|City of London|
The City • Square Mile
The City of London's skyline (July 2007)
|Motto: Domine dirige nos|
Latin: Lord, guide us
Shown within Greater London
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Status||sui generis; City and Ceremonial County|
|Roman settlement||c. 50 AD|
|Wessex resettlement||886 AD|
|- Local authority||City of London Corporation|
|- Lord Mayor||David Lewis|
|- Member of Parliament||Mark Field|
|- London Assembly||John Biggs|
|- Total||1. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. This list of sovereign states, alphabetically arranged gives an overview of States around the world with information on the extent of their Sovereignty. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Constituent country is a phrase used often by official institutions in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The region, also known as the government office region, is currently the highest tier of local government sub-national entity of England, with only one Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. Sui generis (English pronunciation ( IPA) /ˌsuːiˈdʒɛnərɪs/ roughly "SOO-ee JEN-a-ris" Latin pronunciation /ˌsuːiˈgeneris/ is a Neo-Latin The ceremonial counties are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government as the Counties for the purposes of the Lieutenancies The Guildhall is a building in the City of London, off Cheapside and Basinghall Street, in the wards of Bassishaw and Cheap. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Circa (often abbreviated c, ca, ca or cca and sometimes Italicized to show it is Latin) means "about" Year 50 was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. This article covers the history of London during the Roman period from around 47 AD when the Roman city of Londinium was founded West Saxon redirects here For other meanings of Wessex or West Saxon see Wessex (disambiguation. For the processors see 80886 - 8th generation x86 like Opteron and Core 2. This article deals with the history of London during the Anglo-Saxon period from the ending of the Roman period in the 5th century to the Local government in the United Kingdom is arranged into four different systems with one each for England Northern Ireland Scotland and Wales The City of London Corporation (formerly known as the Corporation of London)is the municipal governing body of the City of London. The Right Honourable Lord Mayor of London is the legal title for the Mayor of (and head of the City of London Corporation. David T R Lewis (born 1947) is the Lord Mayor of the City of London for 2007&ndash08 Composition Graphical representation of the House of Commons This is a comparison of the party strengths in the British House of Commons Mark Christopher Field (born October 6, 1964) is British Conservative Party Politician and Member of Parliament for the The London Assembly is an elected body part of the Greater London Authority, that scrutinises the activities of the Mayor of London and has the power with a two-thirds John Biggs is a Labour Party politician and member of the London Assembly representing City and East London. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. 0 sq mi (2. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. 6 km²)|
|Elevation||20-59 ft (6-18 m)|
|Population (2006 est)|
|- Density||7,800/sq mi (3,000/km²)|
|- Ethnicity||84. To aid in the comparison of sizes of different geographic regions areas between 1  Km² (100 Hectares and 10 km² (1000 hectares are listed below The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 4% White|
(68. 3% British
12. 8% non-British
3. 3% Irish)
6. 8% South Asian
2. British Asians are British citizens who are immigrants or descendants of immigrants from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka 6% African-Caribbean
2. The British African Caribbean community are residents of the United Kingdom who are of West Indian background and whose ancestors were indigenous to Africa 0% Chinese
|- ONS code||00AA|
|Population Ranked 353rd|
|Time zone||GMT (UTC0)|
|- Summer (DST)||BST (UTC+1)|
|EC & WC|
|Area code (phone)||020|
|Patron saint||St Paul|
The City of London is a geographically small city within Greater London, England. British Chinese, including British-born Chinese (often informally referred to as BBC) are people of Chinese ancestry who were born in or have migrated The Office for National Statistics coding system is a hierarchical code used in the United Kingdom for tabulating Census and other statistical data The figures are mid-year estimates for 2007 from the Office for National Statistics. Greenwich Mean Time ( GMT) is a term originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London Coordinated Universal Time, the basis for the world's civil time frequently referred to by the name of its predecessor Greenwich Mean Time Western Daylight saving time ( DST Western European Summer Time ( WEST) is a summer Daylight saving time scheme 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. UTC+1 is used in the following locations Central European Time West Africa Time Western European Summer Time Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. The WC (Western Central postcode area, also known as the London WC postcode area, is a group of postcode districts in central London, England. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland It is the historic core of London around which, along with Westminster, the modern conurbation grew. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Westminster is an area of Central London, within the City of Westminster. A conurbation is an Urban area or Agglomeration comprising a number of Cities, large Towns and larger urban areas that through Population The City's boundaries have remained almost constant since the Middle Ages, and hence it is now only a tiny part of the much larger London metropolis. It is often referred to as just the City or as the Square Mile, as it is almost exactly one square mile (2. 6 km²) in area.
These terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's financial services industry, which is principally based there. In Rhetoric, metonymy (mɨˈtɒnɨmi is the use of a word for a concept or object associated with the concept/object originally denoted by the word The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Financial services refer to services provided by the finance industry. It should be noted that the City is not one of the 32 London boroughs. The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs.
In the medieval period the City was the full extent of London, and distinct from the nearby, but then separate, settlement of Westminster, which became the City of Westminster. The City of Westminster ( is a borough of London with city status. The term London now refers to a much larger conurbation containing both 'cities'. The City of London is still part of London's city centre, but apart from financial services, most of London's metropolitan functions are centred on the West End. A central business district ( CBD) is the commercial and often geographic heart of a city The West End of London is an area of Central London, England, containing many of the city's major tourist attractions businesses headquarters and the commercial The City is today a major business and financial centre, ranking on a par with New York City as the leading centre of global finance. The City of New York The global financial system ( GFS) is a Financial system consisting of institutions and regulations that act on the international level as opposed to those  The City has a resident population of under 10,000, whilst the City employs 340,000 professional workers, mainly in the financial sector, who commute on a daily basis - making the area's transport system extremely busy during certain peak times.
The City is governed by the City of London Corporation, which has some unusual responsibilities for a local authority, such as being the police authority for the City. The City of London Corporation (formerly known as the Corporation of London)is the municipal governing body of the City of London. It also has responsibilities and ownerships which lie beyond the City's boundaries.
The Latin motto of the City of London is "Domine dirige nos", which translates as "Lord, guide us". Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
The City of London is England's smallest ceremonial county by both population and area covered and is the second smallest British city in both population and size, after St David's in Wales. The ceremonial counties are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government as the Counties for the purposes of the Lieutenancies St David's ( Welsh: Tyddewi) is the smallest city in the United Kingdom, with a population of under 2000 people
The size of the City was constrained by a defensive perimeter wall, known as London Wall, which was built by the Romans in the late 2nd century to protect their strategic port city. London Wall was the Defensive wall built by the Romans around Londinium, their strategically important port town on the River Thames in England The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial However, the boundaries of the City of London are no longer the old city wall as the City has expanded its jurisdiction slightly over time. During the medieval era, the City's jurisdiction expanded westwards along Fleet Street to Temple Bar and also took in the other "City bars" such as at Holborn, Aldersgate, Bishopsgate and Aldgate. Fleet Street is a street in London, England named after the River Fleet. Temple Bar is the barrier (real or imaginary marking the westernmost extent of the City of London on the road to Westminster, where Fleet Street (extending These were the important entrances to the City and their control was vital in maintaining the City's special privileges over certain trades.
The walls have disappeared, although several sections remain visible. A section near the Museum of London was revealed after the devastation of an air-raid on 29 December 1940 at the height of the Blitz. The Museum of London documents the history of London from the Prehistoric to the present day Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Blitz was the sustained bombing of Britain by Nazi Germany between 7 September 1940 and 10 May 1941 in World War II. Other visible sections are at St Alphage, and there are two sections near the Tower of London. Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower) is a historic monument in central London
The boundary of the City remained fixed until boundary changes made in 1993, in which the City expanded slightly to the west, north and east, taking small parcels of land from the London Boroughs of Westminster, Camden, Islington, Hackney and Tower Hamlets. The City of Westminster ( is a borough of London with city status. The London Borough of Camden ( is a borough of London, England, which forms part of Inner London. The London Borough of Islington ( is a London borough in North and Inner London. The London Borough of Hackney ( is a London borough in North-East London and forms part of Inner London. The London Borough of Tower Hamlets ( is a London borough to the east of the City of London, England and north of the River Thames in East The 1993 boundary changes were done primarily to tidy up the boundary in places where over the centuries the urban landscape had changed so dramatically that the old boundary was meaningless. In the process the City also lost small parcels of land, though there was an overall net gain of land to the City. Most notably the boundary changes placed the (then recently developed) Broadgate estate entirely in the City. Broadgate is a large office and retail estate in the City of London, owned by British Land and managed by Broadgate Estates 
Southwark, to the south of the City on the other side of the Thames, came within the City's extent between 1550 and 1899 (as the Ward of Bridge Without). Southwark or The Borough is an area of south-east London in the London Borough of Southwark, situated 1 The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. Today it forms part of the London Borough of Southwark. The London Borough of Southwark ( is a London borough in south east London, England. The Tower of London has always been beyond the boundary of the City and today comes under Tower Hamlets.
Beginning in the west, where the City borders Westminster, the border cuts across the Victoria Embankment from the Thames, passing to the west of Middle Temple, then going east along Strand and Fleet Street, north up Chancery Lane, where it becomes instead the border with Camden. The Victoria Embankment, is part of the Thames Embankment, a road and walkway along the north bank of the River Thames in London. The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple is one of the four Inns of Court exclusively entitled to call their members to the English Bar as Barristers The Strand is a street in the City of Westminster, London, England. Fleet Street is a street in London, England named after the River Fleet. Chancery Lane is a principal thoroughfare of the City of London. It continues north to Holborn, turns east, continues to Holborn Circus, and then goes northeast to Charterhouse Street. Holborn (ˈhoʊbɚn or /ˈhoʊbɝːn/ "ho bun" is an area of Central London, England Charterhouse Street is a street in Smithfield, on the northern boundary of the City of London. As it crosses Farringdon Road it becomes the border with Islington. Farringdon Road is a road in Clerkenwell, Central London. Its construction which took almost 20 years between the 1840s and the 1860s is considered one of the greatest It continues to Aldersgate, goes north, and turns east into some back streets soon after Aldersgate becomes Goswell Road. Aldersgate was a gate in the London Wall in the City of London, which has given its name to a ward and Aldersgate Street a road leading north from the The A1 in London is an A road in North London. It runs from the London Wall to Bignall's Corner, where it crosses the M25 and Here, at Baltic Street West, is the most northerly extent of the City. The border includes all of the Barbican Estate and ends up on Ropemaker Street which, as it continues east past Moorgate, becomes South Place. The Barbican Estate is a residential estate in the City of London, in an area densely packed with Commerce and Finance. Moorgate was a Postern in the London Wall originally built by the Romans It goes north, becomes the border with Hackney, then east, north, east on back streets, with Worship Street as the most northerly extent before the border turns south at Norton Folgate and becomes the border with Tower Hamlets. Norton Folgate is a short length of street in London, connecting Bishopsgate with Shoreditch High Street on the northern edge of its financial district It continues south into Bishopsgate, and takes some backstreets to Middlesex Street where it continues south-east then south. See Bishopsgate Insurance for the Australian insurance company bankrupted in 1982 It makes a divergence to the west at the end of Middlesex Street to allow the Tower of London to be in Tower Hamlets, and then reaches the river. Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower) is a historic monument in central London
The City's boundary runs down the centre of the Thames, though unusually the City controls the full spans of London Bridge and Blackfriars Bridge, but only half of the river underneath them. London Bridge is a Bridge between the City of London and Southwark in London, England, over the River Thames. Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge The boundaries of the City are marked by black bollards bearing the City's emblem, though at major entrances to the City (such as at Temple Bar on Fleet Street) a grander monument, with a dragon facing outwards, marks the boundary. Temple Bar is the barrier (real or imaginary marking the westernmost extent of the City of London on the road to Westminster, where Fleet Street (extending
In some places the financial district extends slightly beyond the political boundaries of the City, notably to the north and east, into the London Boroughs of Tower Hamlets, Hackney and Islington, and informally these locations are seen as part of the "Square Mile". Since the 1990s the eastern fringe of the City, extending into Hackney and Tower Hamlets, has increasingly been a focus for large office developments due to the availability of large sites there compared to within the City.
The City of London has been administered separately since 886, when Alfred the Great appointed his son-in-law Earl Æthelred of Mercia as Governor of London. London, the capital of the United Kingdom, has a recorded history that goes back over 2000 years Alfred the Great (also Ælfred from the Old English Ælfrēd ˈælfreːd (c Ealdorman Æthelred (died 911 was a ruler of Mercia (c 883 &ndash 911 Alfred made sure that there was suitable accommodation for merchants from northwest Europe, which was then extended to traders from the Baltic and Italy. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
The City developed its own code of law for the mercantile classes, developing such autonomy that Sir Laurence Gomme regarded the City as a separate Kingdom making its own laws. The City was composed of wards governed by Aldermen, who chaired the Wardmotes. An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions There was a folkmoot for the whole of the city held in the shadows of St Paul's Cathedral. In Anglo-Saxon England, a folkmoot or folkmote ( Old English - a meeting of the people was a governing general assembly consisting of all the free members St Paul's Cathedral, is the Anglican Cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. In the tenth century, Athelstan permitted eight mints to be established, compared with six in his capital, Winchester, indicating the wealth of the city. The Royal Mint is the body permitted to manufacture or mint, coins in the United Kingdom. Winchester or Winton ( archaic) is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40000 within a radius of its centre
Following the Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror marched on London, to Southwark and failed to get across London Bridge or to defeat the Londoners. The Battle of Hastings was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman Conquest of England. William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages Southwark or The Borough is an area of south-east London in the London Borough of Southwark, situated 1 He eventually crossed the River Thames at Wallingford, pillaging the land as he went. Wallingford is a small Market town and Civil parish in the upper Thames Valley in Oxfordshire, England. Rather than continuing the war Edgar Ætheling, Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria surrendered at Berkhamsted. Edgar ( the) Ætheling, also known as Edgar the Outlaw (c 1051&ndashc Edwin (died 1071 Old English: Ēadwine) was the elder brother of Morcar Earl of Northumbria, son of Ælfgār Earl of Mercia and grandson Morcar (or Morkere) (d 1087 was the son of Ælfgār (earl of Mercia) and brother of Ēadwine. Berkhamsted is a historic town of some 19000 people It is situated in the west of Hertfordshire, between the towns of Tring and Hemel Hempstead. William rewarded London in granting the citizens a charter in 1075; the City of London was one of the few institutions where the English retained some authority.
William ensured against attack by building three castles nearby, to keep the Londoners subdued:
In 1132, Henry I recognised full County status for the City, and by 1141 the whole body of the citizenry was considered to constitute a single community. Henry I (c 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror, the first King of England after the Norman A county corporate or corporate county was a form of Local government in England, Ireland and Wales. This was the origin of the City of London Corporation. The City of London Corporation (formerly known as the Corporation of London)is the municipal governing body of the City of London.
The City burned nearly to the ground twice, first in 1212 and then again (and more famously) in the Great Fire of London in 1666. This article is about the Great Fire of 1666 For other great fires in London see Early fires of London or Second Great Fire of London. Both of these fires were referred to as the Great Fire.
The City elected four members to the unreformed House of Commons, which it retained after the Reform Act 1832 and into the 20th century. The unreformed House of Commons is the name generally given to the British House of Commons as it existed before the Reform Act of 1832. The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system Today it is included wholly in the Cities of London and Westminster constituency, and statute requires that it not be divided between two neighbouring areas. Cities of London and Westminster is a Constituency covering the area comprising the City of London and southern portion of the City of Westminster in An attempt was made in 1894 to amalgamate the City and the surrounding County of London, but it did not succeed. The Royal Commission on the Amalgamation of the City and County of London was a Royal Commission which considered the means for amalgamating the ancient City of London
The City's population fell rapidly in the 19th century and through most of the 20th century as people moved outwards to London's vast suburbs and many houses were demolished to make way for modern office blocks. Metro-land (or Metroland) refers broadly speaking to the Suburban areas that were built to the north west of London in The largest residential section of the City today is the Barbican Estate, constructed between 1965 and 1976. The Barbican Estate is a residential estate in the City of London, in an area densely packed with Commerce and Finance. Here a major proportion of the City's population now live. The Museum of London is located here, as are a number of other services provided by the Corporation. The Museum of London documents the history of London from the Prehistoric to the present day
The 1970s saw the construction of tall office buildings including the 600ft, 42-storey Natwest Tower, which became the first skyscraper in the UK. Tower 42 is the tallest Skyscraper in the City of London and the fifth tallest in London as a whole A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable Building. There is no official definition or a precise cutoff height above which a building may clearly be classified as a skyscraper Office space development has intensified especially in the central, northern and eastern parts of the City, with a second (30 St Mary Axe) and most recently a third skyscraper (Broadgate Tower) being built. 30 St Mary Axe is a Skyscraper in London 's main financial district the City of London. The Broadgate Tower is a Skyscraper in London's main financial district the City of London.
The trend for purely office development is beginning to reverse as the Corporation encourages residential use, although the resident population is not expected to exceed 10,000 people. Some of the extra accommodation is in small pre-World War II commercial buildings, which are not suitable for occupation by the large companies which now provide much of the City's employment. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Since the 1990s, the City has diversified away from near exclusive office use in other ways. For example, several hotels have opened and the City's first department store. A department store is a Retail establishment which specializes in selling a wide range of products without a single predominant merchandise line. A shopping mall is being built at New Change, near St Paul's Cathedral. However, large sections of the City remain very quiet at weekends, especially those areas in the eastern section of the City, and it is quite common to find pubs and cafes closed on these days.
Large developments in the City.
Bishopsgate Tower - 63 floors, 288m
Heron Tower - 46 floors, 246m
Leadenhall Building - 48 floors, 225m
100 Bishopsgate - 165m (not to start construction until 2011)
Broadgate Tower - 35 floors, 165m
The Walkie Talkie Tower - 36 floors, 160m
|1700||208,000||(of which 139,000 within the walls) (estimates)|
|1750||144,000||(of which 87,000 within the walls) (estimates)|
|1. The Bishopsgate Tower, also known as The Pinnacle or The Helter-Skelter, is a 288-metre (945 ft 63-storey Skyscraper currently under construction in the Heron Tower, also referred to as 110 Bishopsgate, is a Skyscraper currently under construction in the centre of London's main financial district the The Broadgate Tower is a Skyscraper in London's main financial district the City of London. figure not strictly comparable with the 1971 figure|
The City of London houses the London Stock Exchange (shares and bonds), Lloyd's of London (insurance), and the Bank of England. The London Stock Exchange or LSE is a Stock exchange located in London, England. In financial markets, a share is a Unit of account for various financial instruments including Stocks Mutual funds Limited partnerships BOND (Building Object Network Databases started development in late 2000 as a Rapid application development tool for the GNOME Desktop by Treshna For the film see Lloyd's of London (film. Lloyd's of London is a British Insurance market Insurance, in Law and Economics, is a form of Risk management primarily used to hedge against the Risk of a contingent loss The Bank of England (formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England) is a state-owned institution and the Central bank of the United Kingdom The Docklands began development in the 1980s as an alternative financial centre for London and is now home to the Financial Services Authority, as well as important financial institutions such as Deutsche Bank, Barclays Bank, Bank of America, Citigroup and HSBC. Docklands can refer to Dublin Docklands, area around the city of Dublin Ireland near the docks London Docklands, area in the east The Financial Services Authority ( "FSA") is an independent non-governmental body Quasi-judicial body and a company limited by guarantee that regulates Deutsche Bank AG (literally "German Bank" ˈdɔɪtʃə,) is an international Universal bank with a broad private clients franchise headquartered in Barclays PLC is a major global financial services provider operating in Europe, North America, the Middle East, Latin America, Australia Banc of America Securities Bank of America () is the largest bank by asset and second largest commercial Bank by deposits and Market capitalization in United HSBC Holdings plc ( (,,,) is a Public limited company incorporated in England and Wales, headquartered in London. There are over 500 banks with offices in the City and Docklands, with established leads in areas such as Eurobonds, foreign exchange markets, energy futures and global insurance. A Eurobond is an international bond that is denominated in a Currency not native to the country where it is issued In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός The Alternative Investments Market has been a growth market over the past decade, allowing London to also expand as an international equity centre for smaller firms. The Alternative Investment Market (AIM is a sub-market of the London Stock Exchange, allowing smaller companies to float shares with a
Since 1991 Canary Wharf a few miles east of the City, in Tower Hamlets, has become a second centre for London's financial services industry and now houses banks and other institutions formerly located in the Square Mile. Canary Wharf is a large business and shopping development in London, located in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, centred on the old West India Docks However, fears that the City would be damaged by this development appear to have been unfounded with growth occurring in both locations. Indeed Canary Wharf may have been of great service to the Square Mile by providing large floorplate office buildings at a time when this was difficult within the City boundary, and therefore preventing companies such as HSBC from relocating abroad. HSBC Holdings plc ( (,,,) is a Public limited company incorporated in England and Wales, headquartered in London.
The City of London has a unique political status (sui generis), a legacy of its uninterrupted integrity as a corporate city since the Anglo Saxon period and its singular relationship with the Crown. A mebibyte (a contraction of me ga bi nary byte) is a unit of Information or Computer storage, abbreviated MiB. The City of London Corporation (formerly known as the Corporation of London)is the municipal governing body of the City of London. The Guildhall is a building in the City of London, off Cheapside and Basinghall Street, in the wards of Bassishaw and Cheap. Mansion House is the Official residence of the Lord Mayor of the City of London in London, England. The City of London Corporation (formerly known as the Corporation of London)is the municipal governing body of the City of London. Sui generis (English pronunciation ( IPA) /ˌsuːiˈdʒɛnərɪs/ roughly "SOO-ee JEN-a-ris" Latin pronunciation /ˌsuːiˈgeneris/ is a Neo-Latin Heptarchy ( Greek: seven + realm) is a collective name applied to the Anglo-Saxon ancient kingdoms of south east and central TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy Historically its system of government was not unusual, but it was not reformed by the Municipal Reform Act 1835 and little changed by later reforms. The Municipal Corporations Act 1835 (5 & 6 Wm IV c76 - sometimes known as the Municipal Reform Act - required members of town councils ( Municipal corporations
It is administered by the City of London Corporation, headed by the Lord Mayor of London (not the same post as the more recently created position of London Mayor). The City of London Corporation (formerly known as the Corporation of London)is the municipal governing body of the City of London. The Right Honourable Lord Mayor of London is the legal title for the Mayor of (and head of the City of London Corporation. The Mayor of London is an elected politician who along with the London Assembly of 25 members is accountable for the strategic government of Greater London (see The City is a ceremonial county too, although instead of having its own Lord-Lieutenant, the City of London has a Commission, headed by the Lord Mayor, exercising this function. The ceremonial counties are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government as the Counties for the purposes of the Lieutenancies The title Lord Lieutenant is given to the British Monarch 's personal representatives in the United Kingdom, usually in a county or similar circumscription with varying
The City itself contains two independent enclaves — Inner Temple and Middle Temple. The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple is one of the four Inns of Court around the Royal Courts of Justice in London which may call members to The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple is one of the four Inns of Court exclusively entitled to call their members to the English Bar as Barristers These form part of the City and ceremonial county, but are not governed by the City of London Corporation. The City of London Corporation (formerly known as the Corporation of London)is the municipal governing body of the City of London. The Corporation governs the rest of the City and is responsible for a number of functions and owns a number of locations beyond the City's boundaries.
The City is made up of 25 Wards which have recently had their boundaries changed (though the number of wards and their names was not changed).
The City has a unique electoral system, which follows very few of the usual forms and standards of democracy. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Most of its voters are representatives of businesses and other bodies which occupy premises in the City. Its ancient wards also have very unequal numbers of voters.
The principal justification put forward for the non-resident vote is that about 450,000 non-residents constitute the city's day-time population and use most of its services, far outnumbering the City's residents, who are fewer than 10,000. Nevertheless, the system has long been the cause of controversy. The business vote was abolished in all other UK local authority elections in 1969 and was retained only in the City of London. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
A private act of Parliament in 2002 reformed the voting system for electing Members to the Corporation of London and received the Royal Assent on 7 November 2002. The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of Lawmaking by formally assenting to an Events 1492 - The Ensisheim Meteorite the oldest Meteorite with a known date of impact strikes the Earth around noon in a Wheat See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Under the new system, the number of non-resident voters has doubled from 16,000 to 32,000. Previously disfranchised firms (and other organizations) are entitled to nominate voters, in addition to those already represented, and all such bodies are now required to choose their voters in a representative fashion.
Bodies employing fewer than ten people may appoint one voter, those employing ten to fifty people may appoint one voter for every five employees; those employing more than fifty people may appoint ten voters and one additional voter for each fifty employees beyond the first fifty.
The Act also removed other anomalies which had developed over time within the City's system, which had been unchanged since the 1850s.
The present system is widely seen as undemocratic, but adopting a more conventional system would place the 7,800 actual residents of the City of London in control of the local planning and other functions of a major financial capital which provides most of its services to hundreds of thousands of non-residents.
Proposals to annex the City of London to one of the neighbouring London boroughs, possibly the City of Westminster, have not widely been taken seriously. The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. The City of Westminster ( is a borough of London with city status. However, one proposal floated as a possible further reform is to allow those who work in the City to each have a direct individual vote, rather than businesses being represented by appointed voters.
In May 2006, the Lord Chancellor stated to Parliament that the government was minded to examine the issue of City of London elections at a later date, probably after 2009, in order to assess how the new system has bedded down. The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor is a senior and important functionary in the Government of the United Kingdom. 
The Corporation owns and is responsible for a number of locations beyond the boundaries of the City. These include various open spaces (parks, forests and commons) in and around London, including most of Epping Forest and Hampstead Heath. The City of London Corporation owns and maintains open space in and around Greater London. Epping Forest is an area of ancient Woodland in south-east England, straddling the border between north-east Greater London and Essex. Hampstead Heath (locally known as "the Heath" is London 's largest ancient parkland covering 3 Within the City, the Corporation owns and runs the Smithfield Market, but it also owns Old Spitalfields Market and Billingsgate Fish Market, both of which are within the neighbouring London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Smithfield (also known as West Smithfield) is an area in the north-west part of the City of London, mostly known for its centuries-old meat market and its bloody history Old Spitalfields Market is a covered market in Spitalfields, just outside the City of London. Situated now in East London, Billingsgate Fish Market is the United Kingdom 's largest inland Fish Market. The London Borough of Tower Hamlets ( is a London borough to the east of the City of London, England and north of the River Thames in East The Corporation also owns and helps fund the Old Bailey criminal court, despite its use as a central criminal court for England and Wales. The Central Criminal Court in England, commonly known as the Old Bailey, is a court History The Roman occupation of Britain was the first period in which the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit (with the exception
The City has its own independent police force, the City of London Police. The City of London Police is the Home Office Police force responsible for the City of London in England, including the Middle The Corporation is the police authority. The rest of Greater London is policed by the Metropolitan Police Service, based at New Scotland Yard. "Metropolitan Police" redirects here See also Metropolitan police. New Scotland Yard or Scotland Yard, informally known as The Yard and NSY, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible
The City of London houses one hospital - St Bartholomew's Hospital. St Bartholomew's Hospital, also known as Barts, is a hospital in Smithfield in the City of London, England. Founded in 1123 and fondly known as 'Barts', the hospital is situated at Smithfield, and is about to undergo a much publicised, controversial but long awaited regeneration. Smithfield (also known as West Smithfield) is an area in the north-west part of the City of London, mostly known for its centuries-old meat market and its bloody history
The City is a major patron of the arts. It oversees the Barbican Centre and subsidises several important performing arts companies. Barbican Centre is the largest Performing arts centre in Europe
The Port of London's health authority is also the responsibility of the Corporation, which includes the handling of imported cargo at London Heathrow airport. The Port of London lies along the banks of the River Thames from London, England to the North Sea.  The Corporation oversees the running of the Bridge House Trust, which maintains five key bridges in central London, including London Bridge and Tower Bridge. The City Bridge Trust, is the working name of the grant-making arm of Bridge House Estates and was set up in 1995 London Bridge is a Bridge between the City of London and Southwark in London, England, over the River Thames. Tower Bridge is a combined bascule and Suspension bridge in London, England over the River Thames. The City's flag can be seen flying over Tower Bridge. .
The City of London has only one directly maintained primary school, sited at Aldgate. Aldgate was the easternmost gateway through London Wall leading from the City of London to Whitechapel and the East End. The school is called the Sir John Cass's Foundation Primary School  (ages 4 to 11). It is a voluntary-aided Church of England school, maintained by the Education Service of the City of London. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican
City of London residents may send their children to schools in neighbouring Local Education Authorities (LEAs).
For secondary schools children enrol in schools in neighbouring LEAs, such as Islington, Tower Hamlets, Westminster and Southwark. Islington is the central district of the London Borough of Islington. The London Borough of Tower Hamlets ( is a London borough to the east of the City of London, England and north of the River Thames in East Westminster is an area of Central London, within the City of Westminster. Southwark or The Borough is an area of south-east London in the London Borough of Southwark, situated 1 Children who have permanent residence in the City are eligible for transfer to the City of London Academy, an independent secondary school sponsored by the City of London that is located in Southwark. The City of London Academy is the name given to three City academies established in inner London with the support of the Corporation of London.
The City of London controls three other independent schools. An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local Government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges gifts and Two are located in the City, City of London School (all male) and City of London School for Girls (all female); the third, City of London Freemen's School (co-educational), is located in Ashtead, Surrey. The City of London School ( CLS) is a boys' Independent school on the banks of the River Thames in the City of London. City of London School for Girls (CLSG is a girls' Independent school located in the Barbican Estate complex in the City of London, United Kingdom City of London Freemen's School, commonly known as CLFS and locally known as Freemen's is a Public school, Day and Boarding located at Ashtead is a large Village situated within the Green Belt of Surrey, England, and is part of the Suburbia of London Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. The City of London School for Girls has its own preparatory department for entrance at age seven.
The City is also home to Guildhall School of Music and Drama and parts of three of the universities in London: The Maughan Library, which serves King's College London's Strand Campus, the Cass Business School and the business school of London Metropolitan University. Guildhall School of Music and Drama is an independent music and dramatic arts school which was founded in 1880 in London, England. London has one of the largest concentrations of Universities in the world The Maughan Library and Information Services Centre (more commonly known as The Maughan Library) is a 19th Century Gothic building located on Chancery Lane King's College London is a British Higher education institution and co-founding constituent college of the federal University of London. The Cass Business School of London (officially the Sir John Cass Business School City of London) is a leading Business school located in the City of London The London Metropolitan University, sometimes referred to as London Met or LMU, located in London, England, was formed on 1 August A third business school in the city is a campus of the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. The University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, also known as Chicago GSB, is one of the leading business schools in the world the second oldest in the The London School of Economics is just located outside the City, in Westminister adjacent to Temple Bar. The London School of Economics and Political Science, more commonly referred to as The London School of Economics or LSE, is a specialist college of the
Gardens are maintained by the Corporation within the City of London. These range through formal gardens such as the one found in Finsbury Circus (it contains a bowling green and bandstand) to churchyards such as one belonging to the church of St Olave Hart Street which may be entered from Seething Lane. Finsbury Circus is the oldest and largest public park and an elliptical square in the City of London, England. St Olave Hart Street is an Anglican church in the City of London, located on Hart Street near Fenchurch Street railway station. 
Gardens etc. include
The City's position as the United Kingdom's financial centre and a critical part of the country's economy, contributing about 2. Queen Victoria Street may refer to one of the following Queen Victoria Street Fremantle Queen Victoria Street Hong Kong Finsbury Circus is the oldest and largest public park and an elliptical square in the City of London, England. Moorgate was a Postern in the London Wall originally built by the Romans Houndsditch is a street in the City of London that connects Bishopsgate in the north west to Aldgate in the south east Postman's Park is a small green memorial garden in the City of London. Aldersgate was a gate in the London Wall in the City of London, which has given its name to a ward and Aldersgate Street a road leading north from the King Edward Street is a street running between the High Street to the north and Oriel Square to the south in central Oxford, England. St Dunstan-in-the-East was an Anglican church located on St Dunstan's Hill half way between London Bridge and the Tower of London in the City St Mary Aldermanbury church in the City of London, is first mentioned in 1181 but was destroyed by the Great fire of London in 1666 St Olave Hart Street is an Anglican church in the City of London, located on Hart Street near Fenchurch Street railway station. St Paul's Cathedral, is the Anglican Cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. Smithfield (also known as West Smithfield) is an area in the north-west part of the City of London, mostly known for its centuries-old meat market and its bloody history 5% of the UK's gross national product, has resulted in it becoming a target for political violence. The Provisional IRA exploded several bombs in the City in the early 1990s, including the 1993 Bishopsgate bombing. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Óglaigh na hÉireann ( IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the A bomb is any of a range of devices that typically rely on the Exothermic Chemical reaction of an Explosive material to produce an extremely The Bishopsgate bombing occurred on 24 April 1993 when the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA detonated a Truck bomb in London's financial district
The area is also spoken of as a possible target for al-Qaeda. Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The For instance, when in May 2004 the BBC's Panorama programme examined the preparedness of Britain's emergency services for a terrorist attack on the scale of September 11, 2001 attacks, they simulated a chemical explosion on Bishopsgate in the east of the City. Panorama is the longest-running current affairs documentary series in the world See Bishopsgate Insurance for the Australian insurance company bankrupted in 1982
See also City of London's "Ring of Steel" for measures that have been taken against these threats. For the Surveillance system surrounding the City of London, see City of London's "ring of steel" Ring of Steel
The City has many risks, including: St. Paul’s Cathedral, The Old Bailey, Mansion House, Smithfields Market, the Bank of England, the Guildhall, Tower 42 (formerly known as the NatWest Tower) and the Swiss Re Tower. There is just one fire station within the City, at Dowgate - with just one pumping appliance.  The City relies upon neighbouring stations, in the surrounding London boroughs, to support it at some incidents. Within the City, on average, the first fire engine is in attendance in roughly five minutes - and when required, the second will be there in little over five and a half minutes.  1,814 incidents were attended in the City in 2006/2007 - the lowest in Greater London, amongst the thirty two London boroughs. No one has died in an event arising from a fire in the City in the last four years. 
This is a list of the highest towers in the City of London
|1||Tower 42||1980||Office||183||600||42||City of London|
|2||30 St Mary Axe||2003||Office||180||590||40||City of London|
|3||Broadgate Tower||2008||Office||164||538||35||City of London|
|4||CityPoint||1967||Office||127||417||36||City of London|
|5||Willis Building||2007||Office||125||410||26||City of London|
|6||Aviva Tower||1969||Office||118||387||28||City of London|
|7||99 Bishopsgate||1976||Office||104||340||26||City of London|
|8||Stock Exchange Tower||1970||Office||103||339||27||City of London|
This is a list of buildings over 150 metres that are either under construction or are proposed in the City of London. Tower 42 is the tallest Skyscraper in the City of London and the fifth tallest in London as a whole 30 St Mary Axe is a Skyscraper in London 's main financial district the City of London. Tower 42 is the tallest Skyscraper in the City of London and the fifth tallest in London as a whole 30 St Mary Axe is a Skyscraper in London 's main financial district the City of London. The Broadgate Tower is a Skyscraper in London's main financial district the City of London. CityPoint (previously known as Britannic House) is a Skyscraper on Ropemaker Street on the northern fringe of the City of London. The Willis Building at 51 Lime Street, is a large office tower in London 's main financial district the City of London. 99 Bishopsgate is a Skyscraper in the City of London. It is tall and has 25 office floors with a total net letable floor space of circa. The Stock Exchange Tower is a high-rise building located in the City of London at 125 Old Broad Street.
|The Pinnacle ("Helter Skelter")||288||945||60||City of London||Site Clearing Demolition|
|Heron Tower||246||794||47||City of London||Under Construction|
|The Leadenhall Building ("Cheesegrater")||225||737||48||City of London||Under Construction|
|100 Bishopsgate||165||542||39||City of London||Approved|
|Broadgate Tower||164||539||35||City of London||Under Construction / Topped Out|
|20 Fenchurch Street ("Walkie Talkie")||160||525||39||City of London||Site Clearing Demolition|