|Territory of Christmas Island|
|Anthem: Advance Australia Fair|
(and largest city)
|Flying Fish Cove ("The Settlement")|
|Official languages||English (de facto)|
|Government||Federal constitutional monarchy|
|-||Queen of Australia||Elizabeth II|
|-||Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia||Michael Jeffery|
|-||Shire President||Gordon Thomson|
|Territory of Australia|
transferred to Australia
|-||Total||135 km² |
52 sq mi
|-||2006 estimate||1,493 (n/a)|
|-||Density||11. The Flag of Christmas Island was unofficially adopted in 1986 after being chosen the winner in a competition for a flag for the territory Christmas Island does not have a coat of arms at this moment The Shire of Christmas Island does have an emblem commonly in A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's " Advance Australia Fair " is the official National anthem of Australia. The Territory of Christmas Island is a small territory of Australia located in the Indian Ocean, 2600 kilometres (1600 mi northwest of Flying Fish Cove is the main settlement of Australia 's Christmas Island. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A federal monarchy is a federation of states with a single monarch as over-all head of the federation but retaining different monarchs or a non-monarchical system of government in the TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the monarch of Australia (currently Elizabeth II Queen of Australia) Major General Philip Michael Jeffery AC, CVO, MC (born 12 December[[ 937]] was the 24th Governor-General of Australia Neil Lucas PSM, JP was the Administrator of Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling Islands. The Shire of Christmas Island is a Local Government Area which manages local affairs on the Australian external territory of Christmas Island The Commonwealth of Australia is made up of 8 states and territories controlled under a federal system of government Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. M^2 redirects here For other uses see M². CM2 redirects here The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 06/km² (n/a)|
28. List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² 7/sq mi
|Currency||Australian dollar (|
The Territory of Christmas Island is a small territory of Australia located in the Indian Ocean, 2600 kilometres (1600 mi) northwest of Perth in Western Australia, 500 kilometres (300 mi) south of Jakarta, Indonesia, and 975 km ENE of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The Australian dollar ( sign: $; code: AUD) is the Currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including Christmas ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E Types of administrative and/or political territories include Many types of legally administered territories, each of which is a non-sovereign geographic area For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia.
It maintains about 1,600 residents who live in a number of "settlement areas" on the northern tip of the island: Flying Fish Cove (also known as Kampong), Silver City, Poon Saan and Drumsite. Flying Fish Cove is the main settlement of Australia 's Christmas Island. Silver City is a settlement on Christmas Island. In terms of ethnicity its inhabitants are Chinese and European with some Malay Poon Saan is a small settlement on Christmas Island, an external territory of Australia.
It has a unique natural topography and is of immense interest to scientists and naturalists due to the number of species of endemic flora and fauna which have evolved in isolation and undisturbed by human habitation.
While there has been mining activity on the island for many years, 65% of its 135 square kilometres (52 sq mi) are now National Park and there are large areas of pristine and ancient rainforest. Rainforests are Forests characterized by high Rainfall with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1750–2000 mm (68-78 inches
For centuries, Christmas Island's isolation and rugged coasts provided natural barriers to settlement. British and Dutch navigators first included the island on their charts from the early seventeenth century, and Captain William Mynors of the British East India Company vessel, the Royal Mary, named the island when he arrived on Christmas Day, 25 December 1643. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian The island first appears on a map produced by Pieter Goos and published in 1666. Goos had labelled the island Moni.
The earliest recorded visit was in March 1688 by William Dampier of the British ship Cygnet, who found it uninhabited. William Dampier ( 5 September 1651 (baptised &ndash March 1715 was an English Buccaneer, sea captain Author and scientific observer An account of the visit can be found in Dampier's Voyages, which describes how, when trying to reach Cocos from New Holland, his ship was pulled off course in an easterly direction and after 28 days arrived at Christmas Island. New Holland is a historic name for the Island Continent of Australia. Dampier landed at the Dales (on the West Coast) and two of his crewmen were the first recorded people to set foot on Christmas Island.
The next visit was by Daniel Beekman, who described it in his 1718 book, A Voyage to and from the Island of Borneo, in the East Indies.
In 1771, the Indian vessel, the Pigot, attempted to find an anchorage but was unsuccessful; the crew reported seeing wild pigs and coconut palms. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country However, pigs are not known to have been introduced to the island at the time, so the Pigot may have found a different island.
The first attempt at exploring the island was in 1857 by the crew of the Amethyst. They tried to reach the summit of the island, but found the cliffs impassable.
During the 1872-76 Challenger expedition to Indonesia, naturalist Dr John Murray carried out extensive surveys. The Challenger Expedition was a scientific expedition that made many discoveries to lay the foundation of Oceanography.
In 1887, Captain Maclear of HMS Flying Fish, having discovered an anchorage in a bay that he named Flying Fish Cove, landed a party and made a small but interesting collection of the flora and fauna. In the next year, Pelham Aldrich, on board HMS Egeria, visited it for ten days, accompanied by J. Construction Egeria was constructed of an iron frame sheathed with teak and copper (hence 'composite' and powered by both sails and a single-screw steam engine developing J. Lister, who gathered a larger biological and mineralogical collection.
Among the rocks then obtained and submitted to Sir John Murray for examination were many of nearly pure phosphate of lime, a discovery which led to annexation of the island by the British Crown on 6 June 1888. Sir John Murray KCB (3 March 1841 – 16 March 1914 was a pioneering Scots-Canadian Oceanographer and Marine biologist. A phosphate, an Inorganic chemical, is a salt of Phosphoric acid. Lime is a general term for various naturally occurring Minerals and materials derived from them in which Carbonates Oxides and Hydroxides of Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year Year 1888 ( MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a .
Soon afterwards, a small settlement was established in Flying Fish Cove by G. Clunies Ross, the owner of the Keeling Islands (some 900 kilometres to the south west) to collect timber and supplies for the growing industry on Cocos. King of the Cocos Islands was a title given by the press to John Clunies-Ross, a Scottish sea captain
Phosphate mining began in the 1890s using indentured workers from Singapore, China, and Malaysia. An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to Singapore China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and
The island was administered jointly by the British Phosphate Commissioners and District Officers from the United Kingdom Colonial Office through the Straits Settlements, and later the Crown Colony of Singapore. The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British Colonies. The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826
Japan invaded and occupied the island in 1942, as the Indian garrison mutinied, and interned the residents until the end of World War II in 1945. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Japanese forces occupied Christmas Island, on March 31 1942, during World War II. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
At Australia's request, the United Kingdom transferred sovereignty to Australia; in 1957, the Australian government paid the government of Singapore £2. The Government of Singapore is formed by the Political party which gains a simple majority in the general Elections held in Singapore at least once every 9 million in compensation, a figure based mainly on an estimated value of the phosphate forgone by Singapore.
The first Australian Official Representative arrived in 1958 and was replaced by an Administrator in 1968. Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands together are called the Australian Indian Ocean Territories and since 1997 share a single Administrator resident on Christmas Island. Australian Indian Ocean Territories is the name since 1995 of an administrative unit under the Australian Department of Infrastructure Transport Regional Development and Local Government
From the late 1980s and early 1990s Christmas Island periodically received boatloads of refugees, mostly from Indonesia. Immigration detention is the policy of holding individuals suspected of visa violations Illegal entry or Unauthorised arrival in detention until a decision The Pacific Solution was the name given to the Australian government policy ( 2001 - 2007) of transporting Asylum seekers to detention camps on The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. During 2001, Christmas Island received a large number of asylum seekers travelling by boat, most of them from the Middle East and intending to apply for asylum in Australia. According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The arrival of the Norwegian cargo vessel MV Tampa, which had rescued people from the sinking Indonesian fishing-boat Palapa in international waters nearby, precipitated a diplomatic stand-off between Australia, Norway, and Indonesia. The MV Tampa is a Norwegian Cargo ship. In August 2001 under Captain Arne Rinnan, a diplomatic dispute brewed between Australia Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The vessel held 420 asylum seekers from Afghanistan, 13 from Sri Lanka, and five from Indonesia. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island In response to requests from the captain of the ship for Canberra to waive the Laws of the Sea and the Refugee Convention 1951, and have the refugees disembarked at Christmas Island, the Australian SAS boarded and took effective control. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ( UNCLOS) also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty is the international agreement that resulted The United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees is an International convention that defines who is a Refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals The Special Air Service Regiment ( SASR) is a Special Forces Regiment modelled on the original British SAS and also drawing on the traditions The stand-off eventually led to the asylum seekers being redirected to Nauru for processing. Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru, is an Island nation in the Micronesian South Pacific. Another boatload of asylum seekers was taken from Christmas Island to Papua New Guinea for processing, after it was claimed that many of the adult asylum seekers threw their children into the water, apparently in protest at being turned away. Papua New Guinea (or ˈpæpjuːə in Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini) officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania Australian federal election 2001 The Children Overboard affair was an Australian Political controversy involving public allegations by Howard government This was later proven to be false. Many of the refugees were subsequently accepted by New Zealand. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island
Former Australian Prime Minister John Howard later secured the passage of legislation through the Australian Parliament which excised Christmas Island from Australia's migration zone, meaning that asylum seekers arriving on Christmas Island could not automatically apply to the Australian government for refugee status, allowing the Royal Australian Navy to relocate them to other countries (Papua New Guinea's Manus Island, and Nauru) as part of the so-called Pacific Solution. The Prime Minister of Australia is the Head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. See also Howard Government John Winston Howard AC (born 26 July 1939 was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 11 March The Parliament of Australia or Commonwealth Parliament is the legislative branch of government of Australia. The Australian migration zone refers to the parts of Australian territory where a non Citizen must hold a visa to legally enter and remain According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race The Royal Australian Navy ( RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Manus Island is part of Manus Province in northern Papua New Guinea and is the largest island of the Admiralty Islands. Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru, is an Island nation in the Micronesian South Pacific. The Pacific Solution was the name given to the Australian government policy ( 2001 - 2007) of transporting Asylum seekers to detention camps on As of 2005, the Department of Immigration has begun construction of an "Immigration Reception and Processing Centre" and was completed in late 2007. The facility was originally estimated to cost $210 million, but the final cost was over $400 million and contains approximately 800 beds.
The current Prime Minister of Australia, Kevin Rudd has announced plans to decommission the Manus Island and Nauru centres now that the Australian Labor Party has assumed power in the Government of Australia. Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957 is the 26th and current Prime Minister of Australia and federal leader of the Centre-left Australian Labor This article describes the federal government of Australia See Australian governments for other jurisdictions Processing would then occur on Christmas Island itself.
As of 2006, the estimated population is 1,493. (The Australian Bureau of Statistics reports a population of 1,508 as of the 2001 Census. )
The ethnic composition is 70% Chinese, 20% European and 10% Malay. Malays (Melayu are an Ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast Religions practised on Christmas Island include Buddhism 75%, Christianity 12%, Islam 10% and others 1%. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. English is the official language, but Chinese and Malay are also spoken. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The Malay language ( ISO 639-1 code MS is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people and people of other ethnic groups who reside in the
Postage stamps including first day cover albums have been issued by Christmas Island since 1958.
Christmas Island is a non-self governing territory of Australia, administered by the Attorney-General's Department (before November 29, 2007 administration was carried out by the Department of Transport and Regional Services). The Attorney-General's Department is an Australian government department Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Department of Infrastructure Transport Regional Development and Local Government is an Australian Government department The legal system is under the authority of the Governor-General of Australia and Australian law. The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the monarch of Australia (currently Elizabeth II Queen of Australia) An Administrator (Neil Lucas, since 28 January 2006) appointed by the Governor-General represents the monarch and Australia. The title Administrator of the Government ( Administrator) has several uses in Australia. Neil Lucas PSM, JP was the Administrator of Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling Islands. Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy
The Australian Government provides Commonwealth-level government services through the Christmas Island Administration and the Department of Infrastructure.
There is no State Government; instead, state government type services are provided by contractors, including departments of the Western Australian Government, with the costs met by the Australian (Commonwealth) Government.
A unicameral Shire of Christmas Island with 9 seats provides local government services and is elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. The Shire of Christmas Island is a Local Government Area which manages local affairs on the Australian external territory of Christmas Island Elections are held every two years, with half the members standing for election.
Christmas Island residents who are Australian citizens also vote in Commonwealth (federal) elections. Christmas Island residents are represented in the House of Representatives through the Northern Territory Division of Lingiari and in the Senate by Northern Territory Senators. The Northern Territory is a federal territory of Australia, occupying much of the center of the mainland continent as well as the central northern regions The Division of Lingiari is an Australian Electoral Division in the Northern Territory.
In early 1986, the Christmas Island Assembly held a design competition for an island flag; the winning design was adopted as the informal flag of the territory for over a decade, and in 2002 it was made the official flag of Christmas Island. The Flag of Christmas Island was unofficially adopted in 1986 after being chosen the winner in a competition for a flag for the territory
Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine. A phosphate, an Inorganic chemical, is a salt of Phosphoric acid. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. In 1991, the mine was reopened by a consortium which included many of the former mine workers as shareholders. With the support of the government, a $34 million casino opened in 1993, but was closed in 1998 and has not re-opened. A casino is in the modern sense of the word a facility that houses and accommodates certain types of Gambling activities The Australian Government in 2001 agreed to support the creation of a commercial spaceport on the island, however this has not yet been constructed, and appears that it will not proceed in the future. A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching Spacecraft, by analogy with Seaport for Ships or Airport for Aircraft The Australian Government built a temporary immigration detention centre on the island in 2001 and plans to replace it with a larger, modern facility located at North West Point.
Located at quadrilateral with hollowed sides, about 19 km (12 miles) in greatest length and 14. In Geometry, a quadrilateral is a Polygon with four sides or edges and four vertices or corners. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand 5 km (9 miles) in extreme breadth. The total land area is 135 km² (52 square miles), with 138. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. 9 km (86. 3 miles) of coastline. The island is the flat summit of a submarine mountain more than 4,572 m (15,000 feet) high, the depth of the platform from which it rises being about 14,000 feet (4267 m) and its height above the sea being upwards of 305 m (1,000 feet). The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The mountain was originally a volcano, and some basalt is exposed in places such as The Dales and Dolly Beach, but most of the surface rock is limestone accumulated from the growth of coral over millions of years. Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the Basalt (bəˈsɔːlt ˈbeisɔːlt ˈbæsɔːlt is a common Extrusive Volcanic rock. Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Corals are Marine organisms from the class Anthozoa and exist as small Sea anemone –like Polyps typically in colonies of many , the island is a
The climate is tropical, with heat and humidity moderated by trade winds. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 Steep cliffs along much of the coast rise abruptly to a central plateau. Elevation ranges from sea level to 361 m (1,184 feet) at Murray Hill. The island is mainly tropical rainforest, of which 65% is National Park. Rainforests are Forests characterized by high Rainfall with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1750–2000 mm (68-78 inches
The narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard. In nautical terminology a reef is a rock, sandbar, or other feature lying beneath the surface of the water (six fathoms or less at low water
Christmas Island is 500 km south of Indonesia and about 2600 km northwest of Perth.
Christmas Island is of immense scientific value as it was uninhabited until the late nineteenth century, so many unique species of fauna and flora exist which have evolved independently of human interference. The Birds of Christmas Island form a heterogeneous group of over 100 species The coconut crab ( Birgus latro) is the largest land-living Arthropod in the world The Christmas Island red crab ( Gecarcoidea natalis) is a Species of terrestrial Crab endemic to Christmas Island and the The Red-footed Booby, Sula sula, is a large Seabird of the Gannet family Sulidae. The Brown Noddy or Common Noddy Anous stolidus is a Seabird from the Tern family. The Brown Booby ( Sula leucogaster) is a large Seabird of the Gannet family Sulidae. Two species of native rats, the Maclear's and Bulldog Rat have gone extinct since the island was settled, and one species of shrew may be already extinct. The Maclear's Rat ( Rattus macleari) was a large Rat which lived on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean. The Bulldog Rat ( Rattus nativitatis) lived on the higher hills and denser forests of Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean. The Christmas Island Shrew ( Crocidura trichura) also known as Christmas Island Musk-shrew is an extremely rare or possibly extinct shrew from Christmas Island Two-thirds of the island has been declared a National Park which is managed by the Australian Department of Environment and Heritage through Parks Australia. A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution
The dense rainforest has evolved in the deep soils of the plateau and on the terraces. Rainforests are Forests characterized by high Rainfall with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1750–2000 mm (68-78 inches In Geology and Earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting The forests are dominated by twenty-five tree species. Ferns, orchids and vines grow on the branches in the humid atmosphere beneath the canopy. A fern is any one of a group of about 20000 Species of Plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta A vine is any plant of Genus Vitis (the Grape plants or by extension any similar climbing or trailing plant The canopy is one of the uppermost levels of a Forest, below the emergent layer, formed by the Tree crowns Canopy trees refers to the trees The 135 plant species include sixteen which are only found on Christmas Island.
The annual red crab mass migration (around 100 million animals) to the sea to spawn has been called one of the wonders of the natural world and takes place each year around November; after the start of the wet season and in synchronisation with the cycle of the moon. The Christmas Island red crab ( Gecarcoidea natalis) is a Species of terrestrial Crab endemic to Christmas Island and the A wet season or rainy season is a Season in which the average Rainfall in a region is significantly increased
The land crabs and sea birds are the most noticeable animals on the island. Twenty terrestrial and intertidal crabs (of which thirteen are regarded as true land crabs, only dependent on the ocean for larval development) have been described. Robber crabs, known elsewhere as coconut crabs, also exist in large numbers on the island. The coconut crab ( Birgus latro) is the largest land-living Arthropod in the world
Christmas Island is a focal point for sea birds of various species. Eight species or subspecies of sea birds nest on the island. In Zoology, as in other branches of Biology, subspecies is the Taxonomic rank immediately subordinate to a Species. The most numerous is the Red-footed Booby that nests in colonies, in trees, on many parts of the shore terrace. The Red-footed Booby, Sula sula, is a large Seabird of the Gannet family Sulidae. The widespread Brown Booby nests on the ground near the edge of the seacliff and inland cliffs. The Brown Booby ( Sula leucogaster) is a large Seabird of the Gannet family Sulidae. Abbott's Booby (listed as endangered) nests on tall emergent trees of the western, northern and southern plateau rainforest. The Abbott’s Booby ( Papasula abbotti) is a large endangered Seabird of the Gannet family Sulidae. An endangered species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming Extinct because it is either few in numbers or threatened by changing environmental or predation The Christmas Island forest is the only nesting habitat of the Abbott's Booby left in the world. The endemic Christmas Island Frigatebird (listed as endangered) has nesting areas on the north-eastern shore terraces and the more widespread. Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere The Christmas Island Frigatebird ( Fregata andrewsi) is a Frigatebird endemic to the Christmas Islands in the Indian Ocean. Great Frigatebirds nest in semi-deciduous trees on the shore terrace with the greatest concentrations being in the North West and South Point areas. The Great Frigatebird ( Fregata minor) is a large dispersive Seabird in the Frigatebird family. The Common Noddy and two species of bosuns or tropicbirds with their brilliant gold or silver plumage and distinctive streamer tail feathers also nest on the island. The Brown Noddy or Common Noddy Anous stolidus is a Seabird from the Tern family. Tropicbirds are a family, Phaethontidae, of tropical pelagic Seabirds There are three species in one Genus Phaethon Of the ten native land birds and shorebirds, seven are endemic species or subspecies. Some 86 migrant bird species have been recorded.
Telephone services are provided by Telstra and are a part of the Australian network with the same prefix as Western Australia (08). Telstra or Telstra Corporation (often abbreviated as Telstra Corp) () is an Australian Telecommunications and media company formerly A GSM mobile telephone system replaced the old analogue network in February 2005. GSM ( Global System for Mobile communications: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for Mobile phones in the February 2005: ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August Four free-to-air television stations from Australia are broadcast (ABC, SBS, GWN and WIN) in the same time-zone as Perth. Radio broadcasts from Australia include ABC Radio National, ABC Regional radio and Red FM. All services are provided by satellite links from the mainland. Broadband internet became available to subscribers in urban areas in mid 2005 through the local internet service provider, CIIA (formerly dotCX).
Christmas Island, due to its close proximity to Australia's northern neighbours, falls within many of the more 'interesting' satellite footprints throughout the region. This results in ideal conditions for receiving various Asian broadcasts which locals sometimes prefer to the West Australian provided content. Additionally, ionospheric conditions usually bode well for many of the more terrestrial radio transmissions - HF right up through VHF and sometimes in to UHF. The island plays home to a small array of radio equipment that, evidently, spans a good chunk of the usable spectrum. A variety of government owned and operated antenna systems are employed on the island to take advantage of this.
A container port exists at Flying Fish Cove with an alternative container unloading point to the south of the island at Norris Point for use during the December to March 'swell season" of seasonal rough seas. There are two weekly flights into Christmas Island Airport from Perth, Western Australia (via RAAF Learmonth) operated by National Jet Systems on Mondays and Fridays with additional Saturday flights almost fortnightly and a weekly charter flight from Malaysia operated by Malaysia Airlines on Mondays. Christmas Island Airport is a small regional airport located on the Australian territory of Christmas Island. Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. RAAF Learmonth, also known as Learmonth Airport, is a joint use Royal Australian Air Force base and civil airport. National Jet Systems known as National Jet, is a scheduled and charter Airline based in Adelaide, Australia. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Malaysia Airlines (MAS ( Malay:Syarikat Penerbangan Malaysia Chinese:马来西亚航空公司) is the Flag carrier of Malaysia.
There is a new recreation centre at Phosphate Hill operated by the Shire of Christmas Island. There is also a taxi service. The road network covers most of the island and is generally good quality, although four wheel drive vehicles are needed to access some more distant parts of the rain forest or the more isolated beaches.
The Christmas Island National Park covers 63% of the island. This means that for the visitor interested in flora and fauna there is a great deal to see. In Botany, flora ( Plural: floras or florae has two meanings The first meaning flora of an area or of time period, refers to all Fauna is all of the Animal life of any particular region or time The same is true for the coastal waters where the marine life is equivalently spectacular.
Christmas Island District High School is located on the island. Christmas Island District High School is a school located in Christmas Island, a territory of Australia.
The island-operated crèche is located in the Recreation Centre . Day care or child care is care of a child during the Day by a person other than the child's Parents or Legal guardians typically someone outside
The island includes one public library .