Church architecture or ecclesiastical architecture refers to the architecture of buildings of Christian churches. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings It has evolved over the two thousand years of the Christian religion, partly by innovation and partly by imitating other architectural styles as well as responding to changing beliefs, practices and local traditions. Both theological and practical influences on church architecture have included pagan and secular buildings and those of other faiths. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Secularity ( adjective form secular) is the state of being separate from Religion. Buildings were at first adapted from those originally intended for other purposes but, with the rise of distinctively ecclesiastical architecture, church buildings came to influence secular ones which have often imitated religious architecture. Sacred architecture (also known as religious architecture) is concerned with the design and construction of places of worship and/or sacred or intentional space such In the 20th century, the use of new materials, such as concrete, as well as simpler styles has had its effect upon the design of churches and arguably the flow of influence has been reversed.
The history of church architecture divides itself into periods, and into countries or regions and by religious affiliation. The matter is complicated by the fact that buildings put up for one purpose may have been re-used for another; that changes in liturgical practice may result in the alteration of existing buildings; that a building built by one religious group may be used by a successor group with different purposes and that new building techniques may permit changes in style and size.
The first period is that during which the Christian faith was illegal and, in principle, church building did not take place. In the very beginning Christians worshipped along with Jews in synagogues and in private houses. A synagogue (from Greek: grc συναγωγή transliterated synagogē, "assembly" he בית כנסת beit knesset, "house of After the separation of Jews and Christians the latter continued to worship in people's houses. Some of these were at the top of several storey houses; others were covered courtyards. One of the earliest of adapted residences is at Dura Europa, built shortly after 200 AD, where two rooms were made into one, by removing a wall, and a dais was set up. To the right of the entrance a small room was made into a baptistry.
During the period of Roman persecution of Christians, most regular worship took place privately in homes. With the victory of the Roman emperor Constantine at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312AD, Christianity became a lawful and then the privileged religion of the Roman Empire. The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place on October 28, 312, between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The faith, already spread around the Mediterranean, now expressed itself in buildings. Their architecture was made to correspond to civic and imperial forms, and so the Basilica, a large rectangular meeting hall became general in east and west, as the model for churches, with a nave and aisles and sometimes galleries and clerestories. The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek, Basiliké Stoà, Royal Stoa) was originally used to describe a Roman In Romanesque and Gothic Christian Abbey, Cathedral Basilica and church Architecture, the nave is the An aisle is in general a space for walking with rows of seats on either side or with rows of seats on one side and a wall on the other An auditorium (plural auditoriums, or less commonly auditoria) is the area within a theatre, Concert hall, or other performance space where the Clerestory (ˈklɪə(rstɔəri lit clear storey, also clearstory, clearstorey, or overstorey) is an architectural term denoting Pagan basilicas had as their focus a statue of the emperor; Christian basilicas replaced the emperor with God as king of heaven. At the east end was placed the altar behind which sat the bishop and his presbyters in an apse. Presbyter in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations then a synonym of episkopos (which has now come to mean Bishop APSE standing for Ada Programming Support Environment is a program or set of programs to support Software development in the Ada programming language.
A second stage was the remodelling of the Basilica to produce the porch church or Vollwestwerk. The legalisation of the faith enabled people to make pilgrimages to the Holy Land and in particular to Jerusalem. The Holy Land ( Arabic: الأرض المقدسة al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah;Ancient Aramaic: ארעא קדישא Ar'a Qaddisha; Hebrew: ארץ_הקודש Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the Over time, there developed a pattern of services during Holy Week following the last week of the life of Christ culminating in the Way of the Cross, sometimes known as the Via Dolorosa from the place of trial to the Calvary, the place of crucifixion. Holy Week ( Latin: Hebdomada Sancta or Maior Hebdomada, "Greater Week" in Christianity is the last week before Easter. Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed " Stations of the Cross (or Way of the Cross; in Latin, Via Crucis; also called the Via Dolorosa or Way of Sorrows, or simply Via Dolorosa ( Latin for "Way of Grief" or "Way of Suffering" is a street in the Old City of Jerusalem. "Golgotha" redirects here For other uses see Golgotha (disambiguation. Over the presumed site of the Calvary a Church, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was built. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Sanctum Sepulchrum also called the Church of the Resurrection, ( Greek: Ναός της Αναστάσεως Naos tis Anastaseos At its east end was the presumed place of burial. At the west end was the Calvary. The procession would end with the pilgrims mounting the steps on one side of the west end of the Church to the place of crucifixion and then demounting on the other side. Two staircases, supported by twin towers, thus became necessary for this form of worship. This pattern was widely imitated and twin west towers can be seen in many churches and cathedrals in Europe, notably Westminster Abbey in London, even where the purpose of the towers had long gone. The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church
The period witnessed the division of the empire in the fourth century AD and then its collapse. East and West, Rome and Byzantium (the name of Constantinople, the modern Istanbul) went their separate ways. This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM The final break was the Great Schism of 1054, but the divergence had begun long before that. Orthodox churches were often modelled, as to their plan, on an equal armed cross - the so-called Greek cross. Their interiors were marked by the division of the building by the iconostasis a screen on which were hung sacred pictures and which divided the altar from the body of the Church. In Eastern Christianity an iconostasis (the plural is iconostases) also called the Templon, is a wall of Icons and religious paintings An altar is any structure upon which Sacrifices or other offerings are made for religious purposes or some other sacred place where ceremonies take place
Participation in worship, which gave rise to the porch church, began to decline as the church became increasingly clericalised; with the rise of the monasteries church buildings changed as well. A Cathedral is a church, usually Roman Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Orthodox, housing the seat of a Bishop. This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. The 'two-room' church' became, in Europe, the norm. The first 'room' the nave, was used by the congregation; the second 'room, the sanctuary, was the preserve of the clergy and in which the Mass was celebrated. This could then be only seen, through the arch between the rooms, as from a distance, by the congregation, and the elevation of the host, the bread of the communion, became the focus of the celebration. Given that the liturgy was said in Latin, the people contented themselves with their own private devotions until this point. (Because of the difficulty of sight lines, some churches had holes cut strategically in walls and screens, called 'squints' through which the elevation could be seen from the nave. ) Again, from the twin principles that every priest must say his mass every day and that an altar could only be used once, in religious communities a number of altars were required for which space had to be found, at least within monastic churches.
Apart from changes in the liturgy, the other major influence on church architecture was in the use of new materials and the development of new techniques. In northern Europe, early churches were often built of wood, for which reason almost none survive. With the wider use of stone by the Benedictine monks, in the tenth and eleventh centuries, larger structures were erected. Benedictine refers to the Spirituality and Consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in
The 'two-room' church, particularly if it were an abbey or a cathedral, might acquire transepts, effectively arms of the cross which now made up the groundplan of the building. Full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are found at the entry Cathedral diagram. The buildings became more clearly symbolic of what they were intended for. Sometimes this crossing, now the central focus of the church, would be surmounted by its own tower, in addition to the west end towers, or instead of them. (Such precarious structures were known to collapse - as at Ely - and had to be rebuilt). Sanctuaries, now providing for the singing of the offices by monks or canons, grew longer and became chancels, separated from the nave by a screen. MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανωνικος 'relating to a rule' is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the "Chancel" is an architectural term for the space around the Altar at the Liturgical east end of a traditional Christian church building Practical function and symbolism were both at work in the process of development.
In England, Saxon churches still survive in some places but with the Norman conquest, increasingly the new Romanesque churches, often called Norman in England, became the rule. Anglo-Saxon architecture was a period in the History of architecture in England, and parts of Wales, from the mid- 5th century until the Regional characteristics of Romanesque architecture|Romanesque art Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Middle Ages Europe which For other buildings in Normandy see Architecture of Normandy. These were massive in relation to the space they enclosed, their walls pierced by windows with semi-circular arches. Internal vaulting used the same shaped arch. Unsupported roofs were never very wide. Yet some of these buildings were huge and of extraordinary beauty. The Abbey church of St. Mary Madgalene at Vézelay in Burgundy and Durham Cathedral in England are two very different examples of this form. Vézelay Abbey (now known as Basilique Sainte-Marie-Madeleine was a Benedictine and Cluniac monastery in Vézelay in the Yonne département The Cathedral Church of Christ Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, commonly referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city of Durham, England
The next development was due to the mobility of the master masons whose work this was. They followed the Crusades and built their own churches in the Holy Land, most notably the Church of St. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents The Holy Land ( Arabic: الأرض المقدسة al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah;Ancient Aramaic: ארעא קדישא Ar'a Qaddisha; Hebrew: ארץ_הקודש Anne in Jerusalem. However they also noticed that the local Muslim architecture deployed the much more flexible two-point or Gothic arch. See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. The semi-circular arch was heavy and, in spite of this, resulted in weaknesses when two barrel vaults intersected. A barrel vault, also known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves in the case The 'gothic arch' on the other hand was stronger and could be used to make for wider unsupported spaces.
Thus there came to Europe, first the narrow, lancet window and then wider two-point arches, called in England the Early English style with its simple 'Y' tracery. A lancet window is a tall narrow Window with a pointed Arch at its top It acquired the "lancet" name from its resemblance to a Lance. The period is reckoned by Pevsner to run from about 1190 to 1250. Pevsner is a surname and may refer to Antoine Pevsner (1886 - 1962 a Russian sculptor Sir Nikolaus Pevsner (1902 – 1983 a German-born In spite of its name the style was at one time called the French style and it is to be found all over the British Isles. One of the most notable buildings of the period is Salisbury Cathedral. Salisbury Cathedral is an Anglican Cathedral in Salisbury, England, considered one of the leading examples of Early English architecture
By the late thirteenth century more daringly ornate styles of tracery were tried - the so-called Decorated or curvilinear Period, dating from 1290 - 1350. English Gothic is the name of the Architectural style that flourished in England from about 1180 until about 1520 Here windows became larger, increasing the number of mullions (the vertical bars dividing the main part of the window) between the lights; above them, within the arch of the window, the tracery was formed using shapes styled 'daggers' and 'mouchettes', trefoils and quadrifoils; completely circular rose windows were made, incorporating all manner of shapes. Tracery is a series of intersecting ribs used in Gothic architecture, especially windows and in the Perpendicular Gothic style vaulting. A Rose window (or Catherine window) is often used as a generic term applied to a circular Window, but is especially used for those found in churches Columns forming the arcades within churches of this period became more slender and elegant, the foliage of the capitals more flowing.
Finally, the Perpendicular style (so-called because the mullions and transoms were vertical and horizontal) allowed huge windows, often filled with stained glass. In Geometry, two lines or planes (or a line and a plane are considered perpendicular (or orthogonal) to each other if they form congruent A mullion is a structural element which divides adjacent Window units For the Blackford Oakes novel see Stained Glass (novel The term stained glass refers either to the material of coloured Glass or to the art The style, so described runs from about 1350 until 1530. Sometimes criticised as over formal, the spaces allowing for glass were huge. Another feature was that doorways were often enclosed by squared mouldings and the spaces between the moulding and the door arch - called spandrels were decorated with quadrifoils etc. A spandrel (less often spandril or splaundrel) is the space between two Arches or between an arch and a rectangular enclosure Ornate stone ceilings, using so-called fan vaulting, made for huge unsupported spaces. A fan vault is a form of vault used in the Perpendicular Gothic style in which the ribs are all of the same curve and spaced equidistantly in a manner resembling King's College Chapel, Cambridge has magnificent specimens of these. King's College Chapel is the chapel to King's College of the University of Cambridge, and is one of the finest examples of late English Gothic Meanwhile, the Lady Chapel of Ely Cathedral has an unsupported stone ceiling approximately 30 feet by 80 feet, using a star formation of lierne vaults and bosses. Ely Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Ely) is the principal church of the Diocese of Ely A Lierne (from the French lier - to bind in Gothic Rib vaulting is an architectural term for a tertiary rib spanning between two other ribs instead of In architecture, a boss is a knob or protrusion of stone or wood
The period from the Norman Conquest to the advent of the Reformation in the sixteenth century saw an unequalled development in church architecture. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Walls became thinner; solid butresses became more elegant flying buttresses surmounted by pinnacles; towers, often surmounted by stone spires became taller, and more decorated, often castellated; internal pillars became more slender; unsupported spaces between them wider; roofs, formerly safely steeply pitched became flatter, often decorated with carved wooden angels and a bestiary; windows occupied more and more of the wall space; decorative carving more freely flowing; figures multiplied, particularly on the west fronts of cathedrals and abbeys. A flying buttress, or arc-boutant, is a specific type of Buttress usually found on a religious building such as a Cathedral. A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building particularly a church Tower. Crenellation (or crenelation, also known as castellation) is the name for the distinctive pattern that frames the tops of the walls of many medieval Castles A bestiary, or Bestiarum vocabulum is a compendium of beasts Bestiaries were made popular in the Middle Ages in illustrated volumes that described various animals Finally with the cessation of the wars with the French and the apparent ending of the Wars of the Roses with the return of Edward IV in 1471, there was more money around so that new buildings could be put up and existing buildings enlarged. The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485 were a series of dynastic Civil wars fought in England between supporters of the Houses of Lancaster and York "Hardly had such towers risen on all sides; never had such timber roofs and screens been hewn and carved. . . " (Harvey) This is the period of the building of wool Churches like Long Melford and Lavenham and of King's College Chapel in Cambridge. Long Melford (or Melford, as it is known locally is a large village and Civil parish in the county of Suffolk, England Lavenham is a village and Civil parish in Suffolk, England It is noted for its 15th century church half-timbered medieval cottages and circular walk King's College Cambridge is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge.
The interiors of mediaeval churches, apart from their many altars and stained glass (which, of course can only be properly seen from inside) had their purpose made visually plain by the almost universal presence of roods, huge figures of the crucified Christ, high above the congregation, mounted on a rood loft at the chancel arch -with steps to enable the priest to climb up; something which no one could miss. ROOD jong in de SP ( Dutch for RED young in the SP) is a Dutch youth wing linked to the Socialist Party. ROOD jong in de SP ( Dutch for RED young in the SP) is a Dutch youth wing linked to the Socialist Party. A wooden rood screen beneath might have painted on it figures of the apostles and angels. The rood screen (also choir screen or chancel screen) is a common feature in late Medieval parish Church architecture.
With the reign of Henry VIII all of this was to be first put in question and then to come to a shuddering halt. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of On his death, and the accession of Edward VI almost all of the internal decoration was to be destroyed. Edward VI (12 October 1537 &ndash 6 July 1553 became King of England and Ireland on 28 January 1547 and was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine The chantries and guilds which supported them became illegal or their functions taken from them. Chantry is the English term for the establishment of an institutional Chapel on private land or within a greater church where a priest would chant masses A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade The earliest guilds were formed as confraternities of workers Images were removed, saints's days massively reduced. The Churches echoed to the sound of hammer blows as stone altars and images were smashed, glass broken, font covers and roods and their screens torn town and burnt. ROOD jong in de SP ( Dutch for RED young in the SP) is a Dutch youth wing linked to the Socialist Party. Thereafter they became empty places on weekdays and those who had formerly been benefactors were more wary, given the changes of direction of governmental policy which was to last more than 150 years. They spent their money on great houses instead.
East and west began to diverge from each other from an early date. Whereas the basilica, a long aisled hall with an apse at one end, was the most common form in the west, a more compact centralised style became predominant in the east. The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek, Basiliké Stoà, Royal Stoa) was originally used to describe a Roman These churches were in origin 'martyria' focused on the tombs of the saints who had died during the persecutions which only fully ended with the conversion of the Emperor Constantine. They copied pagan tombs and were roofed over by a dome which symbolised heaven. The central dome was then often surrounded by structures at the four points of the compass producing a cruciform shape - these were themselves often topped by towers or domes. The centralised and basilica structures were sometimes combined as in the church of Hagia Sophia in Contantinople (now Istanbul). Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya Αγία Σοφία " Holy Wisdom " Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a former patriarchal Basilica, later The basilican east end then allowed for the erection of an iconostasis, a screen on which icons are hung and which conceals the altar from the worshippers except at those points in the liturgy when its doors are opened. In Eastern Christianity an iconostasis (the plural is iconostases) also called the Templon, is a wall of Icons and religious paintings
The centralised form was to influence Islamic architecture, as for example the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the Umayyad Great Mosque mosque in Damascus. The Dome of the Rock ( Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة translit The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Ummayad Mosque' ( Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير transl
A variant form of the centralised church was developed in Russia and came to prominence in the sixteenth century. Here the dome was replaced by a much thinner and taller hipped or conical roof which, it is said, originated from the need to prevent snow from remaining on roofs. One of the finest examples of these tented churches is St. A hipped roof or tented roof is a special type of Roof, widely used in 16th and 17th century Russian architecture for churches and Basil's in Red Square in Moscow.
The cessation of church building in many Protestant countries was not paralleled in the Roman Catholic Church. On the contrary a new phase of church design emerged, based upon classical culture. Around them in Rome, and elsewhere, lay the ruins of classical buildings with their columns and entablatures and gables. A column in Structural engineering is a vertical structural element that transmits through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural An entablature (ɛnˈtæblətʃɚ Latin, and tabula, a tablet) refers to the superstructure of moldings and bands which lie horizontally above A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of a sloping roof The temples of pagan Rome were to be the models for the new churches. These, instead of having long vaulted naves and aisles, had a centralised plan.
Along with the interest in antiquity, art flourished. Mercantile benefactors supported both sacred and secular projects. The rise of the theatre and the opera provided another external source of ideas for the Church. If the congregation had become passive observers, as was the case, there must be something for them to see. The focus of the liturgy had traditionally been the elevation of the Host at the Mass. Sacramental bread, sometimes called Lamb or Host is the bread which is used in the Christian ritual of the Eucharist. Extra-liturgical devotions such as the exposition of the reserved sacrament became more important. In Christian practice during the Liturgy of the Eucharist the elements of Bread and Wine become the Body and Blood If the church was a sort of theatre, then the rest of the building could emphasise this element of seeing. If this is coupled with the more and more exotic forms of architecture of the 17th and 18th centuries, known as Baroque then we have a new kind of church, there to provide distant vistas, with a scenic progression along the horizontal axis. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc An examples of this can be seen in the Wallfahrtskirche, in Innen, Germany. In the St. Johann Nepomuk Kirche in Munich, the process reaches the extreme sometimes known as Rococo. Munich 's Catholic Church of St Johann Nepomuk, better known as the Asam Church, was built from 1733 to 1746 by the brothers Egid Quirin Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design.
In the seventeenth century, across Western Europe, a return was seen towards the single room church in which everything could be seen. In Protestant countries these were somewhat simple and, among the finest examples, from an architectural point of view were the churches of Sir Christopher Wren. Sir Christopher Wren ( 20 October 1632 &ndash 25 February 1723) was a 17th century English Designer, Astronomer This was a one room design in which altar and pulpit were both visible. Churches were to be sufficiently small, including galleries, so that all could see what was taking place. Chancels were suppressed, screens were deemed unnecessary obstructions. Buildings had three defined centres: the font - by the door, the pulpit and reading desk, and the altar. Within Lutheranism similar principles obtained. The Prinzipalstück ideal was of an oblong building without a chancel with a single space at the east end combining all liturgical acts: baptism, service of the word and communion. These ideas, with variations, were to affect the building of nonconformist chapels in seventeenth century England. Nonconformism is the refusal to conform to common standards conventions rules customs traditions norms or laws Galleries increased the capacity without increasing the distance between worshipper and preacher.
The growth of cities in the nineteenth centuries necessitated a huge growth in church building. This was a period of interest in the history of the Church and a search for authenticity. Buildings based upon classical models were dismissed as pagan. Instead, looking at the medieval churches around them, it seemed plain that Gothic was the style. See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. Large churches, often much too large, were built in England mostly according to some version of these ideas. (Civic buildings, including town halls and even water pumping stations followed the same fashion) Gothic-style church buildings were erected by Anglicans,as by Methodists Congregationalists and Baptists alike, many of whom abhored the beliefs of the originators of Gothic architecture. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. Some of the building was highly competitive: the grandiose Roman Catholic Church at Cheadle by A.W.N.Pugin (1812-1852) outshines its more modest mediaeval Anglican counterpart. Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin ( 1 March 1812 – 14 September 1852) was an English Architect, designer and theorist of design now Bishop Blomfield's churches in London were more of a standard issue: all include a tower, chancel, nave, all with two-point arched windows and doors. Charles James Blomfield ( 29 May, 1786 - 5 August, 1857) was an English divine and a Church of England bishop for 32 years
In some places, the style survived well into the 20th century.
The nineteenth century was also saw the rebuilding of mediaeval churches and their alleged restoration to mediaeval purity. Since many had been added to over the period from the Conquest to the Reformation, decisions had to be taken as to which was the right period. Thus, architects such as George Gilbert Scott (1811-1878) replaced Perpendicular windows with speculative lancets, often with slight justification. Sir George Gilbert Scott ( 13 July 1811 &ndash 27 March, 1878) was an English Architect of the Victorian Age Stained glass, lost at the Reformation, was replaced by Victorian designers, often with Biblical scenes. For the Blackford Oakes novel see Stained Glass (novel The term stained glass refers either to the material of coloured Glass or to the art Churches, which had been once very light, became darker again. Only when the Liturgical Movement began to make its influence felt was there any relief from the conviction that there was only one style for churches. The Liturgical Movement is a movement of scholarship and the reform of Worship within the Roman Catholic Church that has taken place over the last century and a half
The idea that worship was a corporate activity and that the congregation should be in no way excluded from sight or participation is owed to the Liturgical Movement. The Liturgical Movement is a movement of scholarship and the reform of Worship within the Roman Catholic Church that has taken place over the last century and a half Simple one-room plans are almost of the essence of modernity in architecture. In France and Germany between the first and second World Wars, some of the major developments took place. The church at Le Raincy near Paris by Auguste Perret is cited as the starting point of process, not only for its plan but also for the materials used, reinforced concrete. Auguste Perret ( February 12, 1874 - February 25, 1954) was a French Architect and a world leader and specialist in More central to the development of the process was Schloss Rothenfels-am-Main in Germany which was remodelled in 1928. Rudolf Schwartz, its architect, was hugely influential on later church building, not only on the continent of Europe but also in the United States of America. Schloss Rothenfels was a large rectangular space, with solid white walls, deep windows and a stone pavement. It had no decoration. The only furniture consisted of a hundred little black cuboid moveable stools. For worship, an altar was set up and the faithful surrounded it on three sides.
Corpus Christi in Aachen was Schwartz's first parish church and adheres to the same principles, very much reminiscent of the Bauhaus movement of art. ("House of Building" or "Building School" is the common term for the, a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts and was famous Externally it is a plan cube; the interior has white walls and colourless windows, a langbau ie a narrow rectangle at the end of which is the altar. It was to be, said Schwartz not 'christocentric' but 'theocentric'. Christocentric is a doctrinal term within Christianity, describing theological positions that focus more heavily on Jesus Christ, the second person of Theocentricism is the belief that God is the central aspect to our existence as opposed to for instance Anthropocentrism (centers upon man or Existentialism In front of the altar were simple benches. Behind the altar was a great white void of a back wall, signifying the region of the invisible Father. The influence of this simplicity spread to Switzerland with such architects as Fritz Metzger and Dominikicus Böhm.
After the Second World war, Metzger continued to develop his ideas, notably with the church of St. Franscus at Basel-Richen. Among other notable buildings is the chapel at Ronchamp by Le Corbusier (1955). Ronchamp is a town and commune in the Haute-Saône département of eastern France, located right between the Vosges Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier ( October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965) was a Swiss Similar principles of simplicity and continuity of style throughout can be found in the United States, in particular at the Roman Catholic Abbey church of St. Procopius, in Lisle, near Chicago (1971).
A theological principle which resulted in change was the decree Sacrosanctum Concilium of the Second Vatican Council issued in December 1963. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. This encouraged 'active participation' by the faithful in the celebration of the liturgy by the people and required that new churches should be built with this in mind (para 124) Subsequently, rubrics and instructions encouraged the use of a freestanding altar with the priest facing the people. The effect of these changes can be seen in such churches as the Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedraland the Cathedral of Brasilia, both circular buildings with a free-standing altar. Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral of Christ the King (usually shortened to Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral) is a Roman Catholic Cathedral in Liverpool
Different principles and practical pressures produced other changes. Parish churches were inevitably built more modestly. Often shortage of finances, as well as a 'market place' theology suggested the building of multi-purpose churches, in which secular and sacred events might take place in the same space at different times. Again, the emphasis on the unity of the liturgical action, was countered by a return to the idea of movement. Three spaces, one for the baptism, one for the liturgy of the word and one for the celebration of the eucharist with a congregation standing around an altar, were promoted by Richard Giles in England and the United States. The congregation were to process from one place to another. Such arrangements were less appropriate for large congregations than for small; for the former, proscenium arch arrangements with huge amphitheatres such as at Willow Creek Community Church in Chicago in the United States have been one answer. Willow Creek Community Church (or simply Willow Creek Church) is a Non-denominational, Evangelical Christian Megachurch located in the Chicago The present and recent past are always less easy to categorise.
A church building is a Building or Structure whose primary purpose is to facilitate the meeting of a church. Sacred architecture (also known as religious architecture) is concerned with the design and construction of places of worship and/or sacred or intentional space such An abbey (from Latin abbatia derived from Syriac abba "father" is a Christian Monastery or A Cathedral is a church, usually Roman Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Orthodox, housing the seat of a Bishop. The Polish Cathedral style of North-American Catholic church is a genre of Church architecture found throughout the Great Lakes and Middle Atlantic A chapel is a holy place or area of Worship for Christians, which may be attached to an institution such as a large church, a College, a Marian columns are religious monuments built in honour of the Virgin Mary, often in thanksgiving for the ending of a plague or for some other help This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism.