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Schools of thought
Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism and laissez-faire liberalism, or, in much of the world, simply called liberalism) is a doctrine stressing individual freedom and limited government. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal This is a partial list of individual contributions to liberal political theory on a worldwide scale Modern liberalism in the United States, also referred to as American liberalism, is a political ideology that seeks to use the power of the state to effect change upon society Conservative liberalism is a variant of Liberalism, combining liberal values and policies with conservative stances or more simply representing the right-wing National liberalism is a variant of liberalism combining Nationalism with some liberal policies especially regarding Economic liberalism Economic liberalism is the Economic component of Classical liberalism. Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism Ordoliberalism (also called German neoliberalism) is a school of Liberalism emphasizing the need for the state to ensure that the Free market produces results Paleoliberalism is a term that has at least a few distinct meanings all relating to Liberalism. Social liberalism, also called new liberalism (as it was originally termed high liberalism radical liberalism, modern liberalism, or Cultural liberalism is a liberal view of society that stresses the freedom of individuals from cultural norms Political freedom is the absence of interference with the sovereignty of an individual by the use of coercion or aggression Individual rights refer to the Rights of Individuals in contrast with Group rights. Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” The term "liberal" in "liberal democracy" does not imply that the government of such a democracy must follow the political ideology of Liberal neutrality is the idea that the liberal state should not promote any particular 'conception of the good' The concept of negative liberty refers to freedom from interference by other people ||-||} Positive liberty refers to the opportunity and ability to act to fulfill one's own potential as opposed to Negative liberty, which refers to freedom from Liberty, the freedom to act or believe without being stopped by unnecessary force A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where A mixed economy is an Economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system The open society is a concept originally developed by philosopher Henri Bergson. Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the State is created by the will or consent of its people, who A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 was an English Philosopher. John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential Friedrich August von Hayek CH ( May 8, 1899 March 23, 1992) was an Austrian British Economist Milton Friedman (July 31 1912 November 16 2006 was an American Nobel Laureate Economist and Public intellectual. John Rawls ( February 21, 1921  &ndash November 24, 2002) was an American Philosopher, a Professor of This article gives information on liberalism in diverse countries around the world A general overview and comprehensive discussion of this topic may be found in the article Liberalism. Liberalism in the United States is a broad political and philosophical mindset favoring individual Liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty whether they come from Liberal International is a Political international for liberal parties. The International Federation of Liberal Youth ( IFLRY) is an international liberal youth organization The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (founded in 1993 is a liberal party, mainly active in the European Union, composed of 55 national parties from across The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe ( French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour l'Europe) is an alliance between two European political parties European Liberal Youth (LYMEC - Liberal and Radical Youth Movement of the European Community is an international organisation of Liberal youth movements - mostly the youth The Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats is a regional organization of liberal and democratic political parties in Asia The Africa Liberal Network (ALN is an organization composed of 16 political parties from 14 African nations and is an associated organisation of Liberal The Liberal Network for Latin America ( Red Liberal de América Latina RELIAL) is an international network founded in 2003 with the official launch taking place in Costa Rica Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the Agorism is an anarchist Political philosophy founded by Samuel Edward Konkin III that holds the ultimate goal as bringing about a society in which Anarcho-capitalism (also known as Free-market anarchism) is an individualist anarchist Political philosophy that advocates the elimination Autarchism (from Greek, "belief in self rule" is a Political philosophy that upholds the principle of Individual liberty, rejects compulsory Christian libertarianism should not be confused with Libertarian Christianity. Geolibertarianism is a Political movement that strives to reconcile Libertarianism and Georgism (or geoism) Green libertarianism is a Political philosophy that has developed in the United States. Individualist anarchism refers to any of several traditions that hold that "individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective Left-libertarianism (or left-wing libertarianism) is a term that has been adopted by several different libertarian political movements and theorists Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political economic or social hierarchies – a society in which all violent Individualist feminism (sometimes also grouped with libertarian feminism or ifeminism) is a term for feminist ideas which seek to celebrate Free-market anarchism (sometimes called market anarchism) refers to an Individualist anarchist Philosophy that harmonizes the abolition of the state with Market socialism is a term used to denote two different Economic system (s based in Socialism which operate according to Market principles In Civics, minarchism, sometimes called minimal Statism, small government, or limited-government Libertarianism Mutualism, is an Anarchist school of thought, can be traced to the writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon that envisioned a society where each person might possess a Neolibertarianism is a political philosophy combining elements of Libertarian and Neoconservative thought that embraces Incrementalism domestically Paleolibertarianism is a school of thought within American Libertarianism founded by Lew Rockwell and Murray Rothbard, and closely associated Right-libertarianism or right libertarianism is a phrase used to either describe non- Collectivist forms of Libertarianism or a variety of different libertarian Voluntaryism is a Philosophy that opposes anything that it sees as unjustifiably invasive and Coercive. Objectivism is a Philosophy developed by Ayn Rand in the 20th century that encompasses positions on Metaphysics, Epistemology, The Austrian School, also known as the “ Vienna School ” or the “ Psychological School ” is a heterodox school of economics that advocates Individualist anarchism refers to any of several traditions that hold that "individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government. Counter-economics is a term originally coined by Samuel Edward Konkin III, a radical Libertarian activist and theorist who defined it as " the study and/or Decriminalization is the reduction or abolition of criminal penalties in relation to certain acts but regulated permits or fines might still apply (for contrast Economic freedom is freedom to produce trade and consume any goods and services acquired without the use of force fraud or theft A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions The question of free will Freedom of contract or contractualism is the idea that individuals should be free to bargain among themselves the terms of their own contracts without government interference The homestead principle (or original appropriation) is part of libertarian and anarcho-capitalist Ethics. Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal Methodological individualism is a philosophical method aimed at explaining and understanding broad society-wide developments as the aggregation of decisions by individuals Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” Liberty, the freedom to act or believe without being stopped by unnecessary force A night watchman state, or a minimal state, is a Form of government in Political philosophy where the government's responsibilities are so minimal they The non-aggression principle (also called the non-aggression axiom, anticoercion principle, or zero aggression principle) is a Deontological Nonintervention or non-interventionism is a foreign policy which holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations and avoid all wars not related to direct Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of Organization. Self-ownership (or sovereignty of the individual, individual sovereignty or individual autonomy) is the moral or natural right (aka Freedom of a person The subjective theory of value (or theory of subjective value) is an economic theory of value that holds that "to possess value an object must be both useful A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a Tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax or to some of that institution’s policies The libertarian movement consists of the various individuals and institutions who expound or promote the ideas and causes of Libertarianism. Libertarianism is a Political philosophy that emphasises the Liberty of the individual and seeks to minimize or even abolish the State. Many countries and subnational political entities have libertarian political parties. Libertarian theories of law build upon classical liberal and individualist anarchist doctrines Adherents of different ideologies have criticized Libertarianism for various reasons Civil libertarianism is a strain of political thought that supports Civil liberties, or who emphasizes the supremacy of Individual rights and Personal freedoms For the revolt in Brazil, see Constitutionalist Revolution. The term Constitutionalism is a word with a variety of meanings A libertarian Democrat is a person who subscribes to libertarian philosophy while typically voting for and being involved with the United States Democratic Party. A libertarian Republican (LR is a person who subscribes to libertarian philosophy while typically voting for and being involved with the United States Republican Party Libertarian transhumanism is a Political philosophy synthesizing Libertarianism and Transhumanism. Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” Limited Government is a government structure where any more than minimal governmental intervention in personal liberties and the economy is not usually allowed by Law, usually This includes the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam Smith, Ludwig von Mises, David Ricardo, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Thomas Paine and others. Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government. A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy. Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (ˈluːtvɪç fɔn ˈmiːzəs ( September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) was an Austrian David Ricardo (18 April 1772 &ndash 11 September 1823 was an English political economist, often credited with systematizing economics and was one of the most influential François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French Charles-Louis de Secondat baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (Eng Thomas Paine (January 29 1737 &ndash June 8 1809 was an English Pamphleteer, Revolutionary, radical, Inventor, and Intellectual As such, it is the fusion of economic liberalism with political liberalism. Economic liberalism is the Economic component of Classical liberalism. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal  The "normative core" of classical liberalism is the idea that laissez-faire economics will bring about a spontaneous order or invisible hand that benefits the society, though it does not necessarily oppose the state's provision of a few basic public goods. See also the closely related articles Emergence and Self-organization. The invisible hand is a Metaphor coined by the Economist Adam Smith. In Economics, a public good is a good that is non-rivaled and non-excludable.  The qualification classical was applied in retrospect to distinguish early nineteenth-century liberalism from changes in liberal thought during the 19th and early 20th centuries, especially the "new liberalism" associated with Thomas Hill Green, Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse, and Franklin D. Roosevelt, which grants the state a more interventionist role in the economy, including a welfare state. Social liberalism, also called new liberalism (as it was originally termed high liberalism radical liberalism, modern liberalism, or For the actor Thomas Hill see Thomas Hill. Thomas Hill Green ( April 7, 1836 – March 26, 1882) Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse ( September 8, 1864 - June 21, 1929) was a British liberal politician one of the theorists of This article refers specifically to the Welfare state of the United Kingdom. Classical liberalism is not to be confused with the ideology that is commonly called "liberalism" today in the United States, as "classical liberalism" is closer in economic aspects to what today is a claimed current of "conservatism" in the U. Modern liberalism in the United States, also referred to as American liberalism, is a political ideology that seeks to use the power of the state to effect change upon society Conservatism in the United States includes a variety of political ideologies including Fiscal conservatism, Supply-side economics, Social conservatism S. 
Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich Hayek, Murray N. Rothbard and other followers of the Austrian School developed even further the liberal ideas, culminating in Minarchism and Anarcho-Capitalism, which are the main flags of libertarian politics. Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (ˈluːtvɪç fɔn ˈmiːzəs ( September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) was an Austrian Friedrich August von Hayek CH ( May 8, 1899 March 23, 1992) was an Austrian British Economist Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2 1926 – January 7 1995 was an American economist of the Austrian School who helped define modern Libertarianism The Austrian School, also known as the “ Vienna School ” or the “ Psychological School ” is a heterodox school of economics that advocates In Civics, minarchism, sometimes called minimal Statism, small government, or limited-government Libertarianism Anarcho-capitalism (also known as Free-market anarchism) is an individualist anarchist Political philosophy that advocates the elimination They, together with Milton Friedman, are credited with influencing on a revival of classical liberalism in the 20th century after it fell out of favor beginning in the late nineteenth century and much of the twentieth century. Milton Friedman (July 31 1912 November 16 2006 was an American Nobel Laureate Economist and Public intellectual.  In relation to economic issues, this revival is sometimes referred to, mainly by its opposers, as "neoliberalism". Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism It must be said that the German "ordoliberalism" has a whole different meaning, since the likes of Alexander Rüstow and Wilhelm Röpke have advocated a more interventionist state, as opposed to laissez-faire liberals. Ordoliberalism (also called German neoliberalism) is a school of Liberalism emphasizing the need for the state to ensure that the Free market produces results Alexander Rüstow ( April 8 1885 &ndash June 30, 1963) was a German Sociologist and Economist. Wilhelm Röpke ( October 10, 1899 in Schwarmstedt – February 12, 1966 in Geneva) was one of the most important spiritual
Libertarians of a minarchist persuasion use the term "classical liberalism" almost interchangeably with the term "libertarianism", while the correctness of this usage is disputed (see "Classical liberalism" and libertarianism, below). Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the In Civics, minarchism, sometimes called minimal Statism, small government, or limited-government Libertarianism Nevertheless, if the two philosophies are not the same, classical liberalism does resemble modern libertarianism in many ways. 
In America, liberalism took a strong root because it had little opposition to its ideals, whereas in Europe liberalism was opposed by many reactionary interests. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the From the time of the industrial revolution through the Great Depression liberalism in America saw its first ideological challenges. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the  By the time of the Great Depression, liberalism in America had changed its definition to describe its former opposition, for example in the opinion of Arthur Schlesinger Jr.:
|“||when the growing complexity of industrial conditions required increasing government intervention in order to assure more equal opportunities, the liberal tradition, faithful to the goal rather than to the dogma, altered its view of the state," and "there emerged the conception of a social welfare state, in which the national government had the express obligation to maintain high levels of employment in the economy, to supervise standards of life and labor, to regulate the methods of business competition, and to establish comprehensive patterns of social security. Arthur Meier Schlesinger Jr, born Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger ( October 15 1917 &ndash February 28 2007) was a Pulitzer Prize recipient Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek, plural) is the established Belief or This article refers specifically to the Welfare state of the United Kingdom. "||”|
In Europe, especially except on the British Isles, liberalism had been fairly weak and unpopular relative to its opposition, like socialism, and therefore no change in meaning occurred. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution 
By the 1970s, however, lagging economic growth and increased levels of taxation and debt spurred a revival of a new classical liberalism. Friedrich von Hayek and Milton Friedman argued against government intervention in fiscal policy and their ideas were embraced by conservative political parties in the US and the United Kingdom beginning in the 1980s. Friedrich August von Hayek CH ( May 8, 1899 March 23, 1992) was an Austrian British Economist Milton Friedman (July 31 1912 November 16 2006 was an American Nobel Laureate Economist and Public intellectual. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  In fact, Ronald Reagan credited Bastiat, von Mises, and Hayek as influences. Claude Frédéric Bastiat ( June 30, 1801 December 24, 1850) was a French classical liberal theorist political economist 
|“||[A]t the heart of classical liberalism", wrote Nancy L. Rosenblum and Robert C. Post, is a prescription: "Nurture voluntary associations. Limit the size, and more importantly, the scope of government. So long as the state provides a basic rule of law that steers people away from destructive or parasitic ways of life and in the direction of productive ways of life, society runs itself. If you want people to flourish, let them run their own lives. "||”|
Classical liberalism places a particular emphasis on the sovereignty of the individual, with private property rights being seen as essential to individual liberty. Self-ownership (or sovereignty of the individual, individual sovereignty or individual autonomy) is the moral or natural right (aka Freedom of a person Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual This forms the philosophical basis for laissez-faire public policy. The ideology of the classical liberals argued against direct democracy "for there is nothing in the bare idea of majority rule to show that majorities will always respect the rights of property or maintain rule of law. Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public " For example, James Madison argued for a constitutional republic with protections for individual liberty, over a pure democracy, reasoning that in a pure democracy, a "common passion or interest will, in almost every case, be felt by a majority of the whole. James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding A constitutional Republic is a State where the Head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people and Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public . . and there is nothing to check the inducements to sacrifice the weaker party. . . . "
In economics, some classical liberals believe that "an unfettered market" is the most efficient mechanism to satisfy human needs and channel resources to their most productive uses: they "are more suspicious than conservatives of all but the most minimal government. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined " Their advocacy of an "unregulated free market" is founded on an "assumption about individuals being rational, self-interested and methodical in the pursuit of their goals. " Adam Smith, however, was not an advocate of pure capitalism, and allowed for many exceptions to a strictly free-market economy. 
Classical liberalism holds that rights exist independently of government. Thomas Jefferson called these inalienable rights: ". . . rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others. I do not add 'within the limits of the law', because law is often but the tyrant’s will, and always so when it violates the rights of the individual. " For classical liberalism, rights are of a negative nature — rights that require that other individuals (and governments) refrain from interfering with individual liberty, whereas social liberalism (also called modern liberalism or welfare liberalism) holds that individuals have a right to be provided with certain benefits or services by others. Some philosophers and political scientists make a distinction between negative and positive Rights, not to be confused with the similar but different distinction between Social liberalism, also called new liberalism (as it was originally termed high liberalism radical liberalism, modern liberalism, or  Unlike social liberals, classical liberals are "hostile to the welfare state. This article refers specifically to the Welfare state of the United Kingdom. " They do not have an interest in material equality but only in "equality before the law. Equality of outcome or equality of condition is a form of Egalitarianism which seeks to reduce or eliminate differences in material condition between individuals or Equality before the law or equality under the law or legal egalitarianism is the principle under which each individual is subject to the same laws with no individual " Classical liberalism is critical of social liberalism and takes offense at group rights being pursued at the expense of individual rights. 
Friedrich Hayek identified two different traditions within classical liberalism: the "British tradition" and the "French tradition". Friedrich August von Hayek CH ( May 8, 1899 March 23, 1992) was an Austrian British Economist Hayek saw the British philosophers David Hume, Adam Smith, Adam Ferguson, Josiah Tucker, Edmund Burke and William Paley as representative of a tradition that articulated beliefs in empiricism, the common law, and in traditions and institutions which had spontaneously evolved but were imperfectly understood. David Hume (26 April 1711 25 August 1776 Scottish Philosopher, Economist, and Historian is an important figure in Western philosophy Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy. Adam Ferguson, also known as Ferguson of Raith (20 June 1723 ( O Josiah Tucker (1713–1799 also known as Dean Tucker was an 18th century English economist and political writer concerned with Jewish emancipation and Edmund Burke ( 12 January, 1729 9 July, 1797) was an Irish statesman author orator Political theorist, and William Paley (July 1743 &ndash 25 May 1805) was a British Christian apologist, Philosopher, and utilitarian. In Philosophy, empiricism is a theory of Knowledge which asserts that knowledge arises from Experience. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive The French tradition included Rousseau, Condorcet, the Encyclopedists and the Physiocrats. An encyclopedia (or '''encyclopædia''') is a comprehensive written Compendium that contains Information on either all branches of Knowledge The physiocrats were a group of Economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from the value of land Agriculture or land development This tradition believed in rationalism and the unlimited powers of reason, and sometimes showed hostility to tradition and religion. Hayek conceded that the national labels did not exactly correspond to those belonging to each tradition: Hayek saw the Frenchmen Montesquieu, Constant and Tocqueville as belonging to the "British tradition" and the British Thomas Hobbes, Godwin, Priestley, Richard Price and Thomas Paine as belonging to the "French tradition". Charles-Louis de Secondat baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (Eng This article concerns the European writer and politician for others see Benjamin Constant (disambiguation. Thomas Hobbes (born 5 April 1588died 4 December 1679 was an English philosopher, whose famous 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation William Godwin ( 3 March 1756 &ndash 7 April 1836) was an English journalist political philosopher and Novelist Joseph Priestley (13 March 1733 ( Old Richard Price ( February 23, 1723 &ndash April 19, 1791) was a Welsh moral and political philosopher Thomas Paine (January 29 1737 &ndash June 8 1809 was an English Pamphleteer, Revolutionary, radical, Inventor, and Intellectual  Hayek also rejected the label "laissez faire" as originating from the French tradition and alien to the beliefs of Hume, Smith and Burke.
Modern classical liberals trace their ideology to ancient Greek and medieval thought. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca They cite the 16th century School of Salamanca in Spain as a precursor, with its emphasis on human rights and popular sovereignty, its belief that morality need not be grounded in religion, and its moral defense of commerce. The School of Salamanca is the Renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the State is created by the will or consent of its people, who Morality (from the Latin la moralitas "manner character proper behavior" has three principal meanings But its classic formulation came in The Age of Enlightenment. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century The Wealth of Nations (1776) by Scottish philosopher Adam Smith is one of the classic works that rejects the philosophy of mercantilism, which advocated state interventionism in the economy and protectionism. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the Magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy. Mercantilism is the idea that a colony should export more goods than it imports and that a colony should sell at higher prices and buy at lower prices Economic interventionism, is a common term used to describe any activity beyond the basic regulation of fraud and enforcement of contracts undertaken by a government in an effort to affect For the protectionist Australian political party from the 1880s to 1909 see Protectionist Party These early liberals saw mercantilism as enriching privileged elites at the expense of well being of the populace. Another early expression is the tradition of a Nordic school of liberalism set in motion by a Finnish parliamentarian Anders Chydenius. The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe called the Nordic region, consisting of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Anders Chydenius ( 26 February 1729 - 1 February 1803) was the leading classical liberal of Nordic history
Several liberals, including Adam Smith, and Richard Cobden, argued that the free exchange of goods between nations could lead to world peace. Richard Cobden ( June 3, 1804 &ndash April 2, 1865) was a British manufacturer and Radical and Liberal Modern American political scientists including Dahl, Doyle, Russet, and O'Neil, recognize that early liberals believed free trade could lead to peace. Dr. Gartzke, of Columbia University states, "Scholars like Montesquieu, Adam Smith, Richard Cobden, Norman Angell, and Richard Rosencrance have long speculated that free markets have the potential to free states from the looming prospect of recurrent warfare".  American political scientists John R. Oneal and Bruce M. Russett, well known for their work on the democratic peace theory, state,
Adam Smith argued in the Wealth of Nations that as societies progressed from hunter gatherers to industrial societies the spoils of war would rise, but the costs of war would rise further, making war difficult and costly for industrialized nations. Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy. 
|“||. . . the honours, the fame, the emoluments of war, belong not to [the middle and industrial classes]; the battle-plain is the harvest field of the aristocracy, watered with the blood of the people. Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations . . Whilst our trade rested upon our foreign dependencies, as was the case in the middle of the last century. . . force and violence, were necessary to command our customers for our manufacturers. . . But war, although the greatest of consumers, not only produces nothing in return, but, by abstracting labour from productive employment and interrupting the course of trade, it impedes, in a variety of indirect ways, the creation of wealth; and, should hostilities be continued for a series of years, each successive war-loan will be felt in our commercial and manufacturing districts with an augmented pressure.||”|
—Richard Cobden, 
|“||When goods cannot cross borders, armies will.||”|
"By virtue of their mutual interest does nature unite people against violence and war…the spirit of trade cannot coexist with war, and sooner or later this spirit dominates every people. For among all those powers…that belong to a nation, financial power may be the most reliable in forcing nations to pursue the noble cause of peace…and wherever in the world war threatens to break out, they will try to head it off through mediation, just as if they were permanently leagued for this purpose" - Immanuel Kant, the Perpetual Peace.
Cobden believed that military expenditures worsened the welfare of the state and benefited a small but concentrated elite minority. Summing up British imperialism, which he believed was the result the economic restrictions of mercantalist policies. Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude Mercantilism is the idea that a colony should export more goods than it imports and that a colony should sell at higher prices and buy at lower prices To Cobden, and many classical liberals, those who advocated peace must also advocate free markets.
Executive Director of The Objectivist Center and libertarian David Kelley states that classical liberals had a concept of freedom that is entirely at odds with the modern liberal conception. An executive director is the senior manager or Executive officer of an Organization, company, or Corporation. The Atlas Society — of which The Objectivist Center (TOC is a part — is a research and advocacy organization promoting "a culture that affirms the core Objectivist values of reason David Kelley (born 1949 in Cleveland Ohio) is an American Philosopher and Author.  While they argued for free trade and a limited central authority modern liberals have broadened freedom and human rights to include expanded government authority over property, labor, and capital. Adam Smith argued that in order to best serve human welfare, individuals should be left free to follow their own interests, which were to "sustain life and to acquire goods" and that a government should abstain "from interference in free enterprise, putting checks only on undue strife and competition. "
On the classical liberal concept of freedom the Edinburgh Review wrote in 1843:
Kelley also suggests that classical liberals understood liberty to be a negative freedom--a freedom from the coercive actions of others. Modern liberals include positive freedoms in liberty, which are rights to the provision of goods.  Modern understandings of positive freedom are opposite the classical thinking of negative freedom. An early John Stuart Mill (who at this time was a liberal advocate of limited government and free markets) recognized this difference, stating,
The cause(s) of the shift in liberalism in the United States "between 1877 and 1937. . . from laissez-faire constitutionalism to New Deal statism, from classical liberalism to democratic social-welfarism" has been a subject of study among scholars. The New Deal was the name that United States President Franklin D 
The Industrial Revolution greatly increased material wealth, but made social problems, such as pollution, child labor, and overcrowding in the cities, more visible. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Child labor is the employment of Children at regular and sustained labour Overpopulation refers to a condition where an Organism 's numbers exceed the Carrying capacity of its Habitat. Material and scientific progress led to greater longevity and a reduced mortality rate. The word longevity is sometimes used as a synonym for " Life expectancy " in Demography. The population increased dramatically, as technology improved agricultural output, millions more could survive whereas a century before they would have perished. As F. A. Hayek noted,
Increased agricultural output through technology reduced the labor necessary for farming creating a migration of labor from rural to urban areas. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Technology is a broad concept that deals with a Species ' usage and knowledge of Tools and Crafts and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt The industrial revolution saw for the first time rising demands for food and decreasing food prices.  Labor wages, in fact did not decline, but rose above inflation, despite a decrease in the hours worked by labor and an increase in the labor supply.  Wages saw a steady increase, without government assistance, prior to the introduction of a national minimum wage.  The industrial revolution also saw a shift of child labor from farms to factories, but also saw a decline in the use of child labor prior to government laws banning child labor, as wealth and productivity increased, thus allowing parents to send children to school rather than work to earn for the family.  Many laissez-faire economists felt that these problems of industrial society would correct themselves without government action. In fact, this was occurring, just not in the manner and style hoped by progressive reformers. 
Alexis de Tocqueville illuminated the events of the early industrial revolution and why wealthy societies became more concerned with the poor, stating,
Alexis de Tocqueville's insight supports Milton Friedman’s idea that the industrial revolution did not create more poverty as was claimed by Progressives of the time, but created more visible poor. 
In the 19th century, the voting franchise in most democracies was extended, and these newly enfranchised citizens often voted in favor of government intervention into the economy. Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system The public sector is the part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the Government, whether national Regional Rising literacy rates and the spread of knowledge led to social activism in a variety of forms. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change Those calling themselves progressives, called for laws against child labor and laws requiring minimum standards of worker safety. Child labor is the employment of Children at regular and sustained labour Occupational safety and health is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the Safety, Health and welfare of people engaged in The laissez faire economic liberals considered such measures to be an unjust imposition upon liberty, as well as a hindrance to economic development. Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” Liberty, the freedom to act or believe without being stopped by unnecessary force Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants This 19th century social liberalism is considered as the first significant split of modern liberalism from "classical liberalism. Social liberalism, also called new liberalism (as it was originally termed high liberalism radical liberalism, modern liberalism, or " In 1911, L. T. Hobhouse published Liberalism, which summarized what social liberals believe is a "new liberalism," including qualified acceptance of government intervention in the economy, and the collective right to equality in dealings, what he called "just consent". Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse ( September 8, 1864 - June 21, 1929) was a British liberal politician one of the theorists of So different from classical liberalism did Hayek see Hobhouse's book that he commented that it would have been more accurately titled Socialism instead.  (Hobhouse called his beliefs "liberal socialism". )
In some European countries the term "liberalism" refers mostly to what is called "libertarianism" in the United States, i. e. , European "liberalism" is most often in favor of a free market-economy and a more restricted government.
In Australia the major centre-right or 'conservative' party is called the Liberal Party of Australia, where "liberal" was chosen to refer back to the old Commonwealth Liberal Party and also to distinguish it from the "socialist" Labor Party. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The centre-right is a political term commonly used to describe or denote individuals political parties or organizations (such as Think tanks whose views Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. For the modern Liberal Party of Australia see Liberal Party of Australia The Commonwealth Liberal Party (CLP also known as The Fusion However, because of familiarity with contemporary US usage, the term "liberal" can take on a variety of meanings ranging from member or supporter of the Liberal party, to classical liberal, to "liberal" in the contemporary American sense (i. e. modern liberalism). Social liberalism, also called new liberalism (as it was originally termed high liberalism radical liberalism, modern liberalism, or
Whether modern liberalism is founded upon the philosophy of classical liberalism is a subject of dispute. Scholar Leonard Liggio (a self-described classical liberal) holds that modern liberalism does not share the same intellectual foundations as classical liberalism. Leonard Liggio (born July 5, 1933) is a self-described Classical liberal author research professor of law at George Mason University, and executive He says,
He believes that this is why liberalism means something different in Europe from in America.  Proponents of the Austrian School and the Chicago School (sometimes called neo-classical economists), such as Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich von Hayek and Milton Friedman also reject claims that modern liberalism represents a continuous development from classical liberalism. The Austrian School, also known as the “ Vienna School ” or the “ Psychological School ” is a heterodox school of economics that advocates Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (ˈluːtvɪç fɔn ˈmiːzəs ( September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) was an Austrian Friedrich August von Hayek CH ( May 8, 1899 March 23, 1992) was an Austrian British Economist Milton Friedman (July 31 1912 November 16 2006 was an American Nobel Laureate Economist and Public intellectual.  According to Friedman,
Neo-classical economists instead see themselves as the true inheritors of classical liberalism. For example, Hayek argued that he was not a conservative because he was a liberal, and had refused to give up that label to what he considered to be modern usurpers. 
Joseph Schumpeter stated, "As a supreme, if unintended compliment, the enemies of the system of private enterprise have thought it wise to appropriate its label," implying that modern liberals have "stolen" the word and given it a definition opposite its original meaning. Joseph Alois Schumpeter ( February 8, 1883 &ndash January 8, 1950) was an Economist and Political scientist born in
Following from this New York Times criticism, they argue that leading Progressive writers used the word liberal as a "substitute for progressivism, which had become tarnished by its association with their fallen hero, Theodore Roosevelt". Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T They also concur with F. A. Hayek view (in his essay "Why I Am Not a Conservative") that Franklin D. Roosevelt adopted the term to "ward off accusations of being left-wing" [with Roosevelt] declaring that liberalism was "plain English for a changed concept of the duty and responsibility of government toward economic life. "
Modern liberals, beginning perhaps with T. H. Green in late 19th century Britain (and anticipated in their criticisms though not their prescriptions by historical classical liberals such as John Stuart Mill), have replied that their liberalism was consistent with the central values of classical liberalism as opposed to the ways those values had often been applied. For the actor Thomas Hill see Thomas Hill. Thomas Hill Green ( April 7, 1836 – March 26, 1882) John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential Their position can be summarized as follows: 1) coercion of the individual could come not only from government but also from private industry despite the pretence of contractual agreement, so limits to the power of private industry were needed just as they were for government; 2) liberalism was concerned ultimately not with freedom from constraint—i. e. negative freedom—but with individual autonomy—i. The concept of negative liberty refers to freedom from interference by other people e. positive freedom—to which negative freedom vis a vis the state was but a means rather than an end in itself, and that means was insufficient and in some cases actually an obstacle to the maximizing of freedom for all through conditions of reduced economic and social inequalities. ||-||} Positive liberty refers to the opportunity and ability to act to fulfill one's own potential as opposed to Negative liberty, which refers to freedom from
John McGowan, distinguished professor of the humanities, asserts that the modern liberalism in the United States evolved from the liberalism of the Founding Fathers. John McGowan may refer to John McGowan (Ontario politician (1845&ndash1922 former Ontario MPP and member of the Canadian House of Commons Jack Modern liberalism in the United States, also referred to as American liberalism, is a political ideology that seeks to use the power of the state to effect change upon society McGowan claims that the Founding Fathers were willing to have government regulate the economy, with laissez faire capitalist ideology not becoming as prominent as in Europe until the gilded age. The willingness of American liberals can be traced to the desire to distribute power as widely as possible and keep all power within a system of checks and balances. Modern American liberals seek to prevent the accumulation of power in the hands of an economic elite and balance the power of market forces and businesses against that of government, so that no source of power may go unchecked. Moreover, modern American liberals see government regulation of certain aspects of the economy as essential towards providing positive freedom. 
Modern day American Liberalism is a descendent of Progressivism. A segment of modern day American conservatism is the direct descendent of Classical Liberalism. The term "fiscal conservative" usually refers to free market oriented people who use Classical Liberalism as their conception of understanding economics. So in America, fiscal convservatives have a traditionally "liberal" view of economics. Fiscal Conservatives only make up a part of modern American conservatives, the other parts being Social conservatives and Foreign Policy Conservatives.
Some have rejected the claim describing neo-classical economists as "right-wing economic liberals", "liberal conservatives" and as the "new right", viewing their efforts at co-opting the term as ignoring the political side of early liberalism and only focusing on the work of the classical economists such as Smith and Ricardo. David Ricardo (18 April 1772 &ndash 11 September 1823 was an English political economist, often credited with systematizing economics and was one of the most influential  Furthermore, it has been argued that "Hayek's view of classical liberal principles is a peculiar one" which ignores the work of pre-eminent thinkers such as Locke and Mill. John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 was an English Philosopher.  However, Hayek cites Mill 51 times in his political books (ranking third out of all political thinkers Hayek refers to) and Locke 32 times. 
Raimondo Cubeddu of the Department of Political Science of the University of Pisa says "It is often difficult to distinguish between 'Libertarianism' and 'Classical Liberalism'. Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the Those two labels are used almost interchangeably by those who we may call libertarians of a 'minarchist' persuasion: scholars who, following Locke and Nozick, believe a State is needed in order to achieve effective protection of property rights".  Libertarians see themselves as sharing many philosophical, political, and economic undertones with classical liberalism, such as the ideas of laissez-faire government, free markets, and individual freedom. Nevertheless, others reject this as a mere "superficial" resemblance:
Those who emphasize the distinction between classical liberalism and libertarianism point out that some of the key thinkers of classical liberalism were far from libertarian:
However, such a claim appears to be assuming "libertarianism" as a doctrine of absolute laissez-faire. While there are libertarians who oppose all government intervention, there are libertarians who do make exceptions to allow for government intervention and provision of some public goods such as roads and public utilities. Therefore the claim that libertarianism is not the same as classical liberalism because some classical liberals make exceptions to absolute laissez-faire may only hold for a particular type of libertarianism.
Further, some argue that libertarianism and liberalism are fundamentally incompatible because the checks and balances provided by liberal institutions conflict with the support for complete economic deregulation offered by most libertarians.  However, arguments over the similarities are made difficult by the large number of factions in both classical liberalism and libertarianism. For example, minarchist libertarians are not necessarily in favor of complete economic deregulation in the first place and often support tax-funded provision of a select few public goods. In Civics, minarchism, sometimes called minimal Statism, small government, or limited-government Libertarianism
Alan Ryan, a former professor of Politics at Princeton University, argues that the claim from
Having written nothing regarding these subjects, however, does not negate that there may have been support, or that prostitution and illegal narcotics were already legal (or not legally enforced). Prostitution is the act of performing Sexual activity in exchange for Money. The term narcotic (ναρκωτικός is believed to have been coined by the Greek physician Galen to refer to agents that benumb or deaden causing loss
Contemporary libertarians generally reject the Millean "harm principle" since they feel it is too ambiguous and too prone to subjective interpretation. John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential The harm principle is articulated most clearly in John Stuart Mill 's On Liberty, though it is also articulated in John Locke 's Second For example, J.S. Mill never stated or clarified what constitutes "harm" (if harm is defined as a physical or emotional injury). John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential Injury or bodily injury is Damage or Harm caused to the Structure or function of the Body caused by an outside agent or In reality, even the most mundane, commonplace and trivial of things can harm a person, in this sense. Reality, in everyday usage means "the state of things as they actually exist" The term person is used in Common sense to mean an individual Human being. As such, it would be impractical to create objective legislation outlawing literally any form of harm. Legislation (or " Statutory law " is law which has been promulgated (or " Enacted quot by a Legislature or other Governing The Millean harm principle was commonly used by classical liberals as the "barometer" or "limit" of liberty. Liberty, the freedom to act or believe without being stopped by unnecessary force Many libertarians would instead use the non-aggression principle as the "limit" to freedom, and would argue that it's far easier for objective laws to be based upon protecting rights to person and property. The non-aggression principle (also called the non-aggression axiom, anticoercion principle, or zero aggression principle) is a Deontological Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual
The Fascist leader Benito Mussolini opposed classical liberalism: "Against individualism, the Fascist conception is for the State. It is opposed to classical Liberalism, which arose from the necessity of reacting against absolutism, and which brought its historical purpose to an end when the State was transformed into the conscience and will of the people. Liberalism denied the State in the interests of the particular individual; Fascism reaffirms the State as the true reality of the individual. "
Other 20th century leaders of western nation who instituationalized centralized economies that are anathema to Classical Liberalism include: Woodrow Wilson's "War Socialism", Franklin D. Roosevelt's "New Deal", Lydon B. Johnson's "Great Society", Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin's "NEP and 5 year plans", Adolph Hitler's "National Socialism German Workers Party", Francisco Franco "Falange".