|Ancient Region of Anatolia|
|State existed:||16-14th c. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black BC (as Kizzuwatna)|
12-8th c. Kizzuwatna (or Kizzuwadna) is the name of an ancient Anatolian kingdom in the Second millennium BC. BC (as Khilikku, Tabal, Quwê)
till 546 BC
In Antiquity, Cilicia (Armenian: Կիլիկիա Greek: Κιλικία, Turkish: Kilikya) now known as Çukurova was a commonly used name of the south coastal region of the Anatolian peninsula, and a political entity in Roman times. Tabal (Bib Tubal, Gk Τιβαρηνοί Tibarenoi, Lat Tibareni, Thobeles in Josephus was a Luwian speaking Neo-Hittite Quwê &ndash also spelled Que, Kue, Qeve, Coa, Kuê and Keveh &ndash was a " Neo-Hittite " Assyrian Luwian (sometimes spelled Luvian) is an extinct language of the Anatolian branch of the Tarsus ( Greek Ταρσός is a City, and a large district in Mersin Province, Turkey, from the city of Mersin and near (40 In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa The Armenian language (hy հայերեն լեզու hajɛɹɛn lɛzu —, conventional short form) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Çukurova is the modern name for the ancient region of Cilicia (or to be more precise of Cilicia Pedia, "the flat Cilicia" in southern Turkey Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Cilicia extends inland from the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), due north and northeast of the island of Cyprus and comprises about a third of the land area of modern Anatolia. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía
Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount Amanus (Gavurdağı Mount), which separated it from Syria. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. Origins of the Pamphylians There can be little doubt that the Pamphylians and Pisidians were the same people though the former had received colonies from Greece and other Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية North of Cilicia lie the rugged Taurus Mountains that separate it from the high central plateau of Anatolia, which are pierced by a narrow gorge, called in Antiquity the Cilician Gates. For the Taurus Mountains on the moon see Montes Taurus. For Mount Taurus outside Cold Spring New York, see Bull Hill. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The Cilician Gates ( Turkish: Gülek Boğazı, "Gülek Pass" form the main pass through the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey Ancient Cilicia was naturally divided into Cilicia Trachea and Cilicia Pedias divided by the Lamas Su. Salamis, the city on the east coast of Cyprus, was included in its administrative jurisdiction. Salamis was an ancient City-state on the east coast of Cyprus, at the mouth of the river Pedieos 6 km north of modern Famagusta. Cilicia was given an eponymous founder in the mythic Cilix, but the historic founder of the dynasty that ruled Cilicia Pedias was Mopsus, identifiable in Phoenician sources as Mpš, the founder of Mopsuestia and protector of an oracle nearby. For the Moth Genus, see Cilix (moth. In Greek mythology, Cilix ( Greek: Κίλιξ was a son of In Greek mythology, Mopsus or Mopsos ( Greek) was the name of two famous seers Mopsuestia ( Greek Μοψουεστία also Transliterated as Mopsouhestia or Mompsuestia) or Mopsus or Mamistra is an
Cilicia Trachea ("rugged Cilicia"— Greek: Κιλικία Τραχεία; the Assyrian Khilakku or Khilikku, also sometimes transcribed as Hilakku or Hilikku, from which we get "Cilicia") is a rugged mountain district formed by the spurs of Taurus, which often terminate in rocky headlands with small sheltered harbors, a feature which, in classical times, made the coast a string of havens for pirates (see : Side), but which in the Middle Ages led to its occupation by Genoese and Venetian traders. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Side (ˈsiːdǝ is one of the best-known classical sites in Turkey, and was an ancient harbour whose name meant pomegranate The district is watered by the Calycadnus and was covered in ancient times by forests that supplied timber to Phoenicia and Egypt. Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Cilicia lacked large cities.
Cilicia Pedias ("flat Cilicia"— Greek: Κιλικία Πεδιάς; Assyrian Kue), to the east, included the rugged spurs of Taurus and a large coastal plain, with rich loamy soil, now filled with cotton, grain, olives and oranges. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Many of its high places were fortified. The plain is watered by the Cydnus (Tarsus Çay), the Sarus (Seyhan) and the Pyramus (Jihun) rivers, each of which brings down much silt. The Seyhan River (formerly written Seihan Sihun is a 560 km-long river in Adana Province, Turkey. The Sarus now enters the sea almost due south of Tarsus, but there are clear indications that at one period it joined the Pyramus, and that the united rivers ran to the sea west of Kara-tash. Through the rich plain of Issus ran the great highway that linked east and west on which stood the cities of Tarsus (Tarsa) on the Cydnus, Adana (Adanija) on the Sarus, and Mopsuestia (Missis) on the Pyramus. Tarsus ( Greek Ταρσός is a City, and a large district in Mersin Province, Turkey, from the city of Mersin and near (40 Adana (the ancient Antioch in Cilicia or Antioch on the Sarus) is the capital of Adana Province in Turkey. Mopsuestia ( Greek Μοψουεστία also Transliterated as Mopsouhestia or Mompsuestia) or Mopsus or Mamistra is an
Cilicia was settled from the Neolithic period onwards (Akpinar, 2004; Mellink, 1991). Dating of the ancient settlements of the region from Neolithic to Bronze Age is as follows: Aceramic/Neolithic 8th & 7th millennium BC;Early Chalcolithic: 5800 BC, Middle Chalcolithic (correlated with Halaf and Ubaid developments in the east): ca. 5400-4500 BC, Late Chalcolithic: 4500- ca. 3400 BC, and Early Bronze Age IA: 3400-3000 BC, EBA IB: 3000-2700 BC, EBA II: 2700-2400 BC,EBA III A-B: 2400-2000 BC (Mellink, 1991: 168-170).
The area had been known as Kizzuwatna in the earlier Hittite era (2nd millennium BC). Kizzuwatna (or Kizzuwadna) is the name of an ancient Anatolian kingdom in the Second millennium BC. The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age.
The Cilicians appear as Khilikku in Assyrian inscriptions, and in the early part of the 1st millennium BC were one of the four chief powers of western Asia. Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires
Under the Persian empire Cilicia was apparently governed by tributary native kings, who bore a Hellenized name or title of "Syennesis"; but it was officially included in the fourth satrapy by Darius. Cilicia (modern Turkish name is Çukurova) was a Satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, with its capitol at Tarsus. A tributary is a Stream or River which flows into a mainstem (or parent river See also the related deity Satrapes. Satrap (Persian ساتراپ was the name given to the governors of the Provinces of ancient Xenophon found a queen in power, and no opposition was offered to the march of Cyrus the Younger. Xenophon (Ancient Greek, Modern Greek "Ξενοφών" "Ξενοφώντας" ca Cyrus (Kuruš the Younger, son of Darius II of Persia (Dārayavahuš and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and General.
The great highway from the west existed before Cyrus conquered Cilicia. On its long rough descent from the Anatolian plateau to Tarsus, it ran through the narrow pass between walls of rock called the Cilician Gates. The Cilician Gates ( Turkish: Gülek Boğazı, "Gülek Pass" form the main pass through the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey After crossing the low hills east of the Pyramus it passed through a masonry (Cilician) gate, Demir Kapu, and entered the plain of Issus. From that plain one road ran southward through another masonry (Syrian) gate to Alexandretta, and thence crossed Mt. Amanus by the Syrian Gate, Beilan Pass, eventually to Antioch and Syria; and another ran northwards through a masonry (Amanian) gate, south of Toprak Kale, and crossed Mt. Amanus by the Amanian Gate, Baghche Pass, to northern Syria and the Euphrates. By the last pass, which was apparently unknown to Alexander, Darius crossed the mountains prior to the battle of Issus. The Battle of Issus (or more commonly The Battle at Issus) occurred in southern Anatolia, in November 333 BC. Both passes are short and easy, and connect Cilicia Pedias geographically and politically with Syria rather than with Asia Minor.
Similarly Alexander found the Gates open, when he came down from the plateau in 333 BC; and from these facts it may be inferred that the great pass was not under direct Persian control, but under that of a vassal power always ready to turn against its suzerain. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Events By place Macedonia King Alexander of Macedonia conquers western Asia Minor, subduing the hill tribes of
After Alexander's death it was long a battleground of rival Hellenistic marshals and kingdoms, and for a time fell under Ptolemaic dominion (i. e. Egypt), but finally under that of the Seleucids, who, however, never held effectually more than the eastern half. The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i
Cilicia Trachea became the haunt of pirates, who were subdued by Pompey in 67 BC following a battle at Korakesion (modern Alanya), and Tarsus was made the capital of the Roman province of Cilicia. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation Events By place Rome Consuls Manius Acilius Glabrio and Gaius Calpurnius Piso. Alanya (ɑˈlɑnjɑ is a seaside resort city and district of Antalya Province in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey, 120 km (75 miles from the city In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa Cilicia Pedias became Roman territory in 103 BC, and the whole was organized by Pompey, 64 BC, into a province which, for a short time, extended to and included part of Phrygia. Year 64 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Servilius Rullus, Roman Tribune It was reorganized by Julius Caesar, 47 BC, and about 27 BC became part of the province Syria-Cilicia Phoenice. Year 47 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Quintus Fufius Calenus, Year 27 BC was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. At first the western district was left independent under native kings or priest-dynasts, and a small kingdom, under Tarkondimotus, was left in the east; but these were finally united to the province by Vespasian, AD 74. Titus Flavius Vespasianus, commonly known as Vespasian ( November 17 9 &ndash June 23 79) was a Roman Emperor who Year 74 was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. It had been deemed important enough to be governed by a proconsul. Ancient Rome In the Roman Republic, a proconsul was a Promagistrate (like a Propraetor) who after serving as Consul, spent a year
Under Emperor Diocletian's Tetrarchy (circa 297), Cilicia was governed by a Consularis; with Isauria and the Syrian, Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Libyan provinces, formed the Diocesis Orientis (in the third century the African component was split off as diocese Aegyptus), part of the pretorian prefecture also called Oriens ('the East', also including the dioceses Asiana and Pontus, both in Anatolia, and Thraciae on the Balkans), the rich bulk of the eastern Roman Empire. Tetrarchy ( Greek: "leadership of four " can be applied to any system of government where power is divided between four individuals Events By Place Roman Empire Galerius conquers Ctesiphon from the Persians however as part of the peace treaty it Consularis is a Latin word derived from cattle Roman history Originally it was simple and adjective meaning "consular" but more interestingly it has also become Asiana Airlines (; formerly Seoul Airlines) is an Airline based in Seoul, South Korea and is one of South Korea 's two major The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
In the 7th century it was invaded by the Muslim Arabs, who held the country until it was reoccupied by the Byzantine emperor Nicephorus II in 965. The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. 965 was a year in the 10th century. Events By Place Europe The Khazar fortress of Sarkel falls
Roman Cilicia exported the goats-hair cloth, Cilicium, of which tents were made. Tarsus was also the birthplace of the early Christian missionary and author St. Paul, writer (or purported writer) of 13 of the 27 writings included in the New Testament. See also Evangelism, Christianization A Christian mission has been widely defined since the Lausanne Congress of 1974 as that which Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and
During the time of the Crusades, the area was controlled by the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (also known as Little Armenia, Kingdom of Lesser Armenia, Cilician Kingdom; Classical Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ The Seljuk Turkish invasion of Armenia was followed by an exodus of Armenians westward into the Byzantine Empire, and in 1080, Ruben, a relative of the last king of Ani, founded in the heart of the Cilician Taurus a small principality, which gradually expanded into the kingdom of Lesser Armenia or Armenia Minor. Ruben I (also Transliterated Rupen or Roupen in Western Armenian from Ռուբեն Ա 1025&ndash1095 was the founder History Armenian chroniclers such as Yeghishe and Ghazar Parpetsi first mentioned Ani in the 5th century AD Lesser Armenia (also known as Armenia Minor and Armenia Inferior, "Փոքր Հայք" "Pok'r Hayq" in Armenian refers to the Armenian populated This Christian kingdom, surrounded by Moslem states, hostile to the Byzantines, giving valuable support to the crusaders, and trading with the great commercial cities of Italy had a stormy existence of about 300 years. Gosdantin (1095-1100) assisted the crusaders on their march to Antioch, and was created knight and marquis. Constantine I (Կոստանդին Ա Western Armenian Transliteration: Gosdantin or Kostantine; died January 24 1102) Thoros I (1100-1123), in alliance with the Christian princes of Syria, waged successful war against the Byzantines and Seljuk Turks. Thoros I or Toros I (Թորոս Ա same as "Theodore" was the ruler of the Armenian Cilicia or Armenia Minor between 1102 and 1129 The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in Levond II (Leo the Great (r. Leo II or Leon II (occasionally numbered Leo III; Լեիոն Բ Levon II; c 1187-1219)), extended the kingdom beyond Mount Taurus and established the capital at Sis. For the Taurus Mountains on the moon see Montes Taurus. For Mount Taurus outside Cold Spring New York, see Bull Hill. Kozan (formerly Սիս Sis) is capital town of Kozan district in Adana Province, Turkey, 68km north of the city of Adana, in the He assisted the crusaders, was crowned King by the Archbishop of Mainz, and married one of the Lusignans of the crusader kingdom Cyprus. The Archbishopric of Mainz (Erzbistum Mainz or Electorate of Mainz (Kurfürstentum Mainz or Kurmainz) was an influential ecclesiastic and secular Prince-bishopric The Lusignan family originated in the Poitou near Lusignan in western France in the early 10th century.
Hetoum I (r. Hetoum I (also Transliterated Hethoum, Hethum, Het'um, or Hayton from Armenian 1226-1270) made an alliance with the Mongols, sending his brother Sempad to the Mongol court to submit in person. This article is about the 13th century Cilician noble For other uses see Smbat.  The Mongols then assisted with the protection of Cilicia from the Mamluks of Egypt, until the Mongols themselves converted to Islam. When Levond V died (1342), John of Lusignan was crowned king as Gosdantin IV; but he and his successors alienated the native Armenians by attempting to make them conform to the Roman Church, and by giving all posts of honor to Latins, until at last the kingdom, a prey to internal dissensions, succumbed (1375) to the attacks of the Egyptian Mamluks. Leo V or Leon V (occasionally Leo VI; Լեիոն Levon V; 1342 &ndash 29 November 1393) of the House of Lusignan, was Constantine IV (also Constantine VI; Կոստանդին Western Armenian Transliteration: Gosdantin or Kostantine; died 1373 was
Cilicia Trachea was conquered by the Ottomans in the 15th century, but Cilicia Pedias remained independent until 1515. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish
French troops occupied Cilicia on 1 January 1919. This is a list of the Lords Kings and Queens of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, an Armenian state in the region of Cilicia in what The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common According to the Treaty of Sèvres signed in 1920, Cilicia was supposed to be a part of French Syria. The Treaty of Sèvres ( 10 August 1920) was the Peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Allies at the end of World War Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar That treaty had never gone into effect because of the Turkish War of Independence. The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı May 19, 1919 October 29, 1923) refers to the political and military resistance developed The French were still there several months after the Cilicia Peace Treaty was signed with the Turkish national movement on 9 March 1921. Cilicia Peace Treaty ( March 9, 1921) was signed between France and the Turkish national movement to end the fighting in Cilicia war The Turkish National Movement encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries which resulted with the creation and shaping of the Republic Events 590 - Bahram Chobin is crowned as king Barham VI of Persia. Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Fighting had continued.
After the Franco-Turkish war, and consequent battles during Turkish War of Independence the region become part of the Republic of Turkey in 1921 with the Treaty of Lausanne. Franco-Turkish war, more often called Cilicia war ( French: La guerre en Cilicie, Turkish: Güney Cephesi - the southern front Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı May 19, 1919 October 29, 1923) refers to the political and military resistance developed Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar The Treaty of Lausanne ( July 24, 1923) was a Peace treaty signed in Lausanne that settled the Anatolian part of the Partitioning The modern Turkish provinces Mersin, Adana, and Osmaniye are located in former Cilicia. Turkey is divided into 81 provinces called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i Mersin province is in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. Adana Province is a province with a surface area of 14030 km² located in the Mediterranean region of southern Turkey. Osmaniye is a Turkish province located in southern Turkey. It became a province in 1996.
Greek mythology also mentions another Cilicia, as a small region situated immediately southeast of the Troad in northwestern Asia Minor, facing the Gulf of Adramyttium. Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance Troas or The Troad is the historical name of the Biga peninsula ( modern Turkish: Biga Yarımadası) in the northwestern part of Anatolia The connection (if any) between this rather obscure Cilicia (which appears to have been under the thumb of Troy) and the much more well-known and well-defined region mentioned above is unclear. This Trojan Cilicia is mentioned in Homer's Iliad and Strabo's Geography, and contained equally obscure localities as Thebes, Lyrnessus and Chryse. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. In Greek mythology Lyrnessus was a town or city in Dardania (Asia minor, inhabited by Cilicians This article is about the people and places of Greek myth Chryse Planitia is also an extremely large impact basin on Mars In Thebes (or Thebe) was situated under 'Mount' Placus (hence Homer calls it Thebe-under-Placus), which appears to have been little more than a southern spur of Mount Ida, and was the birthplace of Andromache, wife of Prince Hector. Two sacred mountains are called Mount Ida in Greek mythology, equally named "Mount of the Goddess In Greek mythology, Andromache ( Ancient Greek:) was the wife of Hector and daughter of Eetion, and sister to Podes. In Greek mythology, Hectōr ( "holding fast" or Hektōr, is a Trojan prince and one of the greatest fighters in the According to one legend, the city of Thebes was founded by Heracles, but was subsequently occupied by the Cilicians. In Greek mythology, Heracles or Herakles ("glory of Hera " or Cilician Thebes, Lyrnessus and Chryse were all attacked and sacked by Achilles during the Trojan War. "Achilleus" redirects here For the emperor with this name see Achilleus (emperor. In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone
|Historical regions of Anatolia|
|Aeolis | Cappadocia | Caria | Cilicia | Bithynia | Galatia | Ionia | Lycaonia | Lycia | Lydia | Mysia | Pamphylia | Paphlagonia | Phrygia | Pisidia | Pontos | Troad|