Chiricahua (also Chiricahua Apaches, Chiricagui, Apaches de Chiricahui, Chiricahues, Chilicague, Chilecagez, Chiricagua) (pronounced /ˌtʃɪrɨˈkɑːwə/; AHD: [chĭ-rĭ-kä´-wə]) refers to a group of bands of Apache that formerly lived in the general areas of southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona in the United States, and in northern Sonora and Chihuahua in Mexico (it is not possible to precisely define the exact boundaries of their territory). Western Apache refers to the similar Apache peoples living primarily in east central Arizona. Navajo (sometimes spelled Navaho) or Diné, (means The People in Navajo) refers or relates to the Navajo people, currently Mescalero (or Mescalero Apache) is a Native American tribe of Southern Athabaskan heritage currently living on the Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation Jicarilla Apache refers to an Apache people currently living in New Mexico and speak a Southern Athabaskan language. Lipan Apache are Southern Athabascan ( Apachean people who are aboriginal to present-day Texas, New Mexico Colorado and the northern Mexican states The Plains Apache (also Kiowa-Apache, Naʼisha, Naisha) are a Southern Athabaskan group that lived primarily on the plains of North America The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language ( AHD) is an American Dictionary of the English language published by New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Sonora is one of the 31 federal states of Mexico and is located in the northwest of the country The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.
Led by Cochise and later by Goyaałé (more famously known as Geronimo), this Apache band was the last to resist U.S. government control of the southwest. Cochise (koˈʧis ( K'uu-ch'ish = "firewood" (c 1815&ndash June 8, 1874) was a chief (a nantan) Geronimo ( Chiricahua: Goyaałé, "one who yawns" often spelled Goyathlay or Goyahkla in English ( June 16 1829 The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. In 1852, a treaty was signed between the U. S. and the Chiricahuas. During the 1850s, miners and settlers moved into Chiricahua Territory, and the Apache population diminished because of starvation, disease, and attacks. In 1861, the Chiricahuas began fighting the U. S. after Mangas Coloradas was whipped by miners and Cochise’s relatives were killed by the U.S. Army. Mangas Coloradas or Dasoda-hae (known as Red Sleeves) (c1793 - January 18, 1863) was an Apache tribal chief and a member of the Eastern The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. In 1863, Mangas Coloradas was killed by the U. S. Army when he attempted to sue for peace. The army took him into custody, and he was killed that night. The murder and mutilation of Mangas' body only increased the hostility between Apaches and the United States, with more or less constant war continuing for nearly another 25 years.
In 1872, the Chiricahua Apache Reservation was established, which only remained open for 4 years. In 1877, all Apaches were concentrated on one reservation and the others were closed. In 1883, the Chiricahua campaigned into Mexico, returning to the reservation the following year.
They finally surrendered in 1886 and were exiled to Florida, Alabama, and Oklahoma. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. Eventually most were moved to the Fort Sill military reservation in Oklahoma until 1913, when they were allowed to return to what is now Arizona. Fort Sill is a United States Army post near Lawton, Oklahoma, about 85 miles southwest of Oklahoma City. Many still live in Oklahoma or on the Mescalero reservation in New Mexico. Mescalero (or Mescalero Apache) is a Native American tribe of Southern Athabaskan heritage currently living on the Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation Their last stronghold was the Chiricahua Mountains, in southeastern Arizona, part of which is now inside Chiricahua National Monument. The Chiricahua Mountains are a Mountain range in southeasternmost Arizona, USA and are part of the Coronado National Forest. Chiricahua National Monument is a unit of the National Park Service.
Since the band was much more important than tribe in Chiricahua culture, there is no native word for a Chiricahua tribe in the Chiricahua language. Chiricahua (also known as Mescalero-Chiricahua Apache) is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Chiricahua tribe in Oklahoma and
According to Opler (1941) the Chiricahuas consisted of three bands:
Schroeder (1947) lists five bands:
According to the Chiricahua-Warm Springs Fort Sill Apache tribe in Oklahoma there are four bands in Fort Sill:
Additionally there is the word Chidikáágu (derived from the Spanish word Chiricahua) which refers to Chiricahuas in general, and the word Indé, which refers to Apaches in general.
Chiricahuas are called Ha’i’ą́há (meaning 'Eastern sunrise") by the White Mountain, Cibecue, and Bylas groups of the Western Apaches. Western Apache refers to the similar Apache peoples living primarily in east central Arizona. They are called Hák’ą́yé by the San Carlos group of the Western Apaches. The Navajos call Chiricahuas Chíshí. The Navajo Nation ( Diné in the Navajo language) is a semi- autonomous Native American homeland covering about 26000 square miles (67339 square