|Parent company||PSA Group (from 1976)|
|Body style(s)||4-door sedan|
|Engine(s)||375 cc Flat-2|
425 cc Flat-2
435 cc Flat-2
602 cc Flat-2
|Length||3. The automotive industry is the industry involved in the design development manufacture marketing and sale of Motor vehicles In 2007 more than 73 million motor vehicles Citroën (pronounced See-Troh-Enn is a French Automobile manufacturer, founded in 1919 by André Citroën. PSA Peugeot Citroën (previously Peugeot Société Anonyme) is a French Automobile and Motorcycle manufacturer; these Car classification is subjective since many vehicles fall into multiple categories or do not fit well into any An economy car is an Automobile that is designed for Low cost operation Cars can come in a large variety of different body styles. Some are still in production while others are of historical interest only In Automotive design layout specifies where on the car the Engine and Drive wheels are found In Automotive design, a FF, or Front-engine, Front-wheel drive layout places both the engine and driven wheels at the front of A flat-twin is a two cylinder Internal combustion engine with the cylinders arranged on opposite sides of the crankshaft A flat-twin is a two cylinder Internal combustion engine with the cylinders arranged on opposite sides of the crankshaft A flat-twin is a two cylinder Internal combustion engine with the cylinders arranged on opposite sides of the crankshaft A flat-twin is a two cylinder Internal combustion engine with the cylinders arranged on opposite sides of the crankshaft 83 metres (150. 8 in)|
|Width||1. 48 metres (58. 3 in)|
|Height||1. 60 metres (63. 0 in)|
|Curb weight||560 kg (1235 lb)|
The Citroën 2CV (French: deux chevaux vapeur, literally "two steam horses", from the tax horsepower rating) was an economy car produced by the French automaker Citroën from 1949 to 1990. Curb weight is the total Weight of a Vehicle with standard equipment all necessary operating Consumables (e The Citroën Dyane is a supermini produced by the French automaker Citroën from 1967 to 1983 The Citroën FAF was a small open-top Automobile produced by the French manufacturer Citroën between 1973 until 1979 built and sold in various The Citroën Méhari is an Off-roader produced by the French automaker Citroën. The Citroën Ami (French for "friend" is a supermini produced by the French automaker Citroën from 1961 to 1978 Flaminio Bertoni ( Masnago, Italy, January 10 1903 - Paris, France, February 7 1964) was an Automobile French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. The tax horsepower or taxable horsepower was an early system by which taxation rates for Automobiles were reckoned in some European countries like Britain, Belgium An economy car is an Automobile that is designed for Low cost operation This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Citroën (pronounced See-Troh-Enn is a French Automobile manufacturer, founded in 1919 by André Citroën.  It is considered one of their most iconic cars. A cultural icon can be an Image, a Symbol, a Logo, Picture, Name, Face, Person, or Building It was described in the book Drive On!: A Social History of the Motor Car by longtime CAR magazine columnist the late LJK Setright as 'The most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car. Leonard John Kensell Setright ( 10 August[[ 931]] &ndash 7 September 2005) was an English motoring journalist and Author ' It was designed for low cost, simplicity, versatility, reliability, and off-road driving. Off Roading is a term for driving a specialized vehicle on unpaved roads such as Sand, Gravel, riverbeds Mud, Snow, Rocks, For this it had a light, easily serviceable engine, extremely soft suspension, high clearance, and for oversized loads a car-wide canvas sunroof. An automotive sunroof is a fixed hinged or sliding opening in an Automobile Roof which allows light and/or fresh air to enter the passenger compartment Between 1948 and 1990 3,872,583 2CVs were produced, plus 1,246,306 camionettes (small 2CV trucks), as well as spawning mechanically identical vehicles like the Ami, Dyane, Acadiane, and Mehari. The Citroën Ami (French for "friend" is a supermini produced by the French automaker Citroën from 1961 to 1978 The Citroën Dyane is a supermini produced by the French automaker Citroën from 1967 to 1983 The Citroën Acadiane is a small commercial vehicle derived from the Dyane, produced from 1978 to 1987 The Citroën Méhari is an Off-roader produced by the French automaker Citroën.
From 1988 onwards production took place in Portugal rather than in France. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. This arrangement lasted for two years until 2CV production halted.
The 2CV belongs to a very short list of vehicles introduced right after World War II that remained relevant and competitive for many decades — in the case of the 2CV, 42 years. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Pierre-Jules Boulanger's early 1930s design brief – said by some to be astonishingly radical for the time – was for a low-priced, rugged "umbrella on four wheels" that would enable two peasants to drive 100 kg (220 lb) of farm goods to market at 60 km/h (37 mph), in clogs and across muddy unpaved roads if necessary. A peasant is an agricultural worker who subsists by working a small plot of ground France at that time had a very large rural population, who had not yet adopted the automobile, due to its cost. The car would use no more than 3 litres of gasoline to travel 100 km. The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume. Most famously, it would be able to drive across a ploughed field without breaking the eggs it was carrying. Boulanger later also had the roof raised to allow him to drive while wearing a hat.
André Lefèbvre was the engineer in charge of the TPV (Très Petite Voiture — "Very Small Car") project. André Lefèbvre ( August 19, 1894 –1963 was a French Automobile Engineer. By 1939, the TPV was deemed ready and several prototypes had been built. A prototype is an original type form or instance of something serving as a typical example basis or standard for other things of the same category Those prototypes made use of aluminium and magnesium parts and had water-cooled engines. WikipediaNaming Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 The seats were hammocks suspended from the roof by wires. The hammock is a fabric sling used for Sleeping or resting while suspended above ground
During the German occupation of France during World War II, Michelin (Citroën's main shareholder) and Citroën managers decided to hide the TPV project from the Nazis, fearing some military application. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Michelin (full name SCA Compagnie Générale des Établissements Michelin) ( based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne Région Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Several TPVs were buried at secret locations, one was disguised as a pickup, and the others were destroyed, and Boulanger had the next six years to think about more improvements. Until 1994, when three TPVs were discovered in a barn, it was believed that only two prototypes had survived. As of 2003, five TPVs are known. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. For long it was believed that the project was so well hidden that all the prototypes had been lost at the end of the war. It seems that none of the hidden TPVs were lost after the War, but in the 1950s an internal memo ordered them to be scrapped. The surviving TPVs were, in fact, hidden from the top management by some workers who were sensitive to their historical value.
After the war, internal reports at Citroën showed that producing the TPV would not be economically viable, given the rising cost of aluminium in the post-war economy. A decision was made to replace most of the aluminium parts with steel parts. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Other changes were made, the most notable being an air-cooled engine, new seats and a restyling of the body by the Italian Flaminio Bertoni. Flaminio Bertoni ( Masnago, Italy, January 10 1903 - Paris, France, February 7 1964) was an Automobile It took three years for Citroën to rework the TPV and the car was nicknamed "Toujours Pas Vue" (Still Not Seen) by the press.
Citroën finally unveiled the car at the Paris Salon in 1948. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The car on display was nearly identical to the 2CV type A that would be sold next year, but lacked an electric starter, the addition of which was decided the day before the opening of the Salon. The car was heavily criticised. In spite of that, it sold well and it had a great impact on the low-income segment of the population in France.
It was laughed at by journalists, probably because Citroën had launched the car without any press advertising. A journalist (also called a newspaperman) is a person who practices Journalism, the gathering and dissemination of information about current events trends Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand The car was qualified as a "Spartan car" or a "sardine can" by many. Other journalists called it "an umbrella on wheels". Boris Vian described the car tongue-in-cheek as an "aberration roulante" (rolling aberration) charging the slowness of this low-class car for causing Paris' traffic jams. Boris Vian ( March 10, 1920 &ndash June 23, 1959) was a French Polymath: Writer, Poet, Tongue-in-cheek is a term used to refer to humor in which a statement or an entire fictional work is not meant to be taken seriously but its lack of seriousness is subtle Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures. History has confirmed that the car was charming in a lot of people's views, and a revolution in consumer transportation, at least on the French market.
The 2CV was a great commercial success: within months of it going on sale, there was a three-year waiting list. The waiting list was soon increased to five years. At that time a second-hand 2CV was more expensive than a new one because the buyer did not have to wait. Production was increased from four units per day in 1949 to 400 units per day in 1950. A special version of the 2CV was the Sahara for very difficult off-road driving, built from December 1960 to 1971. This had an extra engine mounted in the rear compartment and both front and rear wheel traction. Only 694 Saharas were built. The target market for this car was French oil companies, the military and the police.
In 1960, the 2CV was updated, and looked similar until the end of production. In particular the corrugated Citroën H Van style 'ripple bonnet' of convex swages was replaced with one using larger and fewer concave swages. The Citroën H Van, Type H, H-Type or HY was a light truck (or delivery van produced by the French car maker Citroën between 1947 The 1960s were the heyday of the 2CV, when production finally caught up with demand.
In 1967 Citroën built a new car based on the 2CV, the Citroën Dyane, in response to the direct competition by the Renault 4. The Citroën Dyane is a supermini produced by the French automaker Citroën from 1967 to 1983 The Renault 4, also known as the 4L (pronounced "Quatrelle" which could be heard as "4 wings" in French is a Hatchback Economy car At the same time, Citroën developed the Méhari off-roader. The Citroën Méhari is an Off-roader produced by the French automaker Citroën. An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of Vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or Gravel surface
The purchase price of the 2CV was always very low. In Germany in the 1960s for example, it cost about half as much as a Volkswagen Beetle. The Volkswagen Beetle, officially known as the type 1 and originally called ‘Käfer’ is an Economy car produced by the German auto maker Volkswagen
In 1970 the engine size was increased to 602cc and the car gained rear light units from the Citroën Ami 6. The Citroën Ami (French for "friend" is a supermini produced by the French automaker Citroën from 1961 to 1978 All 2CVs from this date can run on unleaded fuel.
The highest annual production was in 1974. Sales of the 2CV were reinvigorated by the 1974 oil crisis. The 2CV after this time became more of a youth lifestyle statement than a basic functional form of transport. This renewed popularity was encouraged by the Citroen 'Raid' intercontinental endurance rallies of the 1970s where customers could participate by buying a new 2CV, fitted with a ruggedising kit to cope with thousands of miles of very poor or off-road routes. The Paris to Persepolis rallye was the most famous. Persepolis ( Old Persian: Pārsa, Modern Persian: تخت جمشید/پارسه Takht-e Jamshid or Chehel Minar) was the ceremonial The Citroen '2CV Cross' circuit / off-road races were very popular in Europe.
In 1981, a bright yellow 2CV was driven by James Bond in the film For Your Eyes Only, including an elaborate set piece car chase through a Spanish olive farm. James Bond 007 is a Fictional character created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve Novels and two Short story For Your Eyes Only ( 1981) is the 12th Spy film in the James Bond series, and the fifth to star Roger Moore as MI6 The Olive ( Olea europaea) is a Species of small Tree in the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern Bond used the unique abilities of the modestly powered 2CV to escape his pursuers in Peugeot 504 sedans. The Peugeot 504 is a Large family car produced by French automaker Peugeot between 1968 and 1983 in Europe. The car in the film was fitted with the flat-4 engine from a Citroën GS for slightly more power. A flat-4 or horizontally-opposed-4 is a Flat engine with four Cylinders arranged horizontally in two banks of two cylinders on each side of a central The Citroën GS (1970–79 and Citroën GSA (1980–86 were Small family cars produced by the French automaker Citroën. One of the many limited production series of 2CV in the 1980s was a series of "2CV James Bond" vehicles fitted with the standard flat-2 engine, painted in yellow with '007' on the front doors and fake bullet holes. In Adrian Lyne's film Indecent Proposal of 1993, Demi Moore drives a 2CV. Adrian Lyne (born 4 March, 1941 in Peterborough, Cambridgeshire, England) is an English Filmmaker and producer Demi Moore (born Demetria Gene Guynes on November 11 1962 is an American Actress. This car was also popular in miniature, from Corgi Toys. Corgi Toys ( Trademark) is the name of a line of Die-cast toy vehicles manufactured by Mettoy Playcraft Ltd CV. The special edition models that started with the 1976 SPOT model, continued in the 1980s with the (007, Beachcomber, Bamboo), some of which became full models - (the Dolly and the Art-Deco style Charleston) all made a virtue of the individual anachronistic styling. The changes between the special editions and the basic 'Spécial' model was only a different speedometer, paint, seat fabric, internal door handles, and interior light. Many of the 'special edition' interior trim items were carryovers from the 1970s 'Club' models. This probably gained former VW customers as the only other 'retro alternative' style of vehicle, the Volkswagen Beetle was withdrawn from the European market in 1978. The Volkswagen Beetle, officially known as the type 1 and originally called ‘Käfer’ is an Economy car produced by the German auto maker Volkswagen
The 2CV was mainly sold in France and some European markets. In the post war years, Citroën was very focused on the home market, which had some unusual quirks, like puissance fiscale. The tax horsepower or taxable horsepower was an early system by which taxation rates for Automobiles were reckoned in some European countries like Britain, Belgium The management of Michelin was supportive of Citroën up to a point, and the Citroën cars with a suspension designed to use Michelin's new radial tyres clearly demonstrated their superiority over their competitors' tyres. Michelin (full name SCA Compagnie Générale des Établissements Michelin) ( based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne Région A radial tire (more properly a radial-ply tire) is a particular design of automotive Tire (in British English, tyre) But they were not prepared to initiate the investment needed for the 2CV (or the Citroën DS for that matter) to truly compete on the global stage. Investment or investing is a term with several closely-related meanings in Business management, Finance and Economics, related to saving The Citroën DS (also known as Déesse, or Goddess, after the punning initials in French is an Executive car that was produced by Citroën were always undercapitalised until the Peugeot takeover. Consequently, the 2CV suffered a similar fate to the Morris Minor and Mini, selling fewer than 10 million units, whereas the Volkswagen Beetle, which was sold worldwide, sold 21 million units. The revolutionary Morris Minor was launched at the Earls Court Motor Show on 20 September, 1948. The Mini is a small car that was produced by the British Motor Corporation (BMC and its successors from 1959 until 2000 The Volkswagen Beetle, officially known as the type 1 and originally called ‘Käfer’ is an Economy car produced by the German auto maker Volkswagen
Some of the early models were built at Citroën's plant in Slough, England in the 1950s, but the 2CV sold poorly in Great Britain in part due to its excessive cost because of import duties on components. Slough ( ˈslaʊ is a Borough and Unitary authority within the ceremonial county of Berkshire, England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Sales of Slough-produced 2CVs ended in 1960. In 1959 trying to boost sales, Citroën introduced a glass-fibre coupé version called the Bijou that was briefly produced at Slough. Styling of this little car was by Peter Kirwan-Taylor who was better known for his work with Colin Chapman of Lotus cars, but it proved to be too heavy for the diminutive engine to endow it with adequate performance. Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman ( 19 May 1928 - 16 December 1982) was an influential British designer inventor and builder in the automotive Lotus Cars is a British manufacturer of sports and racing cars based at Hethel, Norfolk, England. It served to use up remaining 2CV parts at Slough in the early 1960s. In 1975 the 2CV was re-introduced to the British market (produced in France), in the wake of the oil crisis. This was without the crippling import duties of the 1950s, because the UK had joined the EEC. In the 1980s the best foreign markets for the 2CV were the UK and Germany.
A rare Jeep-esque derivative, called the Yagán, after an Aborigine tribe, was made in Chile between 1972 and 1973. Jeep is an Automobile Marque (and registered trademark of Chrysler. The Citroën FAF was a small open-top Automobile produced by the French manufacturer Citroën between 1973 until 1979 built and sold in various The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical After the Chilean coup of 1973, there were 200 Yagáns left that were used by the Army to patrol the streets and the Peruvian border, with 106 mm cannons. The Chilean coup d'état of 1973 is a landmark in the History of Chile and the Russo-American Cold War.
A similar car was sold in some west African countries as the Citroën "Baby-brousse".
In Iran, the Citroën 2CV was called the Jian. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics.  The cars were originally manufactured in Iran in a joint venture between Citroën and Iran National up until the 1979 Revolution, when Iran National was nationalised, which continued producing the Jian without the involvement of Citroën. IKCO or Iran Khodro Company (or Iran Khodro Industrial Group) is the largest autoproducer of Iran The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed 
Only a few thousand 2CVs were sold in North America when they were new: as in England their pricing was excessive relative to competitors. Unlike larger Citroëns, there are no legal issues with owning a 2CV however - the car is effectively a restored pre-1968 vehicle. It was one of these vehicles that became the focus of a recent news story, when musician Billy Joel had an accident in his 2CV in 2004, on Long Island, New York . William Martin Joel (born May 9 1949 is an American Pianist and Singer-songwriter. Long Island is an island located in southeastern New York, USA, its western shores directly across from Manhattan, from which the island stretches New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Joel gave another 2CV to his bride Christie Brinkley as a present. Christie Brinkley (born February 2, 1954) is a former American fashion model, and ex-wife of musician Billy Joel.
The 2CV was built in Chile and Argentina to address this issue for South America. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The Chilean version mounted a 602 cc. engine with an output of 33 HP, and was nominated AX-330 being built between 1970 and 1978, period where it saw some changes like different bumpers, hard roof instead soft one and late units were fitted with fronts disc brakes and square headlights. A derivation called the "3CV" was built in Argentina with various modifications such as a hatchback.  It's worthwhile to note that "For your eyes only" James Bond 1981 movie, rocketed sales of this city car in Chile where it was specially imported from Spain to meet demand (mostly yellows), since it was already phased out in the Chilean assembly line.
The level of technology in the 1948 2CV was remarkable for a car of any price in that era, let alone one of the cheapest cars on the planet. While colours and detail specifications were modified in the ensuing 42 years, the biggest mechanical change was the addition of front disc brakes in 1981 (from the discontinued Citroën Dyane), for the 1982 model year. The disc brake or disk brake is a device for slowing or stopping the rotation of a Wheel. The Citroën Dyane is a supermini produced by the French automaker Citroën from 1967 to 1983
The 1948 2CV featured:
The body was constructed of a dual H-frame chassis, an aircraft-style tube framework, and a very thin steel shell. A chassis (plural "chassis" (ˈʃæːsiː ˈtʃæːsiː consists of a framework that supports an inanimate object analogous to an Animal 's Overview Fixed-wing aircraft range from small training and recreational aircraft to Wide-body aircraft and military cargo aircraft.
The suspension of the 2CV was almost comically soft — a person could easily rock the car side to side dramatically (back and forth was quite a bit more resistant). The leading arm / trailing arm swinging arm, fore-aft linked suspension system together with inboard front brakes had a much smaller unsprung weight than existing coil spring or leaf designs. A trailing-arm suspension is an Automobile suspension design in which one or more arms (or "links" are connected between (and perpendicular to and forward Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, Shock absorbers and linkages that connects a Vehicle to its Wheels Suspension In a ground Vehicle with a suspension, the unsprung weight (or more properly the unsprung mass) is the mass of the suspension Wheels The interconnection transmitted some of the force deflecting a front wheel up over a bump, to push the rear wheel down on the same side. When the rear wheel met that bump a moment later, it did the same in reverse, keeping the car level front to rear. This made the suspension more responsive, enabling the 2CV to indeed be driven at speed over a ploughed field. Since the rear brakes were outboard, extra tuned mass dampers and later shock absorbers were fitted to the rear wheels to dampen wheel bounce. A tuned mass damper, also known as an active mass damper ( AMD) or harmonic absorber, is a device mounted in structures to prevent discomfort damage or A shock absorber in common parlance (or damper in technical use is a mechanical device designed to smooth out or dampen shock impulse and dissipate Later models had tuned mass dampers at the front with telescopic dampers / shock absorbers front and rear. A tuned mass damper, also known as an active mass damper ( AMD) or harmonic absorber, is a device mounted in structures to prevent discomfort damage or A shock absorber in common parlance (or damper in technical use is a mechanical device designed to smooth out or dampen shock impulse and dissipate
Front-wheel drive made the car easy and safe to drive and Citroën had developed some experience with it due to the pioneering Traction Avant. Front-wheel drive (or FF layout) is a form of engine / transmission layout used in Motor vehicles where the engine drives the front Wheels The Citroën Traction Avant was an Automobile produced by the French manufacturer Citroën.
It was powered by a flat-twin air-cooled engine designed by Walter Becchia, with a nod to the classic "boxer" BMW motorcycle engine (it is reported that Becchia dismantled the engine of the BMW motorcycle of Flaminio Bertoni before designing the 2CV engine). A flat-twin is a two cylinder Internal combustion engine with the cylinders arranged on opposite sides of the crankshaft ( BMW) (Bavarian Motor Works is an independent German automobile manufacturer founded in 1916 MotorCycle is the title of a 1993 album by Rock band Daniel Amos, released on BAI Records.
The car had a 4-speed manual transmission, an advanced feature on an inexpensive car at the time. Boulanger had originally insisted on no more than three gears, because he believed that with four ratios the car would be perceived as complex to drive by customers. The gear ratio is the relationship between the number of teeth on two Gears that are meshed or two Sprockets connected with a common Roller chain, or the Thus, the fourth gear was marketed as an overdrive, this is why on the early cars the "4" was replaced by "S" for surmultipliée. Overdrive can refer to two different things An overdrive is a device which was commonly used in Automobiles to allow the choice of an extra-high overall Gear ratio The gear shifter came horizontally out of the dashboard with the handle curved upwards. It had a strange shift pattern: the first was back on the left, the second and third were inline, and the fourth (or the S) could be engaged only by turning the lever to the right from the third.
In keeping with the ultra-utilitarian (and rural) design brief, the canvas roof could be rolled completely open. Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making Sails Tents Marquees Backpacks and other functions The Type A had one stop light, and was available only in grey. The windscreen wipers were powered by a purely mechanical system: a cable connected to the transmission; to reduce cost, this cable also powered the speedometer. A windscreen wiper ( windshield wiper in North America) is a device used to wipe Rain and dirt from a Windscreen. The wipers' speed was therefore variable with car speed. When the car was waiting at a crossroad, the wipers were not powered; thus, a handle under the speedometer allowed them to be operated by hand. From the 1960s this was replaced with an electric motor.
The reliability of the car was increased by the fact that, being air-cooled, it had no coolant, radiator, water pump or thermostat. A thermostat is a device for regulating the Temperature of a System so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint It had no distributor either because both spark plugs were fired at the same time, on every 360 degree rotation. A distributor is a device in the Ignition system of an Internal combustion engine that routes High voltage from the Ignition coil to the A spark plug (also very rarely nowadays in British English: a sparking plug) is an electrical device that fits into the Cylinder A wasted spark is when in an Ignition system in a Four-stroke cycle Internal combustion engine Spark plugs fire in pairs on both the exhaust Except for the brakes there were no hydraulic parts on original models as the shock absorbers were replaced by tuned mass dampers and friction dampers.
The car featured an air-cooled, flat-twin, four-stroke, 375 cc engine, with the notoriously underpowered earliest model developing only 9 bhp DIN (6. A flat-twin is a two cylinder Internal combustion engine with the cylinders arranged on opposite sides of the crankshaft A cubic centimetre or cubic centimeter (symbol cm3 —the abbreviation cc, though widely used is deprecated is a commonly used unit of Volume Deutsches Institut für Normung eV ( DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for 5 kW). A 425 cc engine was introduced in 1955, followed by a 602 cc (giving 28 bhp (20. 5 kW) at 7000 rpm) in 1968. With the 602 cc engine the tax classification of the car changed so that it became in fact a 3CV, but the commercial name remained unchanged. A 435 cc engine was introduced at the same time in replacement of the 425 cc, the 435 cc engine car was christened 2CV 4 while the 602 cc took the name 2CV 6 (although a variant did take the name 3CV in Argentina). The 602 cc engine evolved to the M28 33 bhp (24 kW) in 1970; this was the most powerful engine fitted to the 2CV. A new 602 cc giving only 29 bhp (21. 5 kW) at a slower 5750 rpm was introduced in 1979. Despite being less powerful, this engine was more efficient, allowing lower fuel consumption and better top speed, at the price of decreased acceleration. All 2CVs with the M28 engine can run on unleaded petrol, but attention is needed to ensure that valve clearances are maintained.
The 2CV also pioneered the use of the now common wasted spark Ignition System, also known as the DIS (Distributorless Ignition System) ignition using a double ended coil fired on each revolution, (on the exhaust and compression stroke), by just a contact breaker. A wasted spark is when in an Ignition system in a Four-stroke cycle Internal combustion engine Spark plugs fire in pairs on both the exhaust
The engine's design concentrated on the reduction of moving parts. The cooling fan and dynamo were built integrally with the one-piece crankshaft, removing the need for drive belts. A mechanical fan is an electrically powered device used to produce an airflow for the purpose of creature comfort (particularly in the heat ventilation, exhaust A dynamo, originally another name for an Electrical generator, now means a generator that produces Direct current with the use of a commutator. The crankshaft, sometimes casually abbreviated to crank, is the part of an Engine which translates reciprocating Linear A Belt is a looped strip of flexible material used to mechanically link two or more rotating shafts Instead of using the usual two-piece crank bearings, one-piece items were pressed onto the crankshaft with a hydraulic press once the crankshaft had been submerged in liquid nitrogen to cause it to contract (thus providing enough clearance to press the bearings on). Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Similarly, the contact breaker was driven directly off the end of the camshaft, meaning that the ignition timing remained accurate for years. A contact breaker (or "points" is a type of electrical Switch, and the term typically refers to the switching device found in the Distributor of the The camshaft is an apparatus often used in Piston engines to operate Poppet valves It consists of a cylindrical rod running the length of the Cylinder bank
These design features made the 2CV engine highly reliable (test engines were run at full speed for 1000 hours at a time- equivalant to driving 50,000 miles (80,500 km) at full throttle). They also meant that the engine was very much 'sealed for life'- the main bearings, for example, could not be replaced individually- the entire engine had to be replaced. However, the engine was very under-stressed and long-lived, so this was not a major issue. Until the 1960s it was common for other car manufacturers engines (Fords especially), to need full strip downs and rebuilds at as little as 50,000 mile intervals - 2CV engines regularly passed 100,000 miles.
When asked about the 2CVs performance and acceleration, many owners said it went "from 0-60 in one day". Others jokingly said they "had to make an appointment to merge onto an interstate highway system". The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System)
The last evolution of the 2CV engine was the Citroën Visa flat-2, a 652 cc featuring an electronic ignition. The Citroën Visa is a supermini that was produced by the French car marque Citroën from 1978 to 1988 Citroën never sold this engine in the 2CV, however some enthusiasts have converted their 2CVs to 652 engines.
The 2CV has also been used for travel around the world. Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. In 1958–1959 two young Frenchmen, Jean-Claude Baudot and Jacques Séguéla started at the Paris Motor Show on October 9, 1958, headed south and crossed the Mediterranean by boat from Port Vendres to Algeria; traversed the African continent and crossed the South Atlantic from Cape Town to Rio de Janeiro; cris-crossed South America and the United States and boated from San Francisco to Yokohama. Events 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Port-Vendres (Portvendres is a commune of the Pyrénées-Orientales département, in France. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Cape Town (Kaapstad Xhosa: Ikapa) is the second most populous city in South Africa, forming part of the metropolitan municipality of the Rio de Janeiro ("River of January" ˈhiw dʒi ʒʌˈnejɾu in Brazilian Portuguese, /ˈriːoʊ di ʒəˈnɛroʊ/ in English is the second largest city of Brazil South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city is the capital of Kanagawa Prefecture, located in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshū and is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area They returned to Paris on November 11, 1959. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. During the 13 months, they drove 100 000 kilometres, and consumed 5 000 litres of petrol and 36 tires. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume.
Citroen promoted 2CV events called 'Raids' in the 1970s and main dealers would supply a ruggedising kit. Paris to Persepolis in Iran was best known.
Popular French nicknames were "Deuche" and "Dedeuche". French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people
The Dutch were the first to call it "het lelijke eendje" ("the ugly duckling") or just "Eend" ("duck"), while the Flemish called it "de geit" ("the goat"). Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname The terms Fleming and Flemings ( Vlaming and Vlamingen in Dutch) denote respectively a person and people and the Flemings or In German-speaking countries it's called "Ente" ("duck"), and sometimes "lahme Ente" ("lame duck") — ironically, for its off-road abilities and swinging moves. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. English nicknames include "Tin Snail", "Dolly" and "Upside-down pram". In the former Yugoslavia the car was called "Spaček" (pronounced "spa-check", Slovenian for "little freak"). See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian Slovene or Slovenian ( slovenski jezik or slovenščina, not to be confused with Slovenčina) is a South Slavic language In Spanish-speaking countries they were nicknamed "dos caballos", "citrola" or "citroneta" (derived from "Citroën"). In Denmark, the car has many names: "Gyngehest" (Rocking horse); "Studenter-Jaguar" (A students Jaguar) while the cars, amongst 2CV enthusiasts affectionately are called ´De kære små´ (The dear small ones). The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe In Finland, the 2CV is known as "Rättisitikka" (Finnish for "rag Citroën") because of its canvas roof and in Tunisia they call it "karkassa". Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making Sails Tents Marquees Backpacks and other functions Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. Hungarians call it "Kacsa" (pronounced: "kacha" and also meaning "duck"). In Israel it was called "פחנוע" (Pronounced "pah-noa", meaning "tin car") and in Iceland it was named "Sítróen braggi" (meaning "Citroën Quonset hut"). Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( In Norway the name was "Jernseng", meaning "iron bed". In Iran it is known as "Jian / Zhian ژیان", which means "Fierce". For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. In the United States it was known as the "flying rag top". American cartoonist Gilbert Shelton referred to it as the "duh-shuh-vuh". Gilbert Shelton (born May 31, 1940, Houston Texas) is an American Cartoonist and
Outside France, the 2CV's most common nickname today is "The Duck", which seemed to be endorsed by Citroën which released a stuffed toy animal in the 1980s representing a duck with Citroën on its side and 2CV under its right foot.
The 2CV was produced for 42 years, the model finally succumbing to customer demands for speed and safety, areas in which this ancient design had fallen significantly behind modern cars. Its advanced engineering was ignored by the public, being clothed in an ultra basic anachronistic body. It was the butt of many a joke - by Jasper Carrot especially. Jasper Carrott OBE (born Robert Norman Davis, March 14 1945) is an English comedian (declaring himself "world famous in It was not helped by Citroen failing to promote it and by falling quality standards. The car was viewed as an embarrassment by Citroën, and they tried to kill the model for several years before the end came.
Citroën had attempted to replace the ultra-utilitarian 2CV several times (with the Dyane, Visa, and the AX), however its comically antiquated appearance became an advantage to the car and it became a niche product which sold because it was different from anything else on sale. The Citroën Dyane is a supermini produced by the French automaker Citroën from 1967 to 1983 The Citroën Visa is a supermini that was produced by the French car marque Citroën from 1978 to 1988 The Citroën AX is a supermini built by the French manufacturer Citroën from 1986 to 1998 Because of its down-to-earth style it became popular with hippies. The Hippie Subculture was originally a Youth movement that began in the United States during the early 1960s and spread around the world
While not a replacement for the 2CV, a straightforward, unremarkable urban runabout supermini like the AX seemed to address the automaker's requirements at the entry level in the 1990s. A supermini is a British Car classification term that describes Automobiles larger than a City car but smaller than a Small family car. The Citroën AX is a supermini built by the French manufacturer Citroën from 1986 to 1998
In 1988, production ceased in France but was continued in Portugal. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The last 2CV, grey with chassis number VF7AZKA00LA376002, rolled off the Portuguese production line on July 27, 1990. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) In all, a total of 3,872,583 2CV sedans were produced. Including the commercial versions of the 2CV, Dyane, Méhari, FAF, & Ami variants, the 2CV's underpinnings spawned over nine million cars.
The 2CV was outlived by contemporaries such as the Mini (went out of production in 2000), VW Beetle (2003), Renault 4 (1994), VW Type 2 (still in production) and Hindustan Ambassador (still in production). The Mini is a small car that was produced by the British Motor Corporation (BMC and its successors from 1959 until 2000 The Volkswagen Beetle, officially known as the type 1 and originally called ‘Käfer’ is an Economy car produced by the German auto maker Volkswagen The Renault 4, also known as the 4L (pronounced "Quatrelle" which could be heard as "4 wings" in French is a Hatchback Economy car The Volkswagen Type 2 (also known as Transporter) was the second automotive line introduced by German automaker Volkswagen. The Hindustan Ambassador is a car manufactured by Hindustan Motors of India.
The 1989 Nissan S-Cargo design was directly inspired by the appearance of the tiny French Citroën 2CV camionette or small truck, even including the single spoke steering wheel. The Nissan S-Cargo is a small commercial van manufactured by Nissan. The 2CV was relatively popular in Japan at this time. The car was introduced at the Tokyo Motor Show, and was built from 1989 to 1992 by Pike Factory for Nissan. Approximately 12,000 were manufactured. All S-Cargo's are right hand drive. While initially marketed only in Japan, S-Cargo's have spread as grey import vehicles.
The Chrysler CCV developed in the mid 1990's, (CCV stands for Composite Concept Vehicle) is a concept car developed to illustrate new means of construction suitable to developing nations. The Chrysler CCV (CCV stands for Composite Concept Vehicle) is a concept car developed to illustrate new means of construction suitable to Developing nations The car is a tall, fairly roomy 4 door sedan, of modest dimensions. The designers at Chrysler note they were inspired to create a modernised Citroën 2CV.
The company Sorevie of Lodève was building 2CVs until 2002. Lodève ( Occitan: Lodeva) is a commune in the Hérault departement in Languedoc-Roussillon in southern France The cars were built from scratch using mostly new parts. But since the 2CV no longer complied with safety regulations, the cars were sold as second-hand cars using chassis and engine numbers from old 2CVs.
The 2CV-Méhari Club Cassis also reconditions the 2CV and the Citroën Méhari. Cassis (kasis is a commune situated east of Marseille in the administrative department of the Bouches-du-Rhône in the Provence-Alpes-Côte The Citroën Méhari is an Off-roader produced by the French automaker Citroën. Recently they entered a 2CV prototype in the Paris-Dakar Rally; this was a four-wheel drive, twin engine car (like the 2CV Sahara) powered by two 602 cc engines, the traditional one in the front and an engine in the rear boot space. The Dakar Rally (or simply " The Dakar " formerly known as "The Paris Dakar" or "Paris to Dakar Rally" and now as "The Lisboa Dakar" is 
Auto Express reported in a May 2007 news item that a 2CV concept similar in appearance to the 2005 Evoque would make an appearance in 2009, with Citroën likely to position its modern interpretation of the car against premium rivals such as the MINI. Auto Express is a weekly motoring Magazine sold in the United Kingdom, with features including news road tests first drives readers' letters product Mini (styled as MINI) is a British automotive brand owned by the German BMW Group that has produced a redesign of the traditional Mini 
Styling of the Citroën C3 Pluriel was reminiscent of the 2CV design. The Citroën C3 is a Supermini car with a range of inline-4 engines that has been produced by the French automaker Citroën since 2002
Robert Radar designed a fiberglass body on the chassis of a 2CV in 1956 and built a few prototypes in his Citroën Garage in Liège, Belgium. The Citroën Acadiane is a small commercial vehicle derived from the Dyane, produced from 1978 to 1987 Liège (ljɛːʒ Older English: Luick, Walloon: Lidje, German: Lüttich; Latin: Leodium, Dutch Citroën Belgium was enthusiastic about this model and decided to produce it as an official Citroën 2CV in its Forest (near Brussels) factory. Vorst is also the name of a former town now part of Tönisvorst, Germany Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is They manufactured about 50 bodies and added the model called 2CV "Radar" on the price list. They were assembled on order, and in 1958 and 1959, only 25 were sold and production ceased. The remaining bodies were destroyed later. There are five or six of them left, one in the Netherlands and four or five in Belgium.
The Bijou was built at the Citroën factory in Slough, UK in the early 1960s. Citroën Bijou was a small Coupé manufactured by Citroën at their factory in Slough, England from 1959–64 and based on that company's 2CV Slough ( ˈslaʊ is a Borough and Unitary authority within the ceremonial county of Berkshire, England. It was a two-door fiberglass-bodied version of the 2CV designed by Peter Kirwan-Taylor. Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre see Spelling differences) is material made from extremely fine Fibers of Glass. The design was thought to be more accessible in appearance to British consumers than the standard 2CV sedan. Incorporating some components from the DS (most noticeably the memorable single-spoke steering wheel), it did not achieve market success, possibly because it was heavier than the 2CV and thus not a brisk performer, reaching 100 km/h (60 mph) only under favourable conditions. (For the South African airport with IATA code "KMH" see Johan Pienaar Airport. Only 207 were built.
One novel model was the 2CV Sahara, a four-wheel drive (4x4) car, equipped with two engines (12 hp each), each one having a separate gas tank. Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4x4 ("four by four" is a four-wheeled Vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four Wheels to One was mounted in the front driving the front wheels and one in the back driving the rear wheels. A single gear shifter, clutch pedal, and gas pedal were connected to both engines.
It was originally intended for use by the French colonies in Northern Africa. As well as a decreased chance of being stranded, it provided four-wheel drive traction with continuous force to some wheels while others were slipping because the engine transmissions were uncoupled. Therefore it became popular with off-road enthusiasts. Off Roading is a term for driving a specialized vehicle on unpaved roads such as Sand, Gravel, riverbeds Mud, Snow, Rocks,
Between 1958 and 1971 Citroën built 694 Saharas, but only 27 are known to exist today. The top speed was 65 km/h (40 mph) on one engine, but this increased to 105 km/h (65 mph) with both engines running.
The Méhari was also built as a 4x4, but with only one engine. The Citroën Méhari is an Off-roader produced by the French automaker Citroën.
Various 4x4 conversions were built by independent constructors, such as Marc Voisin, near Grenoble, some from a Méhari 4x4 chassis and a 2CV body.
Although the terminology is sometimes confused, 2CV 4x4 generally refers to these models, whereas 2CV Sahara refers to the two-engined Citroën vehicle.
The 2CV's availability, simple construction, low cost and propensity to rust make it an ideal donor car for a special or kit car. A kit car is an Automobile that is available in kit form which means that the client buys a set of parts and needs to assemble the car himself / herself Examples of 2CV-based kit cars include the Pembleton and Lomax from Britain, and the Burton and Patron from Holland.
For transportation purposes, some models were redesigned into vans. Others had a 'hunchback' fitted, an extension to the boot.