Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain laws, demands and commands of a government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical violence. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Power in international relations is defined in several different ways It is one of the primary tactics of nonviolent resistance. Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through Symbolic Protests Civil disobedience, In its most nonviolent form (known as ahimsa or satyagraha) it could be said that it is compassion in the form of respectful disagreement. Ahimsa ( Devanagari: sa अहिंसा IAST ahiṃsā is a Sanskrit term meaning Non-violence (literally the avoidance of violence - Satyagraha ( Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of Nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas Compassion is a profound human Emotion prompted by the pain of others
Civil disobedience is one of the many ways people have rebelled against unfair laws. It has been used in many well-documented nonviolent resistance movements in India (Gandhi's social welfare campaigns and campaigns for independence from the British Empire), in South Africa in the fight against apartheid, in the American Civil Rights Movement, Jehovah's Witnesses' stand against the Nazis (1929-1945), and in peace movements worldwide. Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through Symbolic Protests Civil disobedience, For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January The term " Indian independence movement " is diffuse incorporating various national and regional campaigns agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African A peace movement is a Social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or One of its earliest massive implementations was by Egyptians against the British occupation in the nonviolent 1919 Revolution. This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 was a countrywide non-violent revolution against the British occupation of Egypt.
The American author Henry David Thoreau pioneered the modern theory behind this practice in his 1849 essay Civil Disobedience, originally titled "Resistance to Civil Government". The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Civil Disobedience ( Resistance to Civil Government) is an essay by Henry David Thoreau that was first published in 1849 The driving idea behind the essay was that of self-reliance, and how one is in morally good standing as long as one can "get off another man's back"; so one doesn't have to physically fight the government, but one must not support it or have it support one (if one is against it). This essay has had a wide influence on many later practitioners of civil disobedience. In the essay, Thoreau explained his reasons for having refused to pay taxes as an act of protest against slavery and against the Mexican-American War. A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a Tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax or to some of that institution’s policies Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to events or situations sometimes in favor though more often opposed As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another
Thoreau did not coin the term "civil disobedience," nor did he ever use it. However, after his landmark 1848 lectures were published in 1849, the term "civil disobedience" began to appear in numerous sermons and lectures relating to slavery in the United States. Early examples of these include:
Thus, by the time Thoreau's lectures were first published under the title "Civil Disobedience," in 1866, four years after his death, the term had achieved fairly widespread usage.
In seeking an active form of civil disobedience, one may choose to deliberately break certain laws, such as by forming a peaceful blockade or occupying a facility illegally. Protesters practice this non-violent form of civil disorder with the expectation that they will be arrested, or even attacked or beaten by the authorities. Civil disorder, also known as civil unrest, is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe one or more forms of disturbance caused by a group of people Protesters often undergo training in advance on how to react to arrest or to attack, so that they will do so in a manner that quietly or limply resists without threatening the authorities.
For example, Mahatma Gandhi outlined the following rules:
Civil disobedience has served as a major tactic of nationalist movements in former colonies in Africa and Asia prior to their gaining independence. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising Most notably Mahatma Gandhi developed civil disobedience as an anti-colonialist tool. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January Gandhi stated "Civil disobedience is the inherent right of a citizen to be civil, implies discipline, thought, care, attention and sacrifice". Gandhi learned of civil disobedience from Thoreau's classic essay, which he incorporated into his non-violent Satyagraha philosophy. Satyagraha ( Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of Nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas Gandhi's work in South Africa and in the Indian independence movement was the first successful application of civil disobedience on a large scale. Gandhi 's work in South Africa dramatically changed him as he faced the discrimination commonly directed at blacks and Indians The term " Indian independence movement " is diffuse incorporating various national and regional campaigns agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant
This famous movement was started by Nelson Mandela. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (xolíɬaɬa mandéːla born 18 July 1918 is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative Mandela, along with Archbishop Desmond Tutu and Steve Biko advocated civil disobedience. Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Cleric and activist who rose to Worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent Stephen Bantu Biko December 1946 &ndash 12 September 1977 was a noted anti-[[apartheid] activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early The result can be seen in such notable events as the 1989 Purple Rain Protest, and the Cape Town Peace March which defied apartheid. Also Purple Rain Revolt and Purple Rain Riot On September 2 1989 four days before South Africa 's racially segregated parliament held its elections Burg Street in On 13 September, 1989, 30 000 Capetonians marched in support of peace and the end of Apartheid.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr, and young activists in the American civil rights movement of the 1960s also adopted civil disobedience techniques, and antiwar activists both during and after the Vietnam War have done likewise. Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Since the 1970s, pro-life or anti-abortion groups have practiced civil disobedience against the U. S. government over the issue of legalized abortion. An
Many who practice civil disobedience do so out of religious faith, and clergy often participate in or lead actions of civil disobedience. Faith is a Belief in the trustworthiness of an Idea. Formal usage of the word "faith" is usually reserved for concepts of Religion, as in A notable example is Philip Berrigan, a one-time Roman Catholic priest who was arrested dozens of times in acts of civil disobedience in antiwar protests. Philip Berrigan ( October 5, 1923 – December 6, 2002) was an internationally renowned American Peace activist, Also, groups like Soulforce, who favor non-discrimination and equal rights for gays and lesbians, have engaged in acts of civil disobedience to change church positions and public policy. "Operation Rescue" was an ecumenical Christian movement exercising civil disobedience to peacefully block access to abortion clinics.