strong Romanian nationalism and acts of ethnic provocation against the Hungarian-speaking minority. This deterred foreign investment; however, in June 2004, Gheorghe Funar was voted out of office, with the city entering a period of rapid growth both in terms of economics and demographics—being projected to double its population by the late 2010s. The last election was hold in 2004 June The threshold was 5% The next election will be on 1 June 2008 with the same threshold percentage (5%  Since 2004, the mayor has been Emil Boc, president of the Democratic Liberal Party. Emil Boc (b September 6, 1966 in Răchiţele, Cluj County) is a Romanian politician The Democratic Liberal Party (Partidul Democrat-Liberal PD-L) is a centre-right party in Romania.
Cluj-Napoca, located in the central part of Transylvania, has a surface area of 179. Central Park is a large public Urban park in the borough of Centru in Cluj-Napoca. The Someşul Mic River ( Little Someş, Hungarian: Kis-Szamos) is a River in north-western Romania ( Cluj County The Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden (officially the Botanical Garden of the Babeş-Bolyai University) in Cluj-Napoca, Romania was founded in 1920 5 square kilometres (69. 3 sq mi). The city lies at the confluence of the Apuseni Mountains, the Someş plateau and the Transylvanian plain. The Apuseni Mountains (Munţii Apuseni Erdélyi-szigethegység is a Mountain range in Transylvania, Romania, which belongs to the Western Carpathians  It sprawls over the valleys of Someşul Mic and Nadăş, and, to some extent over the secondary valleys of the Popeşti, Chintău, Borhanci and Popii rivers. The Someşul Mic River ( Little Someş, Hungarian: Kis-Szamos) is a River in north-western Romania ( Cluj County Nadăş may refer to the Hungarian writer Péter Nádas, born in 1942 or to several villages in Romania: Nadăş  The southern part of the city occupies the upper terrace of the northern slope of Feleac Hill, and is surrounded on three sides by hills or mountains with heights between 500 metres (1,600 ft) and 700 metres (2,300 ft). Feleacu (Erdöfelek is a location in Cluj County, Romania. Demographics According to the 2002 census Romanians the commune population  The Someş plateau is situated to the east, while the northern part of town includes Dealurile Clujului ("the Hills of Cluj"), with the peaks, Lombului (684 m), Dealul Melcului (617 m), Techintău (633 m), Hoia (506 m) and Gârbău (570 m).  Other hills are located in the western districts, and the hills of Calvaria and Cetăţuia (Belvedere) are located near the centre of city.
Built on the banks of Someşul Mic River, the city is also crossed over by brooks or streams such as Pârâul Ţiganilor, Pârâul Popeşti, Pârâul Nădăşel, Pârâul Chintenilor, Pârâul Becaş, Pârâul Murătorii; Canalul Morilor runs through the centre of town. 
A wide variety of flora grow in the Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden; some animals have also found refuge there. The Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden (officially the Botanical Garden of the Babeş-Bolyai University) in Cluj-Napoca, Romania was founded in 1920 The city has a number of other parks, of which the largest is the Central Park. Central Park is a large public Urban park in the borough of Centru in Cluj-Napoca. This park was founded during the 19th century and includes an artificial lake with an island, as well as the largest casino in the city, Chios. Other notable parks in the city are the Iuliu Haţieganu Park of the Babeş-Bolyai University, which features some sport facilities, the Haşdeu Park, within the eponymous student housing district, the high-elevation Cetăţuia, and the Opera Park, behind the building of the Romanian Opera. Iuliu Haţieganu (1885-1972 was an eminent Romanian Clinician, Physician, and activist The Babeş-Bolyai University (UBB—Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai in Cluj-Napoca is the largest University in Romania. Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, a name chosen in 1857 by Tadeu Hasdeu ( February 26, 1838 — August 25, 1907) was a Romanian writer Cluj-Napoca Romanian National Opera (Opera Naţională Română din Cluj-Napoca is a public Opera house and Ballet company institution in Cluj-Napoca,
The city is surrounded by forests and grasslands. Rare species of plants, such as Venus's slipper and iris, are found in the two botanical reservations of Cluj-Napoca, Fânaţele Clujului and Rezervaţia Valea Morii ("Mill Valley Reservation"). Norna redirects here For the Norse goddesses see Norns. The Calypso orchid ( Calypso bulbosa) also known as the fairy slipper  Animals such as boars, badgers, foxes, rabbits and squirrels live in nearby forest areas such as Făget and Hoia. The latter forest hosts the Romulus Vuia ethnographical park, with exhibits dating back to 1678.  Various urban myths report alien encounters in the Hoia-Baciu forest, large networks of catacombs that connect the old churches of the city, or the presence of a monster in the nearby lake of Tarniţa. An urban legend or urban myth is a form of modern Folklore consisting of stories thought to be factual by those circulating them The first Burial galleries to be referred to as catacombs lie beneath San Sebastiano fuori le mura, in Rome. Tarniţa may refer to several villages in Romania: Tarniţa a village in Onceşti Commune Bacău County Tarniţa a village 
A modern, 750-metre (820 yd)-long ski resort is sits on Feleac Hill, with an altitude difference of 98 metres (107 yd) between its highest and lowest points. Bánffy Castle (or Bonţida Bánffy Castle) is an architectonic Baroque monument situated in Bonţida, a village in the vicinity of Cluj-Napoca A ski area is a developed recreational facility usually on a Mountain or large Hill, containing ski trails and vital supporting services This ski resort offers outdoor lighting, artificial snow and a ski tow. A ski tow, also called rope tow or handle tow, is a mechanised system for pulling skiers and Snowboarders uphill  Băişoara winter resort is located approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) from the city of Cluj-Napoca, and includes two ski trails, for beginner and advanced skiers, respectively: Zidul Mare and Zidul Mic. Băişoara (Járabánya is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. A ski area is a developed recreational facility usually on a Mountain or large Hill, containing ski trails and vital supporting services  Two other summer resorts/spas are included in the metropolitan area, namely Cojocna and Someşeni Baths. Cojocna is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. Someşeni is a district of Cluj-Napoca city Cluj County, Romania. 
There are a large number of castles in the countryside surroundings, constructed by wealthy medieval families living in the city. The most notable of them is the Bonţida Bánffy Castle—once known as "the Versailles of Transylvania"—in the nearby village of Bonţida, 32 kilometres (20 mi) from the city centre. Bánffy Castle (or Bonţida Bánffy Castle) is an architectonic Baroque monument situated in Bonţida, a village in the vicinity of Cluj-Napoca Versailles (vɛʀsaj in French) formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important Bonţida ( Hungarian: Bonchida, transl "Bonc's bridge" German: Bonisbruck) is a commune in Cluj County, In 1963, the castle was used as a set for Liviu Ciulei's film The Forest of the Hanged, which won an award at Cannes. Liviu Ciulei (b July 7, 1923) is a Romanian theater and film director as well as actor architect educator costume and Set designer The Cannes Film Festival (le Festival de Cannes founded in 1946 is one of the world's oldest most influential and prestigious Film festivals alongside Venice,  There are other castles located in the vicinity of the city; indeed, the castle at Bonţida is not even the only one constructed by the Bánffy family. The commune of Gilău features the Wass-Bánffy Castle, while another Bánffy Castle is located in the Răscruci area. Gilău is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. Images Răscruci (Válaszút is a village located in Cluj County, Romania.  In addition, Nicula Monastery, erected during the 18th century, is an important pilgrimage site in northern Transylvania. Nicula is a village in Cluj County, Romania. Geography It is part of Fizeşu Gherlii commune and has a population This monastery houses the renowned wonder-working Madonna of Nicula. Images of the Madonna and Madonna and Child are one of the central Icons of Christianity, representing the Madonna or Mary mother of Jesus  The icon is said to have wept between 15 February and 12 March 1669. An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn, "image" is a religious work of art most commonly a painting from Eastern Christianity. Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving  During this time, nobles, officers, laity and clergy came to see it. At first they were sceptical, looking at it on both sides, but then humbly crossed themselves and returned home petrified by the wonder they had seen.  During the feast of the Dormition of the Theotokos (commemorating the death of the Virgin Mary) on 15 August, more than 150,000 people from all over the country come to visit the monastery. The Dormition of the Theotokos ( Greek: Koimesis) is a Great Feast of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed 
Cluj-Napoca has a continental climate, characterised by hot dry summers and cold winters. Continental climate is a Climate that is characterized by Winter Temperatures cold enough to support a fixed period of Snow cover each Year The climate is influenced by the city's proximity to the Apuseni Mountains, as well as by urbanisation. The Apuseni Mountains (Munţii Apuseni Erdélyi-szigethegység is a Mountain range in Transylvania, Romania, which belongs to the Western Carpathians Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing Some West-Atlantic influences are present during winter and autumn. Winter temperatures are often below 0 °C (32 °F), even though they rarely drop below −10 °C (14 °F). On average, snow covers the ground for 65 days each winter. "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation.  In summer, the average temperature is approximately 18 °C (64 °F) (the average for July and August), despite the fact that temperatures sometimes reach 35 °C (95 °F) to 40 °C (104 °F) in mid-summer in the city centre. Although average precipitation and humidity during summer is low, there are infrequent yet heavy and often violent storms. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air In daily language the term "humidity" is normally taken to mean Relative humidity. During spring and autumn, temperatures vary between 13 °C (55 °F) to 18 °C (64 °F), and precipitation during this time tends to be higher than in summer, with more frequent yet milder periods of rain.
|Weather averages for Cluj-Napoca|
|Average high °C (°F)||-1 (30)||1 (34)||8 (46)||13 (55)||18 (64)||21 (70)||23 (73)||23 (73)||20 (68)||13 (55)||5 (41)||1 (34)||12 (54)|
|Average low °C (°F)||-6 (21)||-5 (23)||0 (32)||4 (39)||8 (46)||11 (52)||13 (55)||12 (54)||9 (48)||4 (39)||0 (32)||-3 (27)||4 (39)|
|Precipitation cm (inches)||2 (0. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric 8)||2 (0. 8)||2 (0. 8)||4 (1. 6)||7 (2. 8)||8 (3. 1)||8 (3. 1)||7 (2. 8)||4 (1. 6)||4 (1. 6)||3 (1. 2)||2 (0. 8)||59 (23. 2)|
|Source: weatherbase. com|
The city government is headed by a mayor (primar), currently (as of 2007) Emil Boc. The Justice and Truth Alliance (in Romanian Alianţa Dreptate şi Adevăr, or D The Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, (also Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania; Hungarian: Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség The Social Democratic Party of Romania (in Romanian, Partidul Social Democrat, PSD is a major political party of Romania. The Greater Romania Party (Partidul România Mare PRM is a Romanian neo-fascist political party led by Corneliu Vadim Tudor. Non-Inscrits (abbreviated NI; English: Non-Attached Members, abbreviated NA; the English name is also official but the French name The last election was hold in 2004 June The threshold was 5% The next election will be on 1 June 2008 with the same threshold percentage (5% } The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area has a population of 360000 The following is a list of mayors of Cluj-Napoca, Romania called Cluj from 1918 to 1974 except during the Hungarian occupation of 1940-1944 when it was Emil Boc (b September 6, 1966 in Răchiţele, Cluj County) is a Romanian politician  Decisions are approved and discussed by the local council (consiliu local) made up of 27 elected councillors. A Local Council ( LC) is a form of local elected government within the districts of Uganda.  The city is divided into 15 districts (cartiere) laid out radially, some of them with their own local administrative structure (town hall). City hall intends to develop local administrative structures for most of the districts.
Because of the last years' massive urban development, in 2005 some areas of Cluj were named as districts (Sopor, Borhanci, Becaş, Făget, Zorilor South), but most of them are still construction sites. Andrei Mureşanu is a residential district of Cluj-Napoca in Romania. Bulgaria is an industrial district in Cluj-Napoca, located between the railway and the Someşul Mic River. Bună Ziua ( Romanian for Good Day) is a housing district in Cluj-Napoca. Centru ( Romanian for centre) is the main cultural financial administrative and commercial area in Cluj-Napoca. Dâmbul Rotund is a housing district in north-western Cluj-Napoca. Gheorgheni is a district located in the east of Cluj-Napoca, built during the 1960s with numerous green areas Grădinile Mănăştur ( Romanian for Mănăştur Gardens) is one of the districts of Cluj-Napoca, located around the street Calea Mănăştur Grigorescu (previously called Donat) is a district in the north-west of Cluj-Napoca. Gruia is a district of Cluj-Napoca, located on the Cetăţuia hill Iris is a northern district of Cluj-Napoca It is largely an industrial district housing different plants heritage of the communist Industrialisation. Între Lacuri ( Romanian for between the lakes) is a district located in the east of Cluj-Napoca, bordering the districts of Gheorgheni and Mănăştur ( Hungarian Kolozsmonostor, German Abtsdorf) is a district of the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca, built during Mărăşti is one of the largest housing districts in the city of Cluj-Napoca. Someşeni is a district of Cluj-Napoca city Cluj County, Romania. Zorilor is the a southern district of Cluj-Napoca. It is largely built up of flats raging between 4 and 10 storeys  Beside these, there are some other building areas like Tineretului, Lombului or Oser, which are likely to become districts in the following years. 
Additionally, as Cluj-Napoca is the capital of Cluj County, the city hosts the palace of the prefecture, the headquarters of the county council (consiliu judeţean) and the prefect, who is appointed by Romania's central government. Cluj (kluʒ Hungarian: Kolozs) is a County ( Judeţ) of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Cluj-Napoca A County council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a County. Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front" i  The prefect is not allowed to be a member of a political party, and his role is to represent the national government at the local level, acting as a liaison and facilitating the implementation of National Development Plans and governing programmes at the local level. A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral  The current prefect of Cluj County (as of 2007) is Călin Platon. Like all other local councils in Romania, the Cluj-Napoca local council, the county council and the city's mayor are elected every four years by the population. 
Cluj-Napoca is also the capital of the historical region of Transylvania, a status that resonates to this day. Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian Currently, the city is the largest in the Nord-Vest development region, which is equivalent to NUTS-II regions in the European Union and is used by the European Union and the Romanian Government for statistical analysis and regional development. Nord-Vest ( North West) is a development region in Romania, created in 1998 The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, ( NUTS) for the French nomenclature d'unités territoriales statistiques, is a Geocode The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The Nord-Vest development region is not, however, an administrative entity.  The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area should be functional as early as June 2008, comprising a population of 360,000. } The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area has a population of 360000  Besides Cluj-Napoca, it includes communes such as Apahida, Feleacu, Ciurila, Floreşti, Gilău, Baciu and Chinteni. A commune ( comună in Romanian) is the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania Feleacu (Erdöfelek is a location in Cluj County, Romania. Demographics According to the 2002 census Romanians the commune population Ciurila is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. Floreşti (Szászfenes is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. Demographics According to the 2002 census Romanians made up 60 Gilău is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. Images Baciu (Kisbács is a commune in Cluj County, located in the region of Transylvania, in the northwestern part of Romania. Chinteni (Kajántó is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. Demographics According to the 2002 census Romanians made up 78
The executive presidium of the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR) and all its departments are headquartered in Cluj, as are local and regional organisations of most Romanian political parties. The Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, (also Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania; Hungarian: Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség In order to counterbalance the political influence of Transylvania's Hungarian minority, nationalist Romanians in Transylvania founded the Party of Romanian National Unity (PUNR) at the beginnings of the 1990s; the party was present in the Romanian Parliament during the 1992-1996 legislature. The Romanian National Unity Party ( Partidul Unităţii Naţionale a Românilor, PUNR was a Political party in Romania between 1990 and 2006  The party eventually moved its main offices to Bucharest and fell into decline as its leadership joined the ideologically-similar PRM. The Greater Romania Party (Partidul România Mare PRM is a Romanian neo-fascist political party led by Corneliu Vadim Tudor.  In 2008, the Institute for Research on National Minorities, subordinated to the Romanian Government, opened its official headquarters in Cluj-Napoca. The Government of Romania (Guvernul României is the executive branch of Romania. 
Cluj-Napoca has a complex judicial organisation, as a consequence of its status of county capital. Cluj (kluʒ Hungarian: Kolozs) is a County ( Judeţ) of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Cluj-Napoca The Cluj-Napoca Court of Justice is the local judicial institution and is under the purview of the Cluj County Tribunal, which also exerts its jurisdiction over the courts of Dej, Gherla, Turda and Huedin. Dej (Dés Desch Burglos דעעש is a city in northwestern Romania, 60 km north of Cluj-Napoca, in Cluj County. Gherla ( Hungarian: Szamosújvár or Örményváros, Armenian: Հայաքաղաք Hayakaghak, German: Neuschloss Turda (Thorenburg Hungarian: Torda) is a city and Municipality in Cluj County, Romania, situated on the Arieş River. Huedin (Bánffyhunyad is a town in Cluj County, Romania. Huedin is located at the northern edge of the Apuseni Mountains  Appeals from these tribunals' verdicts, and more serious cases, are directed to the Cluj Court of Appeals. The city also hosts the county's commercial and military tribunals. 
Cluj-Napoca has its own municipal police force, Poliţia Municipiului Cluj-Napoca, which is responsible for policing of crime within the whole city, and operates a number of special divisions. The Cluj-Napoca Police are headquartered on Decebal Street in the city centre (with a number of precincts throughout the city) and it is subordinated to the County's Police Inspectorate on Traian Street. The Romanian Police (Poliţia Română po'litsia ro'mɨnə is the national police force and main civil law enforcement agency in Romania.  City Hall has its own community police force, Poliţia Primăriei, dealing with local community issues. Cluj-Napoca also houses the County's Gendarmerie Inspectorate. Jandarmeria Română (ʒandarme'ria ro'mɨnə is the military branch of the two Romanian Police forces (the civil force being the
Cluj-Napoca and the surrounding area (Cluj County) had a rate of 268 criminal convictions per 100,000 inhabitants during 2006, just above the national average. Cluj (kluʒ Hungarian: Kolozs) is a County ( Judeţ) of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Cluj-Napoca  After the revolution in 1989, the criminal conviction rate in the county entered a phase of sustained growth, reaching a historic high of 429 in 1998, when it began to fall. The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of increasingly violent riots and fighting in late December 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae  Although the overall crime rate is reassuringly low, petty crime can be an irritant for foreigners, as in other large cities of Romania.  During the 1990s, two large financial institutions, Banca Dacia Felix and Caritas, went bankrupt due to large-scale fraud and embezzlement. Caritas was a Ponzi scheme in Romania which was active between April 1992 and August 1994  Notorious was also the case of serial killer Romulus Vereş, "the man with the hammer"; during the 1970s, he was charged with five murders and several attempted murders, but never imprisoned on grounds of insanity: he suffered from schizophrenia, blaming the Devil for his actions. In English Criminal law, attempted murder is the crime of more than merely preparing to commit Unlawful homicide and at the same time having a specific intention In Criminal trials the insanity defenses are possible defenses by Excuse, an Affirmative defense by which Defendants argue that Schizophrenia ( from the Greek roots schizein (σχίζειν "to split" and phrēn The Devil is the Instead, he was institutionalised in the Ştei psychiatric facility in 1976, following a three year long forensic investigation during which four thousand people were questioned. Urban myths brought the number of victims up to two hundred women, though the actual number was much smaller. An urban legend or urban myth is a form of modern Folklore consisting of stories thought to be factual by those circulating them This confusion is probably explained by the lack of attention this case received, despite its magnitude, in the Communist press of the time. 
A 2006 poll shows a high degree of satisfaction with the work of the local police department. More than half the people surveyed during a 2005–2006 poll declared themselves satisfied (62. 3%) or very satisfied (3. 3%) with the activity of the county police department.  The study found the highest satisfaction with car traffic supervision, the presence of officers in the street, and road education; on the negative side, corruption and public transport safety remain concerns. Traffic on Roads may consist of Pedestrians ridden or herded Animals Vehicles Streetcars and other Conveyances either singly Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain
Efforts made by local authorities in the Cluj-Napoca district at the end of the 1990s to reform the children rights' protection and street children assistance proved insufficient due to lack of funding, incoherent policies and the absence of any real collaboration between the actors involved (Child Rights Protection Direction, Social Assistance Service within the District Directorate for Labour and Social Protection, Minors Receiving Centre, Guardian Authority within the City Hall, Police). Children's rights are the Human rights of Children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to the young including their Street children is a term used to refer to children who live on the streets There are numerous street children, whose poverty and lack of documented identity brings them into constant conflict with local law enforcement.  Following cooperation between the local council and the Prison Fellowship Romania Foundation, homeless people, street children and beggars are taken, identified and accommodated within the Christian Centers for Street Children and Homeless People, respectively, and the Ruhama centre. A Local Council ( LC) is a form of local elected government within the districts of Uganda. Prison Fellowship International (PFI is an international Non-governmental organisation ( NGO) of national Prison Fellowship (PF organisations from Homelessness is the condition and social category of people who lack housing because they cannot afford or are otherwise unable to maintain regular safe and adequate shelter "Beggar" redirects here Distinguish from Begga and Bega.  The latter features a marshaling center for beggars and street children, as well as a flophouse. A flophouse (English doss-house or dosshouse) is a place that offers very cheap Lodging, generally by providing only  As a consequence, the fluctuating movement of children, beggars and homeless people in and out of the centre has been considerably reduced, with most of the initial beneficiaries successfully integrated into the programme rather than returning to the streets. 
From 2000 onwards, Cluj-Napoca has seen an increase in illegal road races, which occur mainly at night on the city's outskirts or on industrial sites and occasionally produce victims. Street racing is a form of unsanctioned and illegal Auto racing which takes place on Public roads Street racing can either be spontaneous or well-planned There have been attempts to organize legal races as a solution to this problem. 
|Historical population of Cluj-Napoca|
|1850||▲ 19,612||21. 0%||62. 8%|
|1880||▲ 32,831||17. 1%||72. 1%|
|1890||▲ 37,184||15. 2%||79. 1%|
|1900||▲ 50,908||14. 1%||81. 1%|
|1910[b]||▲ 62,733||14. 2%||81. 6%|
|1920||▲ 85,509||34. 7%||49. 3%|
|1930[c]||▲ 103,840||35. 7%||46. 5%|
|1941[d]||▲ 114,984||9. 8%||85. 7%|
|1956[e]||▲ 154,723||47. 8%||47. 9%|
|1966||▲ 185,663||56. 5%||41. 4%|
|1977||▲ 262,858||65. 8%||32. 8%|
|1992||▲ 328,602||76. 6%||22. 7%|
|2002||▼ 317,953||79. 4%||19. 0%|
|2004 est.||▼ 298,006||n/a||n/a|
|2005 est.||▲ 310,194||n/a||n/a|
|2006 est.||▼ 297,600||n/a||n/a|
|2007 est.||▲ 310,243||80. 8%||17. 1%|
Source (if not otherwise specified):
The city's population, according to the 2002 census, is 317,953 inhabitants, or 1. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population 5% of the total population of Romania. The population of the Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area is estimated at 360,000. } The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area has a population of 360000 Finally the population of the influence area (periurban area) numbers 400,000 residents.  The new metropolitan government of Cluj-Napoca should be functional as early as June 2008. } The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area has a population of 360000  According to the 2007 data provided by the County Population Register Service, the total population of the city is as high as 392,276 people.  The variation between this number and the census data is explained partially by the real growth of the population residing in Cluj-Napoca, as well as by the different manner of counting: "In reality, more people live in Cluj than those who are officially registered," Traian Rotariu, director of the Center for Population Studies, told Foaia Transilvană.  Moreover, this number does not include the floating population—an average of over 20 thousand people each year during 2004-2007, according to the same source. 
In the modern era, Cluj's population experienced two phases of rapid growth, the first in the late 19th century, when the city grew in importance and size, and the second during the Communist period, when a massive urbanisation campaign was launched and many people migrated from rural areas and from beyond the Carpathians to the county's capital.  About two-thirds of the population growth during this era was based on net migration inflows; after 1966, the date of Ceauşescu's ban on abortion and contraception, natural increase was also significant, being responsible for the remaining third. Net migration rate is the difference of Immigrants and Emigrants of an area in a period of time divided (usually per 1000 inhabitants (considered on midterm population In demographics the rate of natural increase ( RNI) is the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate of a population (excluding migration 
From the Middle Ages onwards, the city of Cluj has been a multicultural city with a diverse cultural and religious life. According to the 2002 Romanian census, just under 80% of the population of the city are ethnic Romanians, with the second largest ethnic group being the Hungarians, who make up 19% of the population. The Romanians (dated Rumanians or Roumanians; Romanian: români or historically and today rather seldom and only regional rumâni Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. The remainder is composed of Roma (1%), Germans (0. The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins This article is about the German diaspora See Germans for the German ethnicity in general 23%) and Jews (0. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ 06%). Today, the city receives a large influx of migrants: 25,000 people requested residence in the city during 2007. 
In terms of religion, 69. 2% of the population are Romanian Orthodox and 12. The Romanian Orthodox Church ( Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is a Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church 2% are Reformed. The Reformed Church in Romania (Romániai Református Egyház Biserica Reformată din România is the organization of the Calvinist church in Romania. The Roman Catholic and the Romanian Greek-Catholic communities claim 5. The Roman-Catholic Church (Biserica Romano-Catolică din România in Romania is a Latin Church Christian church part of the worldwide Catholic Church The Romanian Church United with Rome Greek-Catholic (Biserica Română Unită cu Roma Greco-Catolică is an Eastern Rite or Greek-Catholic Church ranked as a Major 5% and 5. 8% of the population respectively, while other religious groups like Unitarians (1%), Pentecostals (2. The Unitarian Church of Transylvania (Erdélyi Unitárius Egyház Romanian: Biserica Unitariană din Transilvania) is a church of the Unitarian denomination Pentecostalism is a renewalist religious movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the Baptism 6%) or Baptists (1. The Baptist Union of Romania ( Uniunea Baptistă din România) is an alliance of Baptist churches for cooperative ministry in Romania. 2%) round out most of the rest.  By contrast, in 1930, the city was 26. 7% Reformed, 22. 6% Greek Catholic, 20. 1% Roman Catholic, 13. 4% Jewish, 11. 8% Orthodox, 2. 4% Lutheran and 2. 1% Unitarian.  Contributing factors for these shifts were the extermination and emigration of the city's Jews, the outlawing of the Greek-Catholic Church (1948-89) and the gradual decline in the Hungarian population.
On a more historical note, the Jewish community has figured centrally in the history of Transylvania, and in that of the wider region.  They were a substantial and increasingly vibrant presence in Cluj in the modern era, contributing significantly to the town's economic dynamism and cultural flourishing in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.  Although the community comprised a significant share of the town’s population during the interwar era—between 13 and 15 percent—this figure plummeted as a consequence of the Holocaust and emigration; by the 1990s only a few hundred Jews remained in Cluj-Napoca. The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as 
In the 14th century, most of the town's inhabitants and the local elite were Saxons, largely descended from settlers brought in by the Kings of Hungary in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries to develop and defend the southern borders of the province. The Church of Saint Michael is a Gothic-style Roman Catholic church in Cluj-Napoca. See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. The Transylvanian Saxons (Siebenbürger Sachsen Erdélyi szászok Saşi are a people of German ethnicity who settled in Transylvania (Siebenbürgen from the 12th The King of Hungary (magyar király was the Head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 (or 1001 to 1918  By the middle of the next century roughly half the population had Hungarian names. In Transylvania as a whole, the Reformation sharpened ethnic divisions: Saxons became Lutheran while Hungarians either remained Catholic or became Calvinist or Unitarian. In Klausenburg, however, the religious lines were blurred. Isolated both geographically from the main areas of German settlement in southern Transylvania and institutionally because of their distinctive religious trajectory, many Saxons eventually assimilated to the Hungarian majority over several generations. New settlers to the town largely spoke Hungarian, a language that many Saxons gradually adopted.  (In the seventeenth century, out of more than thirty royal free towns, only seven had a Hungarian majority, with Kolozsvár/Klausenburg being one of them; the rest were largely German-dominated. ) In this manner Kolozsvár became largely Hungarian speaking and would remain so through the mid-20th century, though 4. 8% of its residents identified as German as late as 1880. 
The Roma form a sizable minority in contemporary Romania, and a small but visible presence in Cluj-Napoca: self-identifying Roma in the city comprise only 1 percent of the population; yet they are a familiar presence in and around the central market, selling flowers, used clothes and tinware. The Roma ( Roma in Romany; Romi, Rromi or Ţigani in Romanian) constitute one of the major minorities in  They are an important object of public discourse and media representation at the national level; however, Cluj-Napoca, with its small Roma population, has not been a major focus of Roma ethno-political activity. 
Approximately 60,000 Hungarians live in Cluj-Napoca. Matthias Corvinus ( Matthias the Just; February 23 1443 &ndash April 6 1490) was King of Hungary and The King of Hungary (magyar király was the Head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 (or 1001 to 1918 The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania consisting of 1434377 people and making up 6 The city is home to the second-largest urban Hungarian community in Romania, after Târgu Mureş, with an active cultural and academic life: the city features a Hungarian state theatre and opera, as well as Hungarian research institutions, like Erdelyi Muzeumi Egyesület (EME), Erdélyi Magyar Műszaki Tudományos Társaság and Bolyai Társaság. Târgu Mureş (ˈtɨrgu ˈmureʃ in Romanian; Târgu Mureş Marosvásárhely (Székely-Vásárhely Neumarkt am Mieresch Novum Forum Siculorum is a city in Mureş The Hungarian Theatre of Cluj was founded in 1792 and was the first Hungarian theatre company in Transylvania  With respect to religious affairs, the city houses central offices for the Reformed Diocese of Transylvania, the Unitarian Diocese and an Evangelical Lutheran Church Diocese (all of which train their clergy at the Protestant Theological Institute of Cluj). The Reformed Church in Romania (Romániai Református Egyház Biserica Reformată din România is the organization of the Calvinist church in Romania. The Unitarian Church of Transylvania (Erdélyi Unitárius Egyház Romanian: Biserica Unitariană din Transilvania) is a church of the Unitarian denomination The Protestant Theological Institute (Institutul Teologic Protestant Hungarian: Protestáns Teológiai Intézet; German: Protestantisch-Theologisches Several newspapers and magazines are published in the Hungarian language, yet the community also receives public and private television and radio broadcasts (see Media). Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. (pronunciation in Romanian: /'kluʒ na'poka/ Klausenburg Kolozsvár Napoca Castrum Clus Claudiopolis קלויזנבורג Kloiznburg until 1974 Cluj, is the third As of 2007, 7,000 students attended courses in the 55 Hungarian-language specialisations at the Babeş-Bolyai University. The Babeş-Bolyai University (UBB—Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai in Cluj-Napoca is the largest University in Romania.  Gheorghe Funar, who served as mayor of Cluj-Napoca during 1992-2004, was notorious for acts of ethnic provocation, bedecking the city’s streets in the colours of the Romanian flag and arranging pickets outside the city’s Hungarian consulate; however, tensions have cooled since. Gheorghe Funar (b September 29, 1949 in Sânnicolau Mare) is a nationalist Romanian politician who rose to fame as Mayor 
Cluj-Napoca is an important economic centre in Romania. Eroilor Avenue is a central avenue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, connecting the Avram Iancu and Unirii squares Scalping, when used in reference to trading in Securities, Commodities and foreign exchange, may refer to (i a fraudulent form of Market manipulation Regele Ferdinand Avenue (named after King Ferdinand I; previously called Strada Podului), is a street in central Cluj-Napoca, Romania Famous local brands that have become well-known at a national, and to some extent even international level, include: Banca Transilvania, Farmec, Jolidon, and Ursus breweries. Banca Transilvania, a Bank corporation in Romania, was founded December 1993 in Cluj-Napoca by several local businessmen with an initial capitalization Jolidon is a Romanian Lingerie and Swim suit manufacturer founded in 1993 in Cluj-Napoca. Ursus is the best-selling Beer in Romania, due to its respected flavour and reasonable price compared to imported beers A brewery is a dedicated building for the making of Beer, though beer can be made in the home and has been for much of beer's history 
The American online magazine InformationWeek reports that much of the software/IT activity in Romania is taking place in Cluj-Napoca, which is quickly becoming Romania's technopolis. InformationWeek is a multimedia brand with a weekly print magazine online site face-to-face and virtual events and research Information technology ( IT) as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA is "the study design development implementation support  Nokia invested 200 million euros in a mobile telephone factory and a research centre in Cluj-Napoca. Nokia Corporation (pronunciation /'nɔkiɑ/),,) is a Finnish multinational Communications Corporation, headquartered  The final discussions between representatives of the County Council and those of the Finnish group were held on 20 March 2007 after the decision was made to invest in Romania. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania According to Anna Simai of Nokia Hungary & Romania, "Given that demand for mobile phones is seeing a steady increase, Nokia has looked into opportunities of increasing its production capacities in order to meet the growing demand from customers".  On 26 March 2007 a memorandum was signed between Nokia and the Cluj County Board, in the presence of prime minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu, and the facility opened on 11 February 2008. Events 1026 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Nokia Corporation (pronunciation /'nɔkiɑ/),,) is a Finnish multinational Communications Corporation, headquartered The Prime Minister of Romania is the head of the Government of Romania. Călin-Constantin-Anton Popescu-Tăriceanu ( konstan'tin an'ton po'pes Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common At the same time, Nokia also located some of its offices in the city of Cluj-Napoca.  The city also houses regional or national headquarters of MOL, Aegon, Perfetti Van Melle, Bechtel, Friesland Foods, Office Depot, Genpact and New Yorker. MOL Magyar Olaj- és Gázipari Nyrt ( MOL Nyrt, Hungarian Oil and Gas Public Limited Company is Central Europe 's leading independent integrated Oil AEGON NV () is one of the world’s largest life Insurance and pension groups and a strong provider of investment products Perfetti Van Melle is a European global manufacturer of Confectionery and gum. Bechtel Corporation ( Bechtel Group) is the largest Engineering company in the United States, ranking as the 9th-largest privately owned company in the Royal Friesland Foods ( Koninklijke Friesland Foods NV) is a Netherlands -based multinational Cooperative that develops produces and sells Office Depot ( is a supplier of office products and services The Company's selection of brand name office supplies includes business machines computers computer software and office Genpact ( NYSE G is a Business process outsourcing (BPO company in India 
British investment and financial services group Dawnay Day, owner of the Braşov-based commercial centre MacroMall, says it will invest 135 million euros in two real estate projects in Cluj-Napoca. Braşov (braˈʃov Brassó Kronstadt Medieval Latin: Brassovia or Corona) is a city in Romania and the capital of Braşov County The first project, Atrium, which has started construction on the site of the former Tricotaje Someşul plant located in Cluj-Napoca city centre, will cost 85 million euros. 
Cluj-Napoca is also an important regional commercial centre, with many street malls and hypermarkets. Mal T-cell differentiation protein-like, also known as MALL, is a human Gene. In Commerce, a hypermarket is a superstore which combines a Supermarket and a Department store. Eroilor Avenue and Napoca and Memorandumului streets are the most expensive venues, with a yearly rent price of 720 euro/m², but Regele Ferdinand and "21 Decembrie 1989" avenues also feature high rental costs. Eroilor Avenue is a central avenue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, connecting the Avram Iancu and Unirii squares Regele Ferdinand Avenue (named after King Ferdinand I; previously called Strada Podului), is a street in central Cluj-Napoca, Romania There are two large malls: Polus (including a Carrefour hypermarket) and Iulius Mall (including an Auchan hypermarket). Polus Center Cluj opened on October 12 2007 It is situated in Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area, between Cluj-Napoca and Floresti commune on DN E-60 Carrefour SA ( (karˈfur is a French international Hypermarket chain with a global network of outlets Iulius Mall Cluj is located in Cluj-Napoca and was opened on 10 November 2007 Auchan (Pronounced Óh-shon SA is a French international retail group and Multinational corporation headquartered in Croix, France. Another two are under construction: Atrium and Akademia Center Cluj, an award-winning Nisco Invest retail project. Akademia Center means LIFESTYLE right in the middle of Cluj-Napoca ! On Victor Babes street next to Hasdeu Campus the largest student campus in town you will Other large stores include branches of various international hypermarket chains, like Cora or Real. Cora is a retail group based in Belgium which owns several supermarket and hypermarket chains internationally Real is a European hypermarket member of the German trade and retail giant Metro Group.
Among the famous retailers found in the city centre are United Colors of Benetton, Guess, and Paco Rabanne, while shopping centers on the outskirts include stores like Mango and Zara. Hugo Boss, JLo, Pinko, and Gianfranco Ferre have all announced their intent to open stores in Cluj-Napoca by the end of 2008.
In 2008, the city's general budget amounted to 990 million lei, the equivalent of over 266 million Euros (207 million pounds sterling). The leu ( plural lei; ISO 4217 code RON numeric code 946 is the currency of Romania. Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency Over the previous year, the budget increased 19% in 2006, 56% in 2007 and 35% in 2008. 
In 2007, the hotel industry in the county of Cluj offered total accommodations of 6,472 beds, of which 3,677 were in hotels, 1,294 in guesthouses and the rest in chalets, campgrounds, or hostels.  A total of 700,000 visitors, 140,000 of whom were foreigners, stayed overnight.  However, a considerable share of visits is made by those who visit Cluj-Napoca for a single day, and their exact number is not known. The largest numbers of foreign visitors come from Hungary, Italy, Germany, the United States, France, and Austria. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich 
Cluj-Napoca has a diverse and growing cultural scene, with cultural life exhibited in a number of fields, including the visual arts, performing arts and nightlife. The visual arts are art forms that focus on the creation of works which are primarily Visual in nature such as Painting, Photography The performing arts are those forms of Art which differ from the Plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own Body, Face and presence NightLife with Tony Delroy is a popular late night talkback show across ABC Local Radio, Broadcasting from the 702 ABC Sydney studios in Ultimo The city's cultural scene spans its history, dating back to Roman times: the city started to be built in that period, which has left its mark on the urban layout (centered on today's Piaţa Muzeului) as well as surviving remnants. However, the medieval town saw a shift in its center towards new civil and religious structures, notably St. Michael's Church. The Church of Saint Michael is a Gothic-style Roman Catholic church in Cluj-Napoca.  During the 16th century, the city became the chief cultural and religious center of Transylvania; in the 1820s and the first half of the 1830s, Kolozsvár was the most important center for Hungarian theater and opera, while at the beginning of the 20th century, still a Hungarian city, it became the chief alternative to Budapest's cinematography.  After its incorporation into the Kingdom of Romania at the end of World War I, the renamed Cluj saw a resurgence of its Romanian culture, most conspicuous in the completion of the monumental Orthodox cathedral in 1933 across from the (newly nationalised) Romanian National Theatre. See also Kings of Romania The Kingdom of Roumania (or ' Romania ' in post-1969 and also current spelling was the old Romanian state based on a form of World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Lucian Blaga National Theatre ( Romanian Teatrul Naţional Lucian Blaga) in Cluj-Napoca, Romania is one of the most prestigious  This marked an unambiguously "Romanian" centre, a few blocks to the east of the old Hungarian center; however, the Romanianness of the town—like the Romanian hold on Transylvania—was by no means securely established even by the end of the interwar period.  The late 1960s brought a revival of nationalist discourse, concomitant with the urbanisation and industrialisation of the city that gradually advanced the Romanianisation of the city. Romanianization or Rumanization is the term used to describe a number of ethnic assimilation policies implemented by the Romanian authorities during the 20th century  Nowadays, the city is home to people of different cultures, with corresponding cultural institutions such as the Hungarian State Theatre, the British Council, and various other centres for the promotion of foreign culture. The British Council is a Public Body of the United Kingdom Government which specialises in educational and development opportunities These institutions hold eclectic manifestations in honour of their cultures, including Bessarabian, Hungarian, Tunisian, and Japanese. Bessarabia ( Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. The majority (98%) of modern Tunisians are considered Arab, and are speakers of Tunisian Arabic. The are the dominant Ethnic group of Japan. Worldwide approximately 130 million people are of Japanese descent of these approximately 127 million are residents of Japan  Nevertheless, contemporary cultural manifestations cross ethnic boundaries, being aimed at students, cinephiles, and arts and science lovers, among others.
Cluj-Napoca has a number of landmark buildings and monuments. Matthias Corvinus ( Matthias the Just; February 23 1443 &ndash April 6 1490) was King of Hungary and The Church of Saint Michael is a Gothic-style Roman Catholic church in Cluj-Napoca. Central Park is a large public Urban park in the borough of Centru in Cluj-Napoca. One of those is the Saint Michael's Church in Unirii Square, built at the end of 14th century in the Gothic style of that period. The Church of Saint Michael is a Gothic-style Roman Catholic church in Cluj-Napoca. Unirii Square ( Romanian for Union Square) is the largest plaza in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca. This article is about Gothic art See also Gothic architecture Gothic art was a Medieval art movement that lasted about 200 It was only in the 19th century that the neogothic tower of the church was erected; it remains the tallest church tower in Romania to this day. The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement which began 
In front of the church is the equestrian statue of Matthias Corvinus, erected in honour of the locally-born king of Hungary. The Dormition of the Theotokos Cathedral (Catedrala Adormirea Maicii Domnului is the most famous Eastern Orthodox church of Cluj-Napoca, Romania An equestrian statue is a Statue of a Horse -mounted rider The term is from the Latin " eques," meaning " Knight Matthias Corvinus ( Matthias the Just; February 23 1443 &ndash April 6 1490) was King of Hungary and The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946 The Orthodox Church's equivalent to St. The Romanian Orthodox Church ( Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is a Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church Michael's Church is the Orthodox Cathedral on Avram Iancu Square, built in the interwar era. The Dormition of the Theotokos Cathedral (Catedrala Adormirea Maicii Domnului is the most famous Eastern Orthodox church of Cluj-Napoca, Romania Avram Iancu Square (named after the Transylvanian Romanian lawyer and revolutionary Avram Iancu) is a central plaza in the Romanian The Romanian Greek-Catholic Church also has a cathedral in Cluj-Napoca, Transfiguration Cathedral. The Romanian Church United with Rome Greek-Catholic (Biserica Română Unită cu Roma Greco-Catolică is an Eastern Rite or Greek-Catholic Church ranked as a Major The Transfiguration Cathedral ( Romanian: Catedrala Schimbarea la Faţă, Kolozsvári minorita templom also known as the Minorites' Church ( Biserica
Another landmark of Cluj-Napoca is the Palace of Justice, built between 1898 and 1902, and designed by architect Gyula Wagner in an eclectic style. The Palace of Justice in Cluj-Napoca, on Dorobanţilor Street no Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single Paradigm or set of assumptions but instead draws upon multiple theories styles or ideas to  This building is part of an ensemble erected in Avram Iancu Square that also includes the National Theatre, the Palace of Căile Ferate Române, the Palace of the Prefecture, the Palace of Finance and the Palace of the Orthodox Metropolis. Căile Ferate Române (translated "Romanian Railways" abbreviated as CFR) is the official designation of the State Railway carrier An important eclectic ensemble is Iuliu Maniu Street, featuring symmetrical buildings on either side, after the Haussmann urbanistic trend. The Iuliu Maniu Street in Cluj-Napoca, named after the Romanian politician Iuliu Maniu, is a central street in the Romanian city Georges-Eugène Haussmann ( March 27, 1809 &ndash January 11, 1891) who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French  A highlight of the city is the botanical garden, situated in the vicinity of the centre. The Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden (officially the Botanical Garden of the Babeş-Bolyai University) in Cluj-Napoca, Romania was founded in 1920 Beside this garden, Cluj-Napoca is also home to some large parks, the most notable being the Central Park with the Chios Casino and a large statuary ensemble. Central Park is a large public Urban park in the borough of Centru in Cluj-Napoca. Many of the city's notable figures are buried in Hajongard Cemetery, which covers 14 hectares (35 acres).
As an important cultural centre, Cluj-Napoca has many museums and theatres. These include the Museum of the Romanian Peasant (Muzeul Ţăranului Român), the National Museum of Transylvanian History, the Ethnographical Museum, the Pharmacy Museum, the Geology Museum and the Zoological Museum.
In terms of visual arts, the city contains a number of galleries featuring both classical and contemporary Romanian art, as well as selected international works. The visual arts are art forms that focus on the creation of works which are primarily Visual in nature such as Painting, Photography
The National Museum of Art is located in the former palace of the count György Bánffy, the most representative secular construction built in the Baroque style in Transylvania. Bánffy Castle is a baroque building of the 18th century in Cluj-Napoca, designed by the German architect Johann Eberhard Blaumann. Bánffy Castle is a baroque building of the 18th century in Cluj-Napoca, designed by the German architect Johann Eberhard Blaumann. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian  The museum features extensive collections of Romanian art, including works of artists like Nicolae Grigorescu, Ştefan Luchian and Dimitrie Paciurea, as well as some works of foreign artists like Károly Lotz, Luca Giordano, Jean Hippolyte Flandrin, Herri met de Bles and Claude Michel, and was nominated to be European Museum of the Year in 1996. Nicolae Grigorescu ( May 15, 1838 &mdash July 21, 1907) was one of the founders of modern Romanian painting Ştefan Luchian ( February 1, 1868 &ndash June 28, 1916) was a Romanian painter famous for his landscapes and Still Dimitrie Paciurea ( November 2, (1873 or 1875 &ndash July 14, 1932) was a Romanian sculptor. Lotz Károly Antal Pál, or Karl Anton Paul Lotz ( 16 December 1833 – 13 October 1904) was a German - Hungarian Luca Giordano ( October 18, 1634 &ndash January 12, 1705) was an eclectic peripatetic and influential Italian late Baroque Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin ( March 23, 1809 - March 21, 1864) was a French religious painter who was born Herri met de Bles (also known as Herri de Dinant, Herry de Patinir, and Civetta) (c Claude Michel, known as Clodion ( December 20, 1738 – March 29, 1814) was a French sculptor in the Rococo 
The most notable of the city's other galleries is the Gallery of the Union of Plastic Artists. Situated in the city centre, this gallery presents collections drawn from the contemporary arts scene. The Gallery of Folk Art includes traditional Romanian interior decoration artworks.
The city has a number of renowned facilities and institutions involving performing arts. The Lucian Blaga National Theatre ( Romanian Teatrul Naţional Lucian Blaga) in Cluj-Napoca, Romania is one of the most prestigious The performing arts are those forms of Art which differ from the Plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own Body, Face and presence The most prominent is the neobaroque theatre at the Avram Iancu Square. Neo-Baroque is a term used to describe artistic creations which display important aspects of Baroque style but are not from the Baroque period proper around the 17th-18th Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one Avram Iancu Square (named after the Transylvanian Romanian lawyer and revolutionary Avram Iancu) is a central plaza in the Romanian  Built at the beginning of the 20th century by the viennese company Helmer and Fellner, this structure is inscripted in UNESCO's list of specially protected monuments. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Ferdinand Fellner ( April 19, 1847 - March 22, 1916) was an architect who along with Hermann Helmer ( July 13 1849 United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16  The building hosts, since the union of Transylvania with Romania in 1920, the Lucian Blaga National Theatre and the Romanian National Opera. The Lucian Blaga National Theatre ( Romanian Teatrul Naţional Lucian Blaga) in Cluj-Napoca, Romania is one of the most prestigious Cluj-Napoca Romanian National Opera (Opera Naţională Română din Cluj-Napoca is a public Opera house and Ballet company institution in Cluj-Napoca, The Transylvania Philarmonic, founded in 1955, gives classical music concerts, and has since 1965 organised, the Toamna Muzicală Clujeană Festival. Toamna Muzicală Clujeană ( Romanian for Cluj Musical Autumn) is a Classical music festival organised since 1965 by the Transylvania Philharmonic in  The multiculturalism in the city is once again attested by the Hungarian Theatre and Opera, home for four professional groups of performers. The Hungarian Theatre of Cluj was founded in 1792 and was the first Hungarian theatre company in Transylvania There is also a number of smaller independent theatres, including the Puck Theatre, where puppet shows are performed.
Cluj-Napoca is the residence of some well-known Romanian musicians. Examples of homegrown bands include the popular Romanian rock band Compact, the modern pop band Sistem—which finished third in the Eurovision Song Contest 2005, the alternative band Luna Amară, as well as a large assortment of electronic music producers, notably Horace Dan D. The Eurovision Song Contest 2005 was the 50th edition of the Eurovision Song Contest, which was held at the Palace of Sports, Kiev, Ukraine Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative; known primarily in the UK as indie) is a genre of Luna Amară is a Romanian Alternative rock band The name means "Bitter Moon" in Romanian, and is borrowed from the Roman Polański  The Cheeky Girls also grew up in the city, where they studied at the High School of Choreography and Dramatic Art. The Cheeky Girls are a Pop music Duo formed by twin sisters Monica and Gabriela Irimia, from Cluj-Napoca in Transylvania  While many discos play commercial house music, the city has an increasing minimal techno scene, and, to an extent jazz/blues and heavy metal/punk. A discothèque, diskoˈtɛk̚ compare the Spanish "discoteca" is an Entertainment venue or Club with recorded music played by "Discaires" House music is a style of Electronic dance music initially popularized in mid-1980s Discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino Minimal techno is a form of Electronic dance music (EDM that is considered a minimalist sub- Genre of Techno. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States The Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of Music based on the use of the Blue notes It emerged as an accessible form of self-expression The city's nightlife, particularly its club scene, grew significantly in the 1990s, and continues to increase. A nightclub (or "night club" or "club" is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark Most entertainment venues are dispersed throughout the city centre, spreading from the oldest one of all, Diesel Club, on Unrii Square. Unirii Square ( Romanian for Union Square) is the largest plaza in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca. The list of large and fancy clubs continues with Obsession The Club and Midi, the latter being a venue for the new minimal techno music genre. These three clubs are classified as the top three clubs in the Transylvania-Banat region in a chart published by the national daily România Liberă. România Liberă ( Romanian: Free Romania) is one of the leading Newspapers in Romania.  The Unirii area also features the Fashion Bar, with an exclusive terrace sponsored by Fashion TV. This article is about the worldwide television speciality channel For the Canadian television speciality channel see FashionTelevisionChannel, for the Canadian television program Some other clubs in the centre are Aftereight, Avenue, Euphoria, Kharma, Oscar and Zink.
The city also includes Strada Piezişă (slanted street), a central nightlife strip located in the Haşdeu student area, where a large number of bars and terraces are situated. Strada Piezişă ( Romanian for slanted street) is a central nightlife strip located in the Haşdeu student area in the city of Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca is not limited to these international music genres, as there are also a number of discos where local "Lăutari" play manele, a Turkish-influenced type of music. A discothèque, diskoˈtɛk̚ compare the Spanish "discoteca" is an Entertainment venue or Club with recorded music played by "Discaires" The Romanian word Lăutar denotes a class of traditional music singers Manele (singular manea) is a Music style from the Balkans, mainly derived from Turkish Greek Arab or Serbian love songs
In spite of the influences of modern culture, traditional Romanian culture continues to influence various domains of art.
Cluj-Napoca hosts an ethnographic museum, the Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania, which features a large indoor collection of traditional cultural objects, as well as an open-air park, the oldest of this kind in Romania, dating back to 1929. The National Museum of Transylvanian History is a Museum in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Ethnography ( Greek ethnos = people and graphein = writing is a genre of writing that uses Fieldwork to provide a descriptive 
The National Museum of Transylvanian History (Muzeul naţional de istorie a Transilvaniei) is another important museum in Cluj-Napoca, containing a collection of artefacts detailing Romanian history and culture from prehistoric times, the Dacian era, medieval times and the modern era. The National Museum of Transylvanian History is a Museum in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Dacia, in ancient geography was the land of the Dacians. It was named by the ancient Hellenes ( Greeks) " Getae "  Moreover, the city also preserves a Historic Collection of the Pharmacy, in the building of the its first pharmacy (16th century), the Hintz House. The Mauksch–Hintz House is a historic building on the Main Square of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, which houses the first Pharmacy in the city 
Cluj-Napoca hosts a number of cultural festivals of various types. The Transilvania International Film Festival (TIFF is a Film festival held in Cluj-Napoca, Romania and established in 2001 by Romanian Film Promotion These occur throughout the year, though are more frequent in the summer months. "Sărbătoarea Muzicii" (Fête de la Musique) is a music festival taking place yearly on 21 June, organised under the aegis of the French Cultural Centre. This article refers to a music festival which began in France but which is now international in various cities In September, the Transilvania Philarmonic hosts the Toamna Muzicală Clujeană Classical Music Festival. Toamna Muzicală Clujeană ( Romanian for Cluj Musical Autumn) is a Classical music festival organised since 1965 by the Transylvania Philharmonic in  Additionally, Splaiul Independenţei, on the banks of Someşul Mic River, hosts a number of beer festivals throughout the summer, among them the "Septemberfest", modelled after the German Oktoberfest. The Oktoberfest is a sixteen-day festival held each year in Munich, Bavaria, Germany during late September (and running to early October 
The city has seen a number of important music events, including the MTV România Music Award ceremony which was held at the Sala Sporturilor Horia Demian in 2006 with the Sugababes, Pachanga and Uniting Nations as special international guests. MTV România, the Romanian branch of MTV, is a national channel in Romania. Sala Sporturilor Horia Demian (Horia Demian Sports Hall part of the city's Splaiul Independenţei sports complex is a multi-use arena in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Sugababes are a BRIT Award -winning English pop group trio from London. Pachanga is a type of Latin American music and dance originating from Cuba in the 1950s Uniting Nations are a British dance act They are Paul Keenan and Daz Sampson.  In 2007, Beyoncé Knowles also performed in Cluj-Napoca, at the Ion Moina Stadium. Beyoncé Giselle Knowles (born September 4 1981 commonly known as Beyoncé (biːˈɑn Moreover, the local clubs regularly organise events featuring international artists, usually foreign disc jockeys, like André Tanneberger, Tania Vulcano, Satoshi Tomiie, Yves Larock, Dave Seaman, Plump DJs, Stephane K or Andy Fletcher. A disc jockey (also known as DJ or deejay) is a person who selects and plays recorded music for an audience ATB (born André Tanneberger on February 26, 1973 in Freiberg Saxony, Germany) is a German DJ, Musician Satoshi Tomiie is a Japanese House music producer and DJ. He has written music for numerous soundtracks including for the Animatrix Yves "Larock" Cheminade (b 1978) is a DJ and producer based in Switzerland. Dave Seaman (born April 29 1968) went to school in Garforth West Yorkshire is a British Dance music DJ and Record producer Plump DJs (Lee Rous and Andy Gardner are a popular DJ and producer team of Nu skool breaks, a style of electronic dance music John Creamer & Stephane K are international DJ's and as a duo a New York City-based Electronic music and House music production team Andrew John Fletcher (known as "Fletch", is the co-founder and keyboardist of electronic band Depeche Mode.
The Transilvania International Film Festival (TIFF), held in the city since 2001 and organised by the Association for the Promotion of the Romanian Film, is the first Romanian film festival for international features. The Transilvania International Film Festival (TIFF is a Film festival held in Cluj-Napoca, Romania and established in 2001 by Romanian Film Promotion  The festival jury awards the Transilvania Trophy for the best film in competition, as well as prizes for best director, best performance and best photography. With the support of Home Box Office, TIFF also organises a national script contest. The Gay Film Nights festival, showcasing LGBT culture and cinema, has also been organised annually since 2004 in Cluj-Napoca by Be An Angel, the city's largest LGBT rights organisation. Gay Film Nights ( Serile Filmului Gay in Romanian) is an LGBT Film festival organised annually in Cluj-Napoca, Romania by 
Cluj-Napoca's salient architecture is primarily Renaissance, Baroque and Gothic. Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe in which there was a Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc The modern era has also produced a remarkable set of buildings from the mid-century style. Mid-Century modern is an architectural interior and product design form that generally describes pre- and post- second world war developments in modern design architecture and urban The mostly utilitarian Communist-era architecture is also present, although only to a certain extent, as Cluj-Napoca never faced a large systematisation programme. Systematization in Romania refers to a program of Urban planning carried out under Nicolae Ceauşescu 's communist regime. Of late, the city has seen significant growth in contemporary structures such as skyscrapers and office buildings, mainly constructed after 2000. 
The nucleus of the old city, an important cultural and commercial centre, used to be a military camp, attested in documents with the name "castrum Clus". Bánffy Castle is a baroque building of the 18th century in Cluj-Napoca, designed by the German architect Johann Eberhard Blaumann. The Szeky Palace in Cluj-Napoca is a Gothic Revival building on the shore of Someşul Mic River.
The oldest residence in Cluj-Napoca is the house of Matei Corvin, originally a Gothic structure that bears Transylvanian Renaissance characteristics due to a later renovation. The Iuliu Maniu Street in Cluj-Napoca, named after the Romanian politician Iuliu Maniu, is a central street in the Romanian city Matthias Corvinus ( Matthias the Just; February 23 1443 &ndash April 6 1490) was King of Hungary and The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere 
The Bánffy Palace (1774-1785), a Baroque structure, constructed around a rectangular yard, is the masterpiece of Eberhardt Blaumann. Bánffy Castle is a baroque building of the 18th century in Cluj-Napoca, designed by the German architect Johann Eberhard Blaumann. Its peculiarity lies in the appearance of the principal façade.  St. Michael's Church, the oldest and most representative Gothic-style building in the country, dates back to the 14th century. The Church of Saint Michael is a Gothic-style Roman Catholic church in Cluj-Napoca. The oldest of its sections is the altar, dedicated in 1390, while the newest part is the clock tower, which was built in Gothic Revival style (1860). The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement which began 
In fact, both Avram Iancu and Unrii Squares feature ensembles of eclectic and baroque-rococo architecture, including the Palace of Justice, the Theatre, the Iuliu Maniu symmetrical street, and the New York Palace, among others. Avram Iancu Square (named after the Transylvanian Romanian lawyer and revolutionary Avram Iancu) is a central plaza in the Romanian Unirii Square ( Romanian for Union Square) is the largest plaza in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca. Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single Paradigm or set of assumptions but instead draws upon multiple theories styles or ideas to Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design. The Palace of Justice in Cluj-Napoca, on Dorobanţilor Street no The Lucian Blaga National Theatre ( Romanian Teatrul Naţional Lucian Blaga) in Cluj-Napoca, Romania is one of the most prestigious The Iuliu Maniu Street in Cluj-Napoca, named after the Romanian politician Iuliu Maniu, is a central street in the Romanian city 
The banks of the Someşul Mic also feature a wide variety of such old buildings. The end of the 19th century brought a building ensemble that fastens the corners of the oldest bridge over the river, at the north end of the Regele Ferdinand Avenue. Regele Ferdinand Avenue (named after King Ferdinand I; previously called Strada Podului), is a street in central Cluj-Napoca, Romania The Berde, Babos, Elian, Urania, and Szeky palaces consist of a mixture of Baroque, Renaissance and Gothic styles, following the Art Nouveau/Secession and Revival specifics. The Szeky Palace in Cluj-Napoca is a Gothic Revival building on the shore of Someşul Mic River. Art Nouveau ( nu vo anglicised /ˈɑːt nuːvəu/ ( French for 'new art' also known as Jugendstil ( German for 'youth style' is an international 
In the 2000s, the old city centre underwent extensive restoration works, meant to convert much of it into a pedestrian area, including Bulevardul Eroilor, Unirii Square and other smaller streets. A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot whether Walking or Running. Eroilor Avenue is a central avenue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, connecting the Avram Iancu and Unirii squares Unirii Square ( Romanian for Union Square) is the largest plaza in the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca.  In some residential areas of the city, particularly the high-income southern areas, like Andrei Mureşanu or Strada Republicii, there are many turn-of-the-century villas. Fin de siècle (fɑ̃ dɛ si'ɛːkl French for ‛end of the century‘ was a cultural movement between 1880 and the beginning of World War I.
Part of Cluj-Napoca's architecture is made up of buildings constructed during the Communist era, when historical architecture was replaced with "more efficient" high-density apartment blocks. The Hungarian Theatre of Cluj was founded in 1792 and was the first Hungarian theatre company in Transylvania Nicolae Ceauşescu's project of systematisation did not really affect the heart of the city, instead reaching the marginal, shoddily built districts surrounding it. Systematization in Romania refers to a program of Urban planning carried out under Nicolae Ceauşescu 's communist regime. 
Still, the centre hosts some examples of modern architecture dating back to the Communist era. The Hungarian Theatre building was erected at the beginning of the 20th century, but underwent an avant-garde renovation in 1961, when it acquired a modernist style of architecture. This article is concerned with architectural aspects of Modernism; for the most recent developments in architecture see Contemporary architecture.  Another example of modernist architectural art is Palatul Telefoanelor, situated in the vicinity of Mihai Viteazul Square, an area that also features a complex of large apartment buildings. Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazul Vitéz Mihály 1558 - 9 August 1601) was the Prince of Wallachia (1593-1601 of Transylvania
Some outer districts, especially Mănăştur, and to a certain extent Gheorgheni and Grigorescu, consist mainly of such large apartment ensembles. Mănăştur ( Hungarian Kolozsmonostor, German Abtsdorf) is a district of the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca, built during Gheorgheni is a district located in the east of Cluj-Napoca, built during the 1960s with numerous green areas Grigorescu (previously called Donat) is a district in the north-west of Cluj-Napoca.  The city, however, does not face the zoning problems that arose in other Romanian locales because of the high-density constructions; roughly all other complexes in the city are built with some respect to the zoning laws in force today.
Since 1989, modern skyscrapers and glass-fronted buildings have altered the skyline of Cluj-Napoca. Since 1989, modern Skyscrapers and glass-fronted Hotels have altered the skyline of Cluj-Napoca, a city in the Transylvanian region of A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable Building. There is no official definition or a precise cutoff height above which a building may clearly be classified as a skyscraper In Architecture, Construction, Engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following Any man-made Buildings from this time are mostly made out of glass and steel, and are usually high-rise. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Examples include shopping malls (particularly the Iulius Mall), office buildings and bank headquarters. Of this last, regional headquarters of the Banca Română pentru Dezvoltare is the tallest office building in Cluj-Napoca, with 50 metres (160 ft). BRD - Groupe Société Générale is a Romanian bank in which the French Société Générale financial group holds a majority stake of 58  Its twelve storeys were completed in 1997 after 4 years of work and house offices for the bank and for divisions of several other companies, including insurance and oil companies.
Another architecturally interesting building is the so-called "Clădirea biscuite" (the biscuit building). The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation This building was supposed to house the local headquarters of the Banca Agricolă (Agricultural Bank), but entered in the custody of the city due to the failure of that bank in the 1990s and its subsequent purchase by the Raiffeisen Bank, to be eventually converted in an office building. Raiffeisen Bank is a top universal bank on the Romanian market providing a complete range of high quality products and services to private individuals SMEs and large corporations 
The headquarters of Banca Transilvania, at the intersection of Regele Ferdinand Avenue and Bariţiu Street, is also a large contemporary building and was originally constructed to host the regional offices of Romtelecom, the public phone company, but was later sold to the bank. BRD Tower is the largest and highest office building in Cluj-Napoca with 12 stories Banca Transilvania, a Bank corporation in Romania, was founded December 1993 in Cluj-Napoca by several local businessmen with an initial capitalization Regele Ferdinand Avenue (named after King Ferdinand I; previously called Strada Podului), is a street in central Cluj-Napoca, Romania Romtelecom is the largest Telecommunications company in Romania; the majority of shares are held by the Greek telecommunications company OTE (54 
Cluj-Napoca is undergoing a period of architectural revitalisation that is set to bring the manner of expansion to the vertical. A financial centre, containing a tower of 15 storeys, is slated for completion in 2010 on Ploieşti Street.  Two 35-storey twin towers are projected to be constructed in the Sigma area in Zorilor, while the Floreşti area will host a complex of three towers with 32 levels each. Sigma Towers is a building project situated in Cluj Napoca, Romania, which will comprise two 35 floor towers linked together by a 4 floor commercial centre Floreşti (Szászfenes is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. Demographics According to the 2002 census Romanians made up 60 
Cluj-Napoca has a complex system of transportation, providing road, air and rail connections to major cities in Romania and Europe. It also enjoys a large internal transportation system, including bus, trolleybus and tram lines.
Cluj-Napoca is an important node in the European road network, being on three different European routes (E60, E81 and E576). The international E-road network is a numbering system for Roads in Europe developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE. European route E60 is a Highway running from Brest, France (on the Atlantic coast to Irkeshtam, Kyrgyzstan European route E81 is a road part of the International E-road network. European Road E576 is a secondary E-road found in northwestern Romania. At a national level, Cluj-Napoca is located on three different main national roads: DN1, DN1C and DN1F. Public roads in Romania are ranked according to importance and traffic as follows motorways ( autostradă - pl DN1 ( Drumul Naţional 1 in Romanian) is an important national road in Romania which links Bucharest with the northwestern part of the country The Romanian Motorway A3, also known as Transylvania Motorway (Autostrada Transilvania), currently under construction, will link the city with Bucharest and Romania's western border. Bucharest ( Romanian: Bucureşti) is the Capital city, industrial and commercial centre of Romania.  The 2B section between Câmpia Turzii and Cluj Vest (Gilău) is expected to be finalised during 2009. Câmpia Turzii (also spelled Cîmpia Turzii, Jerischmarkt Aranyosgyéres is a city in Cluj county Romania, which was formed in 1925 by the union Gilău may refer to Gilău Cluj Gilău Mountains  The Cluj-Napoca Coach Station (Autogara) is used by several private transport companies to provide coach connections from Cluj-Napoca to a large number of locations from all over the country. In British English and Australian English, the term coach is used to refer to a large motor vehicle for conveying passengers
The number of automobiles licensed in Cluj-Napoca is estimated at 175,000. European route E60 is a Highway running from Brest, France (on the Atlantic coast to Irkeshtam, Kyrgyzstan  As of 2007, the Cluj County ranks sixth nationwide according to the cars sold during that year, with 12,679 units, corresponding to a four percent share. Cluj (kluʒ Hungarian: Kolozs) is a County ( Judeţ) of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Cluj-Napoca One tenth of these cars were limousines or SUVs. 
RATUC, the local public transport company, runs an extensive 321 kilometres (199 mi) public transport network within the city using trams, trolleybuses and buses. Regia Autonomă de Transport Urban Călători ( RATUC) is the local public transport company of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train 
The Cluj-Napoca International Airport (CLJ), located 9 kilometres (5. Cluj-Napoca International Airport serves the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. 6 mi) to the east of the city centre, is the fourth busiest airport in Romania, after the two Bucharest airports (OTP and BBU) and Timişoara airport. Henri Coandă International Airport (Aeroportul Internaţional Henri Coandă is the busiest airport in Romania, as well as one of the two airports serving Bucharest Bucharest " Aurel Vlaicu " Airport (largely known as Băneasa Airport or Bucharest City Airport) is located in Băneasa district Timişoara "Traian Vuia" International (also known as Giarmata Airport) is Romania 's second airport in terms of air traffic after Bucharest Henri
Situated on the European route E576 (Cluj-Napoca – Dej), the airport is connected to the city centre by the local public transport company, RATUC, bus number 8. European Road E576 is a secondary E-road found in northwestern Romania. Dej (Dés Desch Burglos דעעש is a city in northwestern Romania, 60 km north of Cluj-Napoca, in Cluj County. The airport serves various direct international destinations across Europe.
Cluj-Napoca Rail Station, located about 2 kilometres (1. 2 mi) north of the city centre, is situated on the CFR-Romanian Railways Main Line 300 (Bucharest – Oradea – Romanian Western Border) and on Line 401 (Cluj-Napoca – Dej). Căile Ferate Române (translated "Romanian Railways" abbreviated as CFR) is the official designation of the State Railway carrier Bucharest ( Romanian: Bucureşti) is the Capital city, industrial and commercial centre of Romania. Oradea (pronunciation in Romanian:, Hungarian: Nagyvárad, colloquially also Várad, German: Großwardein, former Dej (Dés Desch Burglos דעעש is a city in northwestern Romania, 60 km north of Cluj-Napoca, in Cluj County. CFR provides direct rail connections to all the major Romanian cities and to Budapest. Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, The rail station is very well connected to all parts of the city by the trams, trolleybuses and buses of the local public transport company, RATUC. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train
The city is also served by two other secondary rail stations, the Little Station (Gara Micǎ) and Cluj-Napoca East. There is also a cargo station, Halta "Clujana".
The local transportation company, RATUC, manages a tram line that runs through the city. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train Planned modernisation will involve the installation of new rail tracks and the separation of the tram route from road traffic. This will bring a number of advantages, including vibration and shock reduction, a substantial noise decrease, long use expectancy and higher transit speed – 60 kilometres per hour (37 mph)-80 kilometres per hour (50 mph).  The route will undergo major alteration on Horea Street, between the Chamber of Commerce and the central rail station, a rather problematic area. A chamber of commerce (also referred to in some circles as a board of trade) is a form of Business network. This dilemma should be solved either with the relocation of the track next to the sidewalk, or through the construction of a suspended tunnel.  Another area that will benefit from large-scale changes is "Splaiul Independenţei", where the tracks will be pulled back to the Central Park, so that the roadway can host two lanes. Central Park is a large public Urban park in the borough of Centru in Cluj-Napoca. In the Mănăştur area, under the bridge, the tracks will be brought closer, while other major works will executed on the traffic circle on Primăverii Street. Given the development of the metropolitan area, further plans feature the creation of a light rail track between Gilău and Jucu that will use these modernised tracks in the city. } The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area has a population of 360000 For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems. Gilău may refer to Gilău Cluj Gilău Mountains Jucu is a commune in Cluj County, Romania. Economy In 2007 Nokia started a €88 million investment in Jucu building 
Cluj-Napoca is the most important centre for Transylvanian mass media, since it is the headquarters of all regional television networks, newspapers and radio stations. Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian The largest daily newspapers published in Bucharest are usually reissued from Cluj-Napoca in a regional version, covering Transylvanian issues. Bucharest ( Romanian: Bucureşti) is the Capital city, industrial and commercial centre of Romania. Such newspapers include România Liberă, Gardianul, Ziarul Financiar, ProSport and Gazeta Sporturilor. România Liberă ( Romanian: Free Romania) is one of the leading Newspapers in Romania. Gardianul ("The Guardian" is a Romanian daily Newspaper published in Bucharest. Ziarul Financiar is a daily financial Newspaper published in Bucharest, Romania. Gazeta Sporturilor ( Romanian for "The Sports Gazette" is a daily newspaper in Romania, and the country's largest and most read sports-related Ringier edited a regional version of Evenimentul Zilei in Cluj-Napoca until 2008, when it decided to close this enterprise. Ringier AG is the largest media corporation in Switzerland founded in Zofingen and based in Zürich. Evenimentul Zilei is one of the leading Newspapers in Romania. 
Apart from the regional editions, which are distributed throughout Transylvania, the national newspaper Ziua also runs a local franchise, Ziua de Cluj, that acts as a local daily, available only within city limits. In the Mediterranean Basin and the Near East, a kiosk ( Persian کوشک Kushk Arabic كشك Koshk Turkish Köşk Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian Ziua ( The Day in Romanian) is a major Romanian daily newspaper published in Bucharest. Cluj-Napoca also boasts other newspapers of local interest, like Făclia and Monitorul de Cluj, as well as two free dailies, Informaţia Cluj and Cluj Expres. Făclia (between 1989 and 2007 Adevărul de Cluj) is a daily newspaper published in Cluj-Napoca. Monitorul de Cluj is a Romanian language daily newspaper published in Cluj-Napoca. Informaţia Cluj is a Romanian language free daily newspaper published in Cluj-Napoca. Cluj Expres is a Romanian language free daily newspaper published in Cluj-Napoca. Clujeanul, the first of a series of local weeklies edited by the media trust CME, is one of the largest newspapers in Transylvania, with an audience of 53,000 readers per edition. } Clujeanul is both a weekly newspaper published in Cluj-Napoca, România, and an online newspaper providing real-time local and national news Central European Media Enterprises (CME is a Bermuda -based company managed by Ronald Lauder and specialising in broadcast operations in Central and  This weekly has a daily online version, entitled Clujeanul, ediţie online, updated on a real-time basis. Cluj-Napoca is also the centre of the Romanian Hungarian language press. Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. The city hosts the editorial offices of the two largest newspapers of this kind, Krónika and Szabadság, as well as those of the magazines Erdélyi Napló and Korunk. Krónika ( Chronicle) is a Hungarian-language Romanian broadsheet newspaper based in Cluj-Napoca. Szabadság ( Freedom) is a Hungarian-language local Daily newspaper published six times a week in Cluj-Napoca, Romania since December Erdélyi Napló is a Hungarian language Right-wing weekly published in Cluj-Napoca, and distributed nationally throughout Romania. Korunk ("Our Age" is a Hungarian language cultural-literary-scientific magazine published in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Săptămâna Clujeană is an economic weekly published in the city, while Piaţa A-Z is a newspaper for announcements and advertisements distributed in all of Transylvania. Săptămâna Clujeană is a Romanian language financial weekly newspaper published in Cluj-Napoca. Piaţa A-Z is a Romanian language announcement weekly newspaper published in Cluj-Napoca, and distributed throughout Transylvania.
Among the local television stations in the city, TVR Cluj (public) and One TV (private) broadcast regionally, while the others are restricted to the metropolitan area. TVR Cluj is the state-owned regional TV station available in Transylvania and Maramureş. Dubai One (previously called '''CH33''' and later One TV) is Dubai Media Incorporated 's 24-hour free-to-air English language entertainment Napoca Cable Network is available through cable, and broadcasts local content throughout the day. NCN ( Napoca Cable Network) is a Romanian television station broadcasting from Cluj-Napoca. Other stations work as affiliates of national TV stations, only providing the audience with local reports in addition to the national programming. This situation is mirrored in the radio broadcasting companies: except for Radio Cluj, Radio Impuls and the Hungarian-language Paprika Rádió, all other stations are local affiliates of the national broadcasters. Radio Cluj is a Romanian public radio station from Cluj-Napoca, broadcasting throughout Transylvania. Radio Impuls is a Top40 /Hit Radio Romanian language station broadcasting in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Paprika Rádió is a Hungarian language radio station broadcasting in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Casa Radio, situated on Donath Street, is one of the modern landmarks of the media and communications industry; it is, however, not the only one: Palatul Telefoanelor ("the telephone palace") is also a major modernist symbol of communications in the city centre.
Magazines published in Cluj-Napoca include J'Adore, a local shopping magazine that eventually also expanded to Bucharest, and Cluj-Napoca WWW, an English-language magazine designed for tourists. J'Adore is a Romanian language shopping magazine published since 2004 in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, featuring local shopping interest Cultural and social events as well as all other entertainment sources are the leading subjects of such magazines as Şapte Seri and CJ24FUN. Şapte Seri ("Seven Evenings" is a free leaflet-sized weekly magazine about goings-on in Bucharest, Romania.
In the early 20th century, film production in Cluj-Napoca (in those times Kolozsvár), led by Jenő Janovics, was the chief alternative to Budapest. Jenő Janovics ( 8 December 1872 &ndash 16 November 1945) was a Hungarian Film director, Screenwriter and  The first film made in the city, in association with the Parisian producer Pathé, was Sárga csikó ("Yellow Foal", 1912), based on a popular "peasant drama". This article deals with the Pathé movie company For their music business see Pathé Records. Yellow Foal became the first worldwide Hungarian success, distributed abroad under the title The Secret of the Blind Man: 137 prints were sold internationally and the movie was even screened in Japan. 
The first artistically prestigious film in the annals of Hungarian cinematography was also produced on this site, based on a national classic, Bánk bán (1914), a tragedy written by József Katona. Bánk bán is an opera composed by Ferenc Erkel in 1861, based on a stage play of the same title by József Katona. József Katona ( 11 November 1791 Kecskemét - 16 April 1830 Kecskemét was a Hungarian Playwright and 
Later, the city was the production site of the 1991 Romanian drama Undeva în Est ("Somewhere in the East"), and the 1995 Hungarian language film A Részleg ("Outpost").  Moreover, the Romanian-language film Cartier ("Neighbourhood", 2001) and its sequel Înapoi în cartier ("Back to the Neighbourhood", 2006) both feature a story replete with violence and rude language, behind the blocks in the city's Mănăştur district. Mănăştur ( Hungarian Kolozsmonostor, German Abtsdorf) is a district of the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca, built during  This district is also mentioned in the lyrics to the song Înapoi în cartier by La Familia member Puya, featured on the soundtrack of the motion picture. For the WWE stable see La Familia (professional wrestling La Familia is a Romanian rap group formed in January
Documentary and mockumentary production in the city include Irshad Ashraf's St. Irshad Ashraf is a British Documentary film maker with a reputation for making stylish visually innovative films Richard of Austin, a tribute to the American film director Richard Linklater, and Cluj-Napocolonia, a mockumentary imagining a fabulous city of the future. Richard Stuart Linklater (born July 30, 1960) is an Academy Award -nominated American Film director and Screenwriter  Cluj-Napoca has been mentioned in several novels, such as Bram Stoker's Dracula, where it is referenced under its old German name:
"We left in pretty good time, and came after nightfall to Klausenburgh. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Abraham "Bram" Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912 was an Irish writer of novels and short stories who is best known today for his 1897 horror Dracula is an 1897 novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, featuring as its primary Antagonist the vampire Count Dracula. Here I stopped for the night at the Hôtel Royale. "—Bram Stoker, Dracula
Higher education has a long tradition in Cluj-Napoca. The Reformed Synagogue ( Romanian: Sinagoga Neologă or Templul Memorial al Deportaţilor) in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, is the city's only The Babeş-Bolyai University (UBB) is the largest in the country, with approximately 50,000 students attending various specialisations in Romanian, Hungarian, German and English. The Babeş-Bolyai University (UBB—Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai in Cluj-Napoca is the largest University in Romania. Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Its name commemorates two important Transylvanian figures, the Romanian physician Victor Babeş and the Hungarian mathematician János Bolyai. Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian Victor Babeş ( July 4, 1854 &ndash October 19, 1926) was a Romanian physician biologist, and one of the earliest János Bolyai ( December 15, 1802 – January 27, 1860) was a Hungarian Mathematician, known for his work in Non-Euclidean The university claims roots as far back as 1581, when a Jesuit college opened in Cluj, but it was in 1872 that emperor Franz Joseph founded the University of Cluj, later renamed the Franz Joseph University (József Ferenc Tudományegyetem). The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Franz Joseph I Karl (- German, in English Francis Joseph I Charles, see the name in other languages) (18 August 1830 &ndash 21 November  During 1919, immediately after the end of World War I, the university was moved to Budapest, where it stayed until 1921, after which it was moved to the Hungarian city of Szeged. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, Szeged ( (approximate pronunciation Seg-ed (known also by alternative names) is the fourth largest City of Hungary, the Regional centre Briefly, it returned to Cluj in the first half of the 1940s, when the city came back under Hungarian administration, but it was again relocated in Szeged, following the reincorporation of Cluj into Romanian territory. The Romanian branch acquired the name Babeş; a Hungarian university, Bolyai, was established in 1945, and the two were merged in 1959. The city also hosts eight other universities, among them the Technical University, the Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, the USAMV, the University of Arts and Design, the Gheorghe Dima Music Academy and other private universities and educational institutes. The Technical University of Cluj-Napoca (UTC-N short for Universitatea Tehnicǎ din Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca, Romania, is the second largest university in the Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy is the continuation of the Medicine and Pharmacy Faculty founded in 1919 at Cluj, as part of Cluj University University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca is a University located in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The Art and Design University ( Romanian: Universitatea de Artă şi Design, UAD) is an art university located in Cluj-Napoca, Romania Gheorghe Dima Music Academy is an educational institution in Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
The first mention of public education provided in the city dates back to 1409, namely the caption "Caspar notarius et rector scholarum" ("Caspar secretary and director of schools").  Concomitantly, a Catholic school founded during the 14th century also functioned in the city.  Today some 200 pre-university educational institutions operate in Cluj-Napoca, including 71 kindergartens, 37 primary schools and 26 high schools.  Their activity is supervised by the County Board for Education. Most schools are taught in Romanian; nonetheless, there are some Hungarian-language schools (Báthory István, Apáczai Csere János and Brassai Sámuel high schools), as well as mixed schools—e. Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. g. George Coşbuc and Onisifor Ghibu high schools with Romanian/German classes and Romanian/Hungarian classes, respectively. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages.  Statistics show that 18,208 students were enrolled in the city's secondary school system during the 1993-94 school year, while a further 7,660 attended one of the 18 professional schools.  In the same year, another 37,111 pupils and 9,711 children were registered for primary and pre-school, respectively. See also Primary education A primary school (from French école primaire) is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory 
Football (soccer) in the city features four clubs playing in the leagues organised by the Romanian Football Federation, including one team participating in Liga 1—formerly Divizia A—the top division in the Romanian football association. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered The Romanian Football Federation ( FRF) ( Romanian: Federaţia Română de Fotbal) is the governing body of football in Romania. "Divizia A" redirects here Liga is the official name of the top division of the Romanian football league system. CFR 1907 Cluj-Napoca (founded in 1907) is the oldest established team in the Romanian Championship. CFR Cluj (pronunciation in Romanian /tʃeferekluʒ/ is a Romanian Football club from the city of Cluj-Napoca.  During the 2007-2008 season, it won the Romanian Championship and the Romanian Cup for the first time in its history. "Divizia A" redirects here Liga is the official name of the top division of the Romanian football league system. Sponsorship On July 22, 2005, FRF and Samsung Electronics signed a one-year sponsorship deal The "U" Cluj football team—playing in the second Romanian league—was founded in 1919, and its greatest success ever was the 1965 Romanian Cup. "U" Cluj is the common name of a Sports club from the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Sponsorship On July 22, 2005, FRF and Samsung Electronics signed a one-year sponsorship deal  The city is also represented in the third league, through CS Sănătatea Cluj-Napoca, founded in 1986. This team, which has the Victoria Someşeni Stadium as its home ground, reached the ⅛ finals of the Romanian Cup during the 2007-2008 season, its best performance.  Clujana Cluj-Napoca is the local women's soccer team, established in 2001 by Babeş-Bolyai University. The Babeş-Bolyai University (UBB—Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai in Cluj-Napoca is the largest University in Romania.
The Ion Moina Stadium, home ground for "U" Cluj, is the largest in Cluj-Napoca (capacity 28,000); it is currently scheduled for demolition and reconstruction. The Porsche 911 GT3 was introduced in 1999 as a high performance version of the first Water-cooled version of the Porsche 911, the 996, to continue Cora is a retail group based in Belgium which owns several supermarket and hypermarket chains internationally  The next largest stadium is the home field of the CFR Cluj football team, located in Gruia. CFR Cluj (pronunciation in Romanian /tʃeferekluʒ/ is a Romanian Football club from the city of Cluj-Napoca. This stadium has undergone major refurbishment, featuring various novelties rarely found elsewhere in Romanian stadiums, and is due to undergo still further modernisation with the construction of new seating. 
"Universitatea" club also incorporates teams in sports such as rugby union, basketball (with the successful men's basketball team, U Mobitelco), handball and volleyball. Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m U Mobitelco Cluj is a Romanian professional Basketball club based in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Handball (also known as team handball, European handball, or Olympic handball) is a Team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six Volleyball is an Olympic team sport in which two teams of 6 active players (5 normal players and one 'libero' are separated by a net that is usually four feet The city also features three water polo teams, as recognised by the Romanian Water Polo Federation: CSS Viitorul, CS Voinţa and Poli CSM. Water polo is a team water sport A team consists of six field players and one Goalkeeper.  Facilities for such sports are located in the vicinity of the stadium, including the Sala Sporturilor Horia Demian, a multi-functional hall designed for sports like handball, basketball or volleyball, the Politehnica Swimming Complex, which includes indoor and open-air swimming pools, as well as the Iuliu Haţieganu Park – with tennis and track facilities and a new swimming pool under construction. Sala Sporturilor Horia Demian (Horia Demian Sports Hall part of the city's Splaiul Independenţei sports complex is a multi-use arena in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Handball (also known as team handball, European handball, or Olympic handball) is a Team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Volleyball is an Olympic team sport in which two teams of 6 active players (5 normal players and one 'libero' are separated by a net that is usually four feet Iuliu Haţieganu (1885-1972 was an eminent Romanian Clinician, Physician, and activist Cluj-Napoca regularly organises national championships in different sports because of this large concentration of facilities.
In the automotive field, Cluj-Napoca hosts two stages in the National Rally Championship. Raliul Clujului is held in June; the Avram Iancu Rally, held in September, has been officially organised since 1975, though there were several years when it was not held.  The latter rally begins in Cipariu Square and runs across the surroundings of the city. 
A typical alley
Statue on the Opera house
Memorandum Signers' Monument
Greenhouses in the botanical garden
The Central Park
Saint George Statue
the Tailors' Tower
Matei Corvin Alley
a. The Piarists ' Church (Biserica Piariştilor also known as the Jesuits' Church ( Biserica Iezuiţilor) or the University Church ( Biserica The History of architecture traces the changes in the History of Architecture through various countries and dates The Lucian Blaga National Theatre ( Romanian Teatrul Naţional Lucian Blaga) in Cluj-Napoca, Romania is one of the most prestigious The Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden (officially the Botanical Garden of the Babeş-Bolyai University) in Cluj-Napoca, Romania was founded in 1920 Central Park is a large public Urban park in the borough of Centru in Cluj-Napoca. The Church of Saint Michael is a Gothic-style Roman Catholic church in Cluj-Napoca. In Christian hagiography Saint George is one of the most venerated saints in the Anglican Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox The Cluj-Napoca Tailors' Tower ( Romanian: Bastionul Croitorilor din Cluj-Napoca, Szabók bástyája is located at the southeast corner of the old Cluj-Napoca Matthias Corvinus ( Matthias the Just; February 23 1443 &ndash April 6 1490) was King of Hungary and This is a list of famous natives and inhabitants of Cluj-Napoca, in Romania. } The Cluj-Napoca metropolitan area has a population of 360000 The Cluj-Napoca Botanical Garden (officially the Botanical Garden of the Babeş-Bolyai University) in Cluj-Napoca, Romania was founded in 1920 This is a list of companies based in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Endava O2 Solutions ACI Cluj Ardaf This article below discusses the Sanz-Klausenburger dynasty that began with Rabbi Yekusiel Yehudah Halberstam and presently the two ^ The engraving, dating back to 1617, was executed by Georg Houfnagel after the painting of Egidius van der Rye (the original was done in the workshop of Braun and Hagenberg).
b. ^ After Transylvania united with Romania in 1918-1920, an exodus of Hungarian inhabitants occurred. Also, the city grew and many people moved in from the surrounding area and Cluj County as a whole, populated largely by Romanians.
c. ^ In August 1940, as the second Vienna Award transferred the northern half of Transylvania to Hungary, an exile of Romanian inhabitants began.
d. ^ The 1941 Hungarian census is considered unreliable by most historians. In 1941, Cluj had 16,763 Jews. They were forced into ghettos in 1944 by the Hungarian authorities and deported to Auschwitz in May-June 1944.
e. ^ In the 1960s a determined policy of Industrialisation was initiated. Many people from the surrounding rural areas (largely Romanian) were moved into the city. As a consequence, for the first time in its long history, Cluj had a Romanian majority.
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