The historical phenomenon of Christianization, (or Christianisation — see spelling differences) the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting native pagan practices and culture, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar to Christian uses. American and British English spelling differences are one aspect of American and British English differences. Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity or a change from one religious identity to another Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world
The practice of Christianization has at times been relatively peaceful and at times has been a very violent process, ranging from political conversions to adopt Christianity to military campaigns to force conversion onto native populaces.
In Antiquity, Christianization was effected only partly through laws against indigenous religious practices, official conversions of temples to Christian churches and the placement of Christian churches over ancient religious sites. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean It was effected also by the demonization of indigenous pagan gods into demons, traditional practices into witchcraft and the partial Christianization to outright banning of existing rites under threat of torture and death. Demonization is the reinterpretation of polytheistic deities as Demons by other religions generally monotheistic and Henotheistic ones Witchcraft, in various historical anthropological religious and mythological contexts is the use of certain kinds of Supernatural or magical powers
Reformatting native religious and cultural activities and beliefs into a Christianized form was officially sanctioned; preserved in the Venerable Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum is a letter from Pope Gregory I to Mellitus, arguing that conversions were easier if people were allowed to retain the outward forms of their traditions, while claiming that the traditions were in honour of the Christian God, "to the end that, whilst some gratifications are outwardly permitted them, they may the more easily consent to the inward consolations of the grace of God". Bede (ˈbiːd (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin Beda (beda (c The Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (in English: Ecclesiastical History of the English People) is a work in Latin by the Saint Mellitus (died 24 April 624 was the first Bishop of London and the third Archbishop of Canterbury. In essence, it was intended that the traditions and practices still existed, but that the reasoning behind them was forgotten. The existence of syncretism in Christian tradition has long been recognized by scholars, and in recent times many of the instances of syncretism have also been acknowledged by the Roman Catholic church. Syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory beliefs often while melding practices of various schools of thought
Humanistic studies of Antiquity and the Reformation combined in the sixteenth century to produce works of scholarship marked by an agenda that was occupied with identifying Roman Catholic practices with paganism, and identifying the emerging Protestant churches with a purgative "re-Christianization" of society. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time The Lutheran scholar Philip Melanchthon produced his Apologia Confessionis Augustanae (1530) detailing the rites derived from pagan practices. Philipp Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerd) ( February 16, 1497 &ndash April 19, 1560) was a German professor and theologian Heinrich Bullinger, De origine erroris libris duo (1539) detailed the pagan "origins of (Catholic) errors". Heinrich Bullinger ( July 18, 1504 - September 17, 1575) was a Swiss reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli
Isaac Casaubon, De rebus sacris et ecclesiasticus exercitationes (1614) makes a third familiar example, where sound scholarship was somewhat compromised by sectarian pleading. Isaac Casaubon ( February 18 1559 &ndash July 1 1614) was a classical scholar and Philologist, first in France Thus such pagan precedents for Christian practice have tended to be downplayed or even sometimes dismissed by Christian apologists as a form of Protestant Apologetics.
The 20th century saw more purely historical inquiries, free of sectarian bias; an early historicist classic in this field of study was Jean Seznec's The Survival of the Pagan Gods: the mythological tradition and its place in Renaissance humanism and the arts. Jean Seznec ( March 19, 1905 - November 22, 1983) was a historian and Mythographer whose most influential book for English-speaking (1972).
Although the cross is currently the most common symbol of Christianity, and has been for many centuries, it only came to prominence during the fourth century, and was not particularly associated with Christianity before that time. The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов ( Lop'jal, May 15 ( N The Christian cross is the best-known Religious symbol of Christianity. According to Christian tradition, the cross is a reference to the crucifixion of Jesus, and the crucifix is a more obvious, and some would say gruesome, version of such a reference. This article describes the Christian Passion For other meanings see Passion. A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one fixed to a cross" is a cross with a representation of Jesus ' body or corpus However, due to the highly ambiguous nature of the Greek terms used in the bible for his crucifixion, it may be the case that the correct translation actually points to Jesus having just been tied to a single stake of wood, rather than the cross shaped device in traditional depictions; though Christian translations into English often render these terms as nailed to a cross, they could equally mean nailed to a tree and nailed to a wooden pole, which was another common method of crucifixion in the Roman empire - the hands being tied above the head. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE)
Crosses, however, were important symbols of several pre-Christian religions, including Hinduism where the Swastika was originally a prominent holy symbol and the religion of Ancient Egypt where the increasingly cross-shaped Ankh was regarded as a symbol of life itself. The swastika (from Sanskrit: svástika sa स्वस्तिक Hindu IS CORRECT if 'ि' is positioned incorrectly see -->) is Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Ankylosis progressive homolog (mouse, also known as ANKH, is a human Gene. The main early Christianity communities centred on Alexandria and Rome, and it is thought likely that the Alexandrian Christians adopted the Ankh, while the Rome-based Christians adopted the cross from influences such as depictions of Bacchus with his head covered by cross symbols. In Classical mythology, Dionysus or Dionysos (in Greek, Διόνυσος or Διώνυσος; associated with Roman Those who see Jesus as simply a Jewish form of the Osiris-Dionysus mythology consider the use of the Ankh symbol as an obvious continuation, while other scholars consider that it was adopted due to Christianity valuing its metaphysical connotations.
The predecessor of the cross as the main Christian symbol was the labarum, a symbol formed by overlaying the first two letters of the Greek word for christ in the Greek alphabet. The Labarum (☧ was a military standard that displayed the first two Greek letters of the word " Christ " ( Greek: ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ or Χριστός Constantine I is widely considered to have introduced the symbol into Christianity, but the symbol itself predates this, and was also used by the major religion of Sol Invictus, due to its prior use as a major symbol representing good fortune. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun" or more fully Deus Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun God" was the late Roman state Sun god. Prior to Christianity, the symbol had become considered to represent auspiciousness since it was earlier the symbol of Chronos, the Greek deity of time itself, whose name it forms the monogram of, in much the same way as it monograms an epithet given by Christians to Jesus. In Greek mythology, Chronos ( Ancient Greek:) in pre-Socratic philosophical works is said to be the personification of Time. A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or other Graphemes to form one Symbol.
Although Christian tradition argues that Constantine chose the labarum because he had a vision that lead him to convert to Christianity, Constantine's conversion is disputed by many historians since he continued using clearly Sol Invictus related symbolism and wording on his currency for much of the remaineder of his life, remained the Pontifex Maximus of Mithraism/Ancient Roman religion for his entire life, and was only baptised on his deathbed (although this was common at the time; many Christians believed that if one sinned after baptism one's salvation was lost), and even that is disputed since the only witnesses were the same people that claimed that Constantine had been Christian for much longer. Persecutions See also Persecution of Christians The first recorded significant persecution of Christians at the hands of the authorities of the Roman Empire The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the Ancient Roman College of Pontiffs. Ancient Roman religion encompasses the collection of Beliefs and Rituals practised in Ancient Rome in the form of Cult practices Most secular historians see Constantine's motive for choosing the labarum as political rather than supernatural or religious, with him deliberately making his banner one which could be interpreted as supporting either of the two major religions of the Roman Empire at the time; Constantine saw unity and conformity as the way to achieve political stability, and spent a great deal of time attempting to reduce division (for example by holding the First Council of Nicaea to settle the question of Arianism). The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. Although many Christian groups treat the symbol as having always been exclusively Christian, certain Protestant groups, particularly Restorationists support the conclusions of secular scholars, and consequently regard the symbol as non-Christian, disowning it. For other usages see Restoration (general disambiguation Apokatastasis (universal restoration Christian Zionism (restoration of Israel and
Prior to the labarum, the main Christian symbol, and the earliest, was a fish-like symbol now known as Ichthys (the Greek word for fish); the Greek word ιχθυς is an acronym for the phrase transliterated as " Iesou Christos Theou Yios Sotiras," that is, "Jesus Christ, God's Son, the Savior. Ichthys or Ichthus Greek: grc ἰχθύς capitalized grc ΙΧΘΥΣ also transliterated and Latinized as ichthys, Acronyms, initialisms, and alphabetisms are Abbreviations that are formed using the initial components in a phrase or name " There are several other connections with Christian tradition relating to this choice of symbol: that it was a reference to the feeding of the multitude; that it referred to some of the apostles having previously been fishermen; or that the word Christ was pronounced by Jews in a similar way to the Hebrew word for fish (though Nunah is the normal Hebrew word for fish, making this seem unlikely). Feeding the multitude (also known as The miracle of the loaves and fish) is the name of two Miracles attributed to Jesus, the first of which is reported The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e
Few Christian churches built in the first half millennium of the established Christian Church were not built upon sites already consecrated as pagan temples or mithraea, the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva (literally Saint Mary above Minerva) in Rome being simply the most obvious example. The Mithraic Mysteries or Mysteries of Mithras (also Mithraism) was a Roman mystery religion which became popular among the military in the late Santa Maria sopra Minerva is a Basilica church in Rome. The church located in the Campus Martius region is considered the only Gothic The MInisterial NEtwoRk for Valorising Activities in digitisation, or MINERVA, is a European Union organization concerned with the digitisation of cultural and Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Sulpicius Severus, in his Vita of Martin of Tours, a dedicated destroyer of temples and sacred trees, remarks "wherever he destroyed heathen temples, there he used immediately to build either churches or monasteries" (Vita, ch xiii), and when Benedict took possession of the site at Monte Cassino, he began by smashing the sculpture of Apollo and the altar that crowned the height. Sulpicius Severus (c 363 &ndash between 420 and 425 wrote the earliest Biography of Saint Martin of Tours. Saint Martin of Tours (Martinus (316/317 Savaria, Pannonia &ndash November 8, 317, Candes, Gaul; buried November For information about the World War II battle see the Battle of Monte Cassino.
The British Isles and other areas of northern Europe that were formerly druidic are still densely punctuated by holy wells and holy springs that are now attributed to some saint, often a highly local saint unknown elsewhere; in earlier times many of these were seen as guarded by supernatural forces such as the melusina, and many such pre-Christian holy wells appear to survive as baptistries. A druid was a member of the priestly and learned class in the ancient Celtic societies SACRED was a Cubesat built by the Student Satellite Program of the University of Arizona. A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity Melusine (or Melusina) is a figure of European Legends and Folklore, a feminine spirit of fresh waters in sacred springs and rivers  Not all pre-Christian holy places were respected enough for them to survive, however, as most ancient European sacred groves, such as the great Irminsul (whose location is now lost, but was possibly located at Externsteine), were destroyed by Christianizing forces. A major event leading to the eventual formation of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, took place in what is commonly referred to within the Church as The An Irminsul ( Old Saxon, probably "great/mighty pillar" or "arising pillar" was a kind of Pillar which is attested as playing an important role The Externsteine are a distinctive Rock formation located in the Teutoburger Wald region of northwestern Germany, not far from the city of Detmold
During the Reconquista and the Crusades, the cross served the symbolic function of possession that a flag would occupy today. The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents At the siege of Lisbon in 1147, when a mixed group of Christians took the city, "What great joy and what a great abundance there was of pious tears when, to the praise and honor of God and of the most Holy Virgin Mary the saving cross was placed atop the highest tower to be seen by all as a symbol of the city's subjection. The Siege of Lisbon, from July 1 to October 25 of 1147, was the military action that brought the city of Lisbon under definitive Portuguese " (De expugnatione Lyxbonensi)
The historicity of several saints has often been treated sceptically by most academics, either because there is a paucity of historical evidence for them, or due to striking resemblances that they have to pre-Christian deities. The Historicity of several saints has often been treated skeptically by most academics either because there is a paucity of historical evidence for them or due to striking resemblances In 1969 the Roman Catholic church officially decanonised some Christian Saints, demoted others, and pronounced the historicity of others to be dubious. Though highly popular in the Middle Ages, many of these such saints have since been largely forgotten since, and their names may now seem quite unfamiliar. The most prominent amongst these is Saint Eustace, who was extremely popular in earlier times, but scholars now see as a chimera composed from details of several other Saints. For the Lithuanian saint see Eustace of Vilnius. Saint Eustace, also known as Eustachius or Eustathius, was a legendary Many of these figures of dubious historicity appear to be based on figures from pre-Christian myth and legend, Saint Sarah, for example, also known as Sarah-la-Kali, is thought by scholars to be a Christianization of Kali, a Hindu deity. Saint Sarah, also known as Sara-la-Kali ("Sara the black" Sara e Kali is the mythic Patron saint of the Roma (Gypsy people Kali redirects here See Kali (disambiguation for other uses Not to be confused with Kali (demon, the personification of Kali Yuga
Other more obviously Christian figures, such as certain bishops whose existence are widely attested in historic literature, and central figures such as Mary, the mother of Jesus, Michael, the archangel, and Satan, are not however, without later legendary additions to their more historic narratives. Michael (מִיכָאֵל Micha'el or Mîkhā'ēl; Μιχαήλ Mikhaíl; Michael or Míchaël; ميخائيل Mikhā'īl) is an Satan, ( Standard Hebrew Satan'el, English accuser) is a term that originates from the Abrahamic faiths, being traditionally Not only are there apocryphal writings such as the Home-going of the virgin Mary (about her death), but much iconography associated with certain figures, such as with Michael and with Mary, is suspected by several historians to be Christianization of earlier iconography that originally concerned other, non-Christian, figures. New Testament apocrypha are a number of writings of the early Christian church that give accounts of the teachings of Jesus, aspects of the life of Jesus accounts The similarity of Christian depictions of demons to several pre-Christian deities, and deity-related figures such as Satyrs, has led several scholars to argue that the stereotypical Christian depiction of Satan, and of demons in general, was deliberate demonisation of benign figures from rival religions. In Greek mythology, satyrs (Σάτυροι Satyroi) are a troop of male companions of Pan and Dionysus – " Satyresses quot
Several Christian feasts occupy moments in the year that were formerly devoted to pagan celebrations. The term Christianised calendar refers to feast days which are Christianised survivals from pre-Christian times Familiar examples are the Roman Saturnalia, converted to Christmas, the festivities of Yule in northern Europe, the name of Eostre converted to English "Easter" to identify the Paschal festival, the celebration of Midsummer Day as the birthday feast of John the Baptist, and the celebrations of the Feast of the Lemures and of Celtic Samhain combined and transferred to the eve of All Saints' Day a. Saturnalia is the feast with which the Romans commemorated the dedication of the temple of the god Saturn Yule is a winter festival historically celebrated primarily in northern Europe but now celebrated in many other countries in various forms ags Ēostre is the name of an Anglo-Saxon goddess attested by the eighth-century Benedictine monk Bede 's De temporum ratione Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. Midsummer may simply refer to the period of time centered upon the summer solstice, but more often refers to specific European celebrations that accompany the actual solstice Saint John the Baptist ( heb. Jochanan ben Sacharja, arab. يحيى Yaḥyā or يوحنا Yūḥanna, aram. In Roman religion, the Lemuralia or Lemuria was a feast during which the ancient Romans performed Rites to exorcise the malevolent Samhain (ˈsaʊn or /ˈsɑːwɪn/ Irish /ˈsˠaunʲ/ from the Old Irish samain) is the word for November in a few Gaelic languages For the British girl group see All Saints (band. All Saints' Day (also called All Hallows or Hallowmas) often k. a. Halloween. Halloween, or Hallowe’en, is a Holiday celebrated on the night of October 31.
Christians in authority frowned upon the riot and disorder of the pre-Christian festivals; in regard to Yule, the friend and biographer of Saint Eligius recorded that the bishop called the "Apostle to the Frisians" would caution his flock [Do not] make vetulas, (little figures of the Old Woman), little deer or iotticos or set tables at night (for the house-elf, compare Puck) or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks. Saint Eligius or Loye ( French: Éloi) (ca 588-590 - December 1, 659 or 660 is the Patron saint of goldsmiths and other However, such pre-Christian activities proved hard to suppress, and several edicts were given that instruct missionaries to attempt to absorb earlier traditions into Christianity so as to distract people from their pre-Christian gods; All Souls' Day was for example accepted by Odilo (died 1048) in the Cluniac monasteries, and its observance spread through the Celtic north before it was introduced into Italy. Odilo may refer to Saint Odilo of Cluny Odilo of Bavaria The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny, pronunciation klyˈni is an abbey in France.
The obvious connection to Jewish rituals of Christian practices such as the Eucharist and Baptism, is often argued to be by design. Christianised rituals were among the cultural features of the Mediterranean world that were adapted by the Early Christians, as part of the thorough-going Christianization The Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names is a Christian Sacrament by which in a common interpretation those In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted Christian tradition places these Christian use of these activities as having originated in the life of Jesus, as attested by the Biblical narratives (e. g. the Baptism of Jesus for Baptism, and Last Supper for the Eucharist), and the Biblical incidents are said to be examples of Jewish ritual (e. In the Synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. In the Christian Gospels the Last Supper (also called the Lord's Supper or Mystical Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his g. Baptism as ritual cleansing, and the Last Supper as a passover seder). In the Christian Gospels the Last Supper (also called the Lord's Supper or Mystical Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his Passover ( Hebrew, Yiddish: פֶּסַח Pesach, Tiberian: pɛsaħ Israeli: Pesah, Pesakh, Yiddish Seder (plural sedarim) is a Hebrew word meaning "order" and can have any of the following meanings For Jewish holidays However, these practices are also present in several non-Christian, non-Jewish, ancient religions, a fact that made several church fathers uncomfortable. The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church So similar were the practices of major rivals, such as Mithraism, and so obviously did they occur before the existence of Christianity, and unconnected to Judaism, that church fathers such as Tertullian and Justin Martyr argued that Satan himself had given the rituals to the rival religions, as a sort-of prophetic mockery. The Mithraic Mysteries or Mysteries of Mithras (also Mithraism) was a Roman mystery religion which became popular among the military in the late Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, Anglicised as Tertullian, (ca Saint Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher, Latin Iustinus Martyr or Flavius According to several secular scholars, the fact that even early Christian church fathers admitted that the other religions used these rituals, and that they admitted the other religions used them first, suggests that Christianity adopted them from these sources, and the biblical narrative was invented later to justify Christian usage. However, it could also be argued that the biblical narrative refers to the practices as they were known in Judaism, while the forms in traditional Christianity were taken from other religious sources.
The Council of Jerusalem, according to Acts 15, determined that circumcision was not required of Gentile converts, only avoidance of "pollution of idols, fornication, things strangled, and blood" (KJV, Acts 15:20), establishing nascent Christianity as an attractive alternative to Judaism for prospective Proselytes. Early Christianity is commonly defined as the Christianity of the three centuries between the Crucifixion of Jesus ( c The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. Council of Jerusalem (or Apostolic Conference) is a name applied subsequently to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter and probably referred to Hellenistic Judaism was a movement which existed in the Jewish diaspora before the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD that sought to establish a Hebraic-Jewish Proselyte, from the Koine Greek προσήλυτος/proselytos, is used in the Septuagint for "stranger" i The Twelve Apostles and the Apostolic Fathers initiated the process of integration of the originally Jewish sect (outlawed as religio illicita since the 80s) into Hellenistic religion (Christianity and Neoplatonism), a process culminating only at the end of Classical Antiquity, with Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e Jewish Christians (sometimes called also "Hebrew Christians" or "Christian Jews") is a term which can have two meanings a historical one and a It is often asserted that the Roman empire differentiated between "lawful" ( religio licita) and "illicit" ( religio illicita) religions Note Sometimes ' 80s is used as shorthand for the 1980s, the 1880s, or other such decades in different centuries Hellenistic religion comprises any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the peoples who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic Neoplatonism was a major influence on Christian theology throughout Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages in the West notably due to (1 St Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, also known as Pseudo-Denys, is the anonymous theologian and philosopher of the late 5th to early 6th century whose Corpus Areopagiticum
The Armenian and Ethiopian churches are the only instances of imposition of Christianity by sovereign rulers predating the council of Nicaea. The Arsacid Dynasty (Arshakuni Dynasty ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428 The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in transliterated Amharic: Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental The initial conversion of the Roman Empire occurred mostly in urban areas of Europe, where the first converts occurred through the conversion of most of the Jewish population. Later conversions happened among the Grecian-Roman-Celtic populations over centuries, again mostly among its urban population and only spread to rural populations in much later centuries. The term "pagan" is from Latin, it means "villager, rustic, civilian" and is derived from this historical transition. The root of that word is present in today's word "paisan" or "paisano". Consequently, while the initial converts were found among the Jewish populations, the development of the Orthodox Church as an aspect of State society occurred through the co-option of State Religion into the ethos of Christianity and only then was conversion of the large rural population accomplished. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut
When Yale historian Ramsay MacMullen treated the Christianization of the Roman Empire, he divided his book in two sections, before and after the year 312, which marked the momentous conversion of Constantine. Persecutions See also Persecution of Christians The first recorded significant persecution of Christians at the hands of the authorities of the Roman Empire Ramsay MacMullen (born 1928 in New York City) is an Emeritus Professor of history at Yale University, where he taught from 1967 to his retirement in 1993 as Dunham The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine Constantine ended the persecution of Christianity (and other religions) with the Edict of Milan, so that the Imperial pagan religion of Ancient Rome was no longer the only acceptable religion by the state. The Edict of Milan was a letter signed by emperors Constantine and Licinius, that proclaimed Religious toleration in the Roman Empire. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Ancient Roman religion encompasses the collection of Beliefs and Rituals practised in Ancient Rome in the form of Cult practices Whether or not Constantine himself was a proponent of what was to follow is contested. Under Constantine's successors, Christianization of Roman society proceeded by fits and starts, as John Curran recently documented in detail (Curran 2000). John Curran may refer to John Curran (businessman, American businessman and Chairman of ARIN John Philpot Curran, (1750-1817 Irish
Constantine's sons, for example, banned pagan State religious sacrifices in 341, but did not close the temples. Although all State temples in all cities were ordered shut in 356, there is evidence that traditional sacrifices continued. Under Julian, the temples were reopened and State religious sacrifices legalized once more. Flavius Claudius Julianus, known also as Julian or Julian the Apostate (331 or 332 to 26 June 363) was Roman Emperor (Caesar When Gratian declined the position and title of Pontifex Maximus, his act effectively brought an end to the state religion due to the positions authority and ties within the Imperial administration. For other figures with this name see Gratian (disambiguation. The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the Ancient Roman College of Pontiffs. Again however, this process ended State official practices but not the private religious practices. Consequently, the temples remained open until Theodosius I made the public expression of the ancient cults illegal, bringing an era of religious toleration decisively to an end. Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄
After Rome was declared a Christian Empire by Theodosius in 389, laws were passed against pagan practices over the course of the following years. Many of the ancient pagan temples were subsequently defiled, sacked, and destroyed, or converted into Christian sites. As such, the Christianization attributed to Constantine eventually became a more coercive process under Theodosius.
The early Christianization of the various Germanic peoples was achieved by various means, and was partly facilitated by the prestige of the Christian Roman Empire amongst European pagans. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The early rise of Germanic Christianity was, thus, mainly due to voluntary conversion on a small scale.
In the 4th century some Eastern Germanic tribes, notably the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, adopted Arianism. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s The Germanic tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of Migrants who may have moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. From the 6th century, Germanic tribes were converted (and re-converted) by missionaries of the Roman Catholic Church, firstly among the Franks, after Clovis I's conversion to Catholicism in 496. The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Clovis I (c 466 &ndash 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler Events By Place Europe Battle of Tolbiac: Clovis I defeats the Alamanni, and is baptized into the Catholic The Lombards adopted Catholicism as they entered Italy, also during the 6th century. The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
Unlike the history of Christianity in the Roman Empire, conversion of the West and East Germanic tribes took place "top to bottom", in the sense that missionaries aimed at converting Germanic nobility first, which would then impose their new faith on the general population.
The Franks were converted in the 5th century, after Clovis I's conversion to Catholicism. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Clovis I (c 466 &ndash 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler In 498 (497 or 499 are also possible) he let himself be baptised in Reims. Events By Place Byzantine Empire Emperor Anastasius I reforms the monetary system using Greek numerals instead of Roman Events By Place Europe The Alemanni are defeated by the Franks under Clovis I near Bonn. Events By place Asia Kavadh I of Persia deposes his brother Djamasp and restores himself as king of Persia. Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; riːmz in English and /ʁɛ̃s/ in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern  With this act, the Frankish Kingdom became Christian, although it would take until the 7th century for the population to abandon some of their pagan customs.  This was typical of the Christianization of Europe. Christian and pagan practices would effectively exist in parallel.
During the reign of Ethelbert of Kent, Pope Gregory I decided to regain the island for Christianity. The history of Christianity in England from the Roman departure to the Norman Conquest is often told as one of conflict between the Celtic Christianity Irish and Scottish missionaries (Iro-Scottish Hiberno-Scottish were instrumental in the spread of Christianity in Anglo-Saxon England and the Æthelberht (also Æthelbert, Aethelberht, Aethelbert, or Ethelbert) (c Between the sixth and the tenth century, the mission of the Catholic Church and the Hiberno-Scottish mission Christianized England, working largely independently. Irish and Scottish missionaries (Iro-Scottish Hiberno-Scottish were instrumental in the spread of Christianity in Anglo-Saxon England and the
The Germanic peoples underwent gradual Christianization in the course of the Early Middle Ages, resulting in a unique form of Christianity known as Germanic Christianity in some cases. The Germanic peoples underwent gradual Christianization in the course of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Early Middle Ages is a period in the History of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from AD 500 The Germanic peoples underwent gradual Christianization in the course of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. The Eastern and Western tribes were the first to convert through various means. However, it wouldn't be until the 12th century until the North Germanic Tribes had Christianized.
In the polytheistic Germanic tradition it was even possible to worship Jesus next to the native gods like Wodan and Thor. Wōden is a god in Anglo-Saxon paganism, together with Norse Odin representing a development of a Proto-Germanic god * Wōdanaz Thor ( Old Norse: Þórr) is the red-haired and bearded God of Thunder in Germanic paganism and its subset Norse paganism Before a battle, a pagan military leader might pray to Jesus for victory, instead of Odin, if he expected more help from the Christian God. Clovis had done that before a battle against one of the kings of the Alamanni, and had thus attributed his victory to Jesus. The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Main river ( Germany Such utilitarian thoughts were the basis of most conversions of rulers during this period. In Economics, utility is a measure of the relative satisfaction from or desirability of Consumption of various Goods and services.  The Christianization of the Franks lay the foundation for the further Christianization of the Germanic peoples.
The next impulse came from the edge of Europe. Anglo-Saxon missionaries were instrumental in the spread of Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century, continuing the work Although Ireland had never been part of the Roman Empire, Christianity had come there and developed, largely independently into Celtic Christianity. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes called the Celtic Church or the British Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval The Irish monks had developed a concept of peregrinatio.  This essentially meant, that a monk would leave the monastery and his Christian country to proselytize among the heathens, as self-chosen punishment for his sins. From 590 onwards Irish missionaries were active in Gaul, Scotland, Wales and England. Events By Place Byzantine Empire Summer - Maurice agrees to Khosrau's entreaties and agrees to restart the war with Persia
On the Continent, the West Germanic Saxon peoples were converted by force. The West Germanic tribes were Germanic peoples who spoke the branch of Germanic languages known as West Germanic languages. The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes. In the course of the Saxon Wars Charlemagne destroyed their Irminsul in 772, and in 782 he allegedly ordered the beheading of 4,500 Saxon nobles who were caught practicing their native paganism in spite of being baptized, at the Blood court of Verden. The Saxon Wars were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne first entered Saxony with the intent to conquer Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his An Irminsul ( Old Saxon, probably "great/mighty pillar" or "arising pillar" was a kind of Pillar which is attested as playing an important role Events By Place Europe Charlemagne starts fighting the Saxons and the Frisians; Saxony is subdued and converted Events By Place Europe Charlemagne summons the monk and scholar Alcuin of York to head the palace school at Aachen The Massacre of Verden (Blutgericht von Verden was an alleged massacre of Saxons in 782 near the present town of Verden in Lower Saxony,
After its establishment under Krum of Bulgaria, the new Kingdom of Bulgaria found itself between the kingdom of the East Franks and the Byzantine Empire. The Christianization of Bulgaria was the process of converting 9th-century medieval Bulgaria to Christianity. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian East ( ern) Francia ( Regnum Francorum orientalium) known variously as Francia Orientalis or the Kingdom of the East Franks, was the Christianization then took place in the 9th century under Boris I of Bulgaria. Boris I or sometimes Boris-Mihail (Michael (Борис I (Михаил also known as Bogoris (died 2 May 907 The Bulgarians became Eastern Orthodox Christians and the Bulgarian Orthodox Church was created. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Българска православна църква Bălgarska pravoslavna cărkva) is an Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church
The "Baptism of Poland" (Polish: Chrzest Polski) in 966 refers to the baptism of Mieszko I, the first ruler of a united Polish state. The Baptism of Poland (Chrzest Polski was the event in 966 that signified the beginning of the Christianization of Poland, commencing with the Baptism Jan Matejko ( (also known as Jan Mateyko; June 24 1838 Free City of Kraków; - November 1 1893 Kraków) was a Polish painter The Baptism of Poland (Chrzest Polski was the event in 966 that signified the beginning of the Christianization of Poland, commencing with the Baptism The Pagan reaction in Poland was a series of events in the Kingdom of Poland of the 1030s that culminated in a popular uprising Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. 966 was a year in the 10th century. Events By Place Europe April 14 or April 30 — Mieszko Life In 965 Mieszko married Dobrawa (Dobrava Dubrawka daughter of Boleslav I, Duke of Bohemia. His baptism was followed by the building of churches and the establishment of an ecclesiastical hierarchy. Mieszko saw baptism as a way of strengthening his hold on power, with the active support he could expect from the bishops, as well as a unifying force for the Polish people. Mieszko's action proved highly successful; by the 13th century, Roman Catholicism had become the dominant religion in Poland. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos
In the Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Hungary (which was larger than modern day Hungary) was Christianized between 970 and 1038. This article deals with the history of the Kingdom of Hungary from the 10th century to c Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic
Between the 8th and the 13th century the area of what now is Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine was settled by the Kievan Rus'. The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan An attempt to Christianize them had already been made in the 9th century, with the Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate. The Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate is supposed to have happened in the 860s and was the first stage in the process of Christianization of the The efforts were finally successful in the 10th century, when about 980 Vladimir the Great was baptized at Chersonesos. Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great ( Old Russian: Володимеръ Святославичь, c Chersonesos (Χερσόνησος Chersonesus Old East Slavic: Корсунь Korsun; Херсонес Khersones; also transliterated as Chersonese
For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian people, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and it was at least nominally complete by the 12th century, although the Samis remained unconverted until the 18th century. The Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian people starting in the 8th century with Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity or a change from one religious identity to another Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. The Sami people are the Indigenous people of northern Europe inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway
In fact, although the Scandinavians became nominally Christian, it would take considerably longer for actual Christian beliefs to establish themselves among the people.  The old indigenous traditions that had provided security and structure since time immemorial were challenged by ideas that were unfamiliar, such as original sin, the immaculate conception, the trinity and so forth. Original sin is according to a doctrine in Catholic theology, humanity's state of Sin resulting from the Fall of Man. For dogmatic context see Roman Catholic Mariology. For artistic depictions see Roman Catholic Marian art. SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных  Archaeological excavations of burial sites on the island of Lovön near modern-day Stockholm have shown that the actual Christianization of the people was very slow and took at least 150-200 years, and this was a very central location in the Swedish kingdom. Lovön is an island located in the Swedish lake Mälaren in Ekerö Municipality of Stockholm County. ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the 13th century runic inscriptions from the bustling merchant town of Bergen in Norway show little Christian influence, and one of them appeals to a Valkyrie. is the second largest city in Norway. It is located on the south-western coast of Norway in the county of Hordaland in between a group of mountains known as De syv fjell In Norse mythology the valkyries ( Old Norse Valkyrja "Choosers of the Slain" are Dísir, minor female deities  At this time, enough knowledge of Norse mythology remained to be preserved in sources such as the Eddas in Iceland. Norse mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and Legends of the Scandinavian peoples including those who settled on Iceland This page refers to the Eddur poems and tales of Norse Mythology Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland (
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were crusades undertaken by the Catholic kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the pagan peoples of Northern Europe around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were Crusades undertaken by the Catholic kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Bishop Albert of Riga founded the Military order of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae Schwertbrüderorden in 1202 The Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order. military order is a Christian Order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. Swedish and German campaigns against Russian Eastern Orthodox Christians are also sometimes considered part of the Northern Crusades. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world  Some of these wars were called crusades during the Middle Ages, but others, including most of the Swedish ones, were first dubbed crusades by 19th century romantic nationalist historians. First Swedish Crusade is a legendary military expedition presumably in the 1150s that has traditionally been seen as the conquest of Finland by Sweden, with pagan Romantic nationalism (also National Romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of Nationalism in which the state derives
Lithuania and Samogitia were ultimately Christianized from 1386 until 1417 by the initiative of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Jogaila and his cousin Vytautas. The Christianization of Lithuania (Lietuvos krikštas was the event that took place in 1387 initiated by the Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Samogitia ( Samogitian: Žemaitėjė, Žemaitija literally lowlands) is one of the five Ethnographic Regions of Lithuania. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė old literary Lithuanian Didi Kunigiste Letuvos, Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło (b about 1362 d 1 June 1434 was Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. Vytautas the Great ( Lithuanian:; Vitaŭt; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; Witold Ruthenian: Vitovt; c
Between 711–718 the Iberian peninsula had been conquered by Muslims in the Umayyad conquest of Hispania; Between 722 (see: Battle of Covadonga) and 1492 (see: the Conquest of Granada) the Christian Kingdoms that later would become Spain and Portugal reconquered it from the Moorish states of Al-Ándalus. The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Umayyad conquest of Hispania ( 711 – 718) began as an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Berbers inhabitants Events By Place Americas 3 January — K'inich Ahkal Mo' Naab III takes the throne of the Maya state of Palenque The Battle of Covadonga was the first major victory by a Christian military Force in Iberia following the Muslim Moors ' conquest of The Conquest of Granada is a Restoration era stage play a two-part Tragedy written by John Dryden that was first acted in 1670 and Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or The notorious Spanish Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition were not installed until 1478 and 1536 when the Reconquista was already (mostly) completed. The Spanish Inquisition started and was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile to maintain The Portuguese Inquisition was formally established in Portugal in 1536 at the request of the King of Portugal, João III.
The expansion of the Catholic Portuguese Empire and Spanish Empire with a significant roled played by the Roman Catholic Church led to the Christianization of the indigenous populations of the Americas such as the Aztecs and Incas. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". The Portuguese Empire was the earliest and longest lived of the modern European colonial empires spanning almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political Later waves of colonial expansion such as the Scramble for Africa or the struggle for India, by the Dutch, England, France, Germany and Russia led to Christianization of other native populations across the globe such as the American Indians, South East Asians, Indians and Africans led to the expansion of Christianity eclipsing that of the Roman period and making it a truly global religion. The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa, was the proliferation of conflicting European claims to African territory during the New The colonial era in India began in 1502 when the Portuguese established the first European trading center at Kollam The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
The term Christianised calendar refers to feast days which are Christianised survivals from pre-Christian times The Historicity of several saints has often been treated skeptically by most academics either because there is a paucity of historical evidence for them or due to striking resemblances Christian terrorism is Religious terrorism by those whose motivations are rooted in their interpretations of Christianity Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting distinguishing separating or artificially injecting the Culture or language of one nation into another The Hellenistic religion at the time of the Constantinian shift consisted mainly of three main currents Hellenic Polytheism, Ethnocide is a concept related to Genocide. Primarily the term close to Cultural genocide, is used to describe the destruction of a culture of a people as opposed This article gives an overview about historical cases of persecution by Christians, also taking a look at cases of Religious warfare and Religious violence. The Hellenistic religion at the time of the Constantinian shift consisted mainly of three main currents Hellenic Polytheism, Persecution of Muslims refers to the Religious persecution inflicted upon Muslims Persecution may refer to beating torture confiscation or destruction Neopagans are a Religious minority in every country where they exist and have been subject to Religious discrimination. Religious intolerance is either Intolerance motivated by one's own religious beliefs or intolerance against another's religious beliefs or practices See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism The start of the European colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492 although there was at least one earlier colonization effort The Goa Inquisition was the office of the Inquisition acting in the Indian state of Goa and the rest of the Portuguese empire in Asia See also Evangelism, Christianization A Christian mission has been widely defined since the Lausanne Congress of 1974 as that which Americanization can refer to the policies of the United States government and public opinion that there is a standard set of cultural values that should be held in common Early missionaries Thomas the Apostle. St Francis Xavier. Roberto de Nobili. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were Crusades undertaken by the Catholic kings of Denmark and Sweden, the German Livonian This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period The Hellenistic religion at the time of the Constantinian shift consisted mainly of three main currents Hellenic Polytheism, Spanish Jews once constituted one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities under Muslim and Christian rule in Spain, before they The Taiping Rebellion or Rebellion of Great Peace was a large-scale Revolt against the authority and forces of the Qing Government in China Evangelicalism is a theological movement tradition and system of beliefs most closely associated with Protestant Christianity, which identifies with the Gospel This article gives an overview about historical cases of persecution by Christians, also taking a look at cases of Religious warfare and Religious violence. Persecution of Muslims refers to the Religious persecution inflicted upon Muslims Persecution may refer to beating torture confiscation or destruction Neopagans are a Religious minority in every country where they exist and have been subject to Religious discrimination. Santería, also known as La Regla de Lukumi (Lukumi's Rule and The Way of the Saints is an Afro-Cuban religious tradition derived from traditional beliefs