|Wide use||Astronomical · Gregorian · Islamic · ISO|
|Lunisolar · Solar · Lunar|
|Selected use||Assyrian · Armenian · Attic · Aztec (Tonalpohualli – Xiuhpohualli) · Babylonian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Bikram Samwat · Buddhist · Celtic · Chinese · Coptic · Egyptian · Ethiopian · Calendrier Républicain · Germanic · Hebrew · Hellenic · Hindu · Indian · Iranian · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Juche · Julian · Korean · Lithuanian · Malayalam · Maya (Tzolk'in – Haab') · Minguo · Nanakshahi · Nepal Sambat · Pawukon · Pentecontad calendar · Rapa Nui · Roman · Soviet · Tamil · Thai (Lunar – Solar) · Tibetan · Burmese . The word Calendar consist of two words 1 Cal ( in Pashto means Year in Hindi and Persian is Sal- also means Year In current use Assyrian calendar Astronomical year numbering Bahá'í calendar Bengali calendar Astronomical year numbering is based on AD ( Anno Domini)/CE ( Common Era) year numbering but follows normal Decimal Integer numbering more strictly The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar ( Arabic: التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری The ISO week date system is a Leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard A lunisolar calendar is a Calendar in many Cultures whose date indicates both the Moon phase and the time of the solar Year. A solar calendar is a Calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the Sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving A lunar calendar is a Calendar that is based on cycles of the Moon phase. This article is about the calendar introduced in the 1950s See Old Assyrian calendar for the ancient calendar The Armenian calendar is the traditional calendar of Armenia. The Attic calendar is the Calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian Polis. The Aztec calendar is the Calendar system that was used by the Aztecs as well as other Pre-Columbian peoples of central Mexico. The tonalpohualli, a Nahuatl word meaning "count of days" is a 260-day sacred period (often termed a " Year " in use in Pre-Columbian The Xiuhpohualli was a 365-day Calendar used by the Aztecs and other Pre-Columbian Nahua peoples in central Mexico The Babylonian calendar was a Lunisolar calendar with years consisting of 12 Lunar months each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low The Bahá'í calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Bahá'í Faith, is a Solar calendar with regular years of 365 days and Leap The Bengali calendar ( বঙ্গাব্দ Bônggabdo or বাংলা সন Bangla Shôn) or Bangla calendar is a traditional solar Calendar The Berber calendar is the annual Calendar used by Berber people in North Africa. Bikram Samwat ( Bikram Sambat, or Vikram Samvat, Devnagari:बिक्रम संवत abbreviated "B The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland Southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar (formerly Burma The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and still used in Egypt The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each plus 5 extra days (epagomenes Greek ἐπαγόμεναι The Ethiopian calendar ( Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር ye'Ītyōṗṗyā zemen āḳoṭaṭer) also called the Ge'ez calendar, The French Republican Calendar or French Revolutionary Calendar was a Calendar proposed during the French Revolution, and used by the French government The Germanic calendars were the regional agricultural Almanacs used amongst the Germanic peoples prior to the adoption of the Julian and later the Gregorian The Hebrew calendar (הלוח העברי ha'luach ha'ivri) or Jewish calendar is a Lunisolar calendar used by Jews for predominantly religious The Hellenic calendar &mdashor more properly the Hellenic calendars, for there was no uniform calendar imposed upon all of Classical Greece &mdashbegan in most Greek The Hindu calendar used in ancient times has undergone many changes in the process of regionalization and today there are several regional Indian Calendars, as The Indian national calendar (sometimes called Saka calendar) is the official civil calendar in use in India. The Iranian calendar or Solar Hejri (تقویم هجری شمسی؛ سالنمای هجری خورشیدی Taqwim Hejri Shamsi Salanmay Hejri Khurshidi) is an astronomical The Irish calendar does not observe the typical astronomical seasons (beginning in the Northern Hemisphere on the Equinoxes and Solstices, or the meteorological seasons Since January 1, 1873, Japan has used the Gregorian calendar, with local names for the months and mostly fixed holidays The Javanese calendar is a Calendar still in use by the Javanese people of Indonesia concurrently with two other important calendars the Gregorian The Juche Idea (주체사상 Juche Sasang) is the official state Ideology of North Korea and the Political system based on it The Revised Julian calendar or less formally New Calendar, is a Calendar scheme originated in 1923 which effectively discontinued the 340 years of divergence between The traditional Korean calendar is a Lunisolar calendar which like the traditional calendars of other East Asian countries was based on the Chinese calendar The Lithuanian calendar is unusual among Western countries in that neither the names of the months nor the names of the weekdays are derived from Greek or Norse mythology Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sidereal calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India The Maya calendar is a system of distinct Calendars and Almanacs used by the Maya civilization of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by Tzolk'in (in the revised Guatemala Mayan languages Academy Orthography which is now preferred formerly and commonly tzolkin) is the name bestowed by The Haab' is part of the Maya calendric system used by peoples of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization. The Republic of China calendar (民國紀元 is the method of numbering years currently used in the Republic of China ( Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen The Nanakshahi (ਨਾਨਕਸ਼ਾਹੀ nānakashāhī) calendar is a Solar calendar that was adopted by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee The Lunar calendar Nepal Sambat ( Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत is commonly used in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal. The Pentecontad Calendar is a unique agricultural Calendar system thought to be of Amorite origin in which the year is broken down into seven periods of fifty days The Rapa Nui calendar was the indigenous Lunisolar calendar of Easter Island. The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. }The Tamil Calendar is used in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Puducherry in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, The Thai lunar calendar ( Thai: ปฏิทินจันทรคติ Patitin Chantarakati) (literally Against-the-Sun Moon-Ways) is Thailand The Thai solar calendar, Suriyakati (สุริยคติ has been the official and prevalent Calendar in Thailand since it was adopted by King The Tibetan calendar is a Lunisolar calendar, that is the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 Lunar months each beginning and ending with a New moon The traditional Burmese calendar is a Lunisolar calendar based on both the phases of the moon and the motion of the sun Vietnamese· Xhosa · Zoroastrian|
|Runic · Mesoamerican (Long Count – Calendar Round)|
|Julian calendar · Calendar of saints · Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar · Liturgical year|
|Rarely used||Darian calendar · Discordian calendar|
|Display types and applications||Perpetual calendar · Wall calendar · Economic calendar|
The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. This article is about the Vietnamese holiday For the 1968 military operation that began on that holiday see Tết Offensive. By the traditional Xhosa calendar, the year began in June and ended in May when Canopus, a large star visible in the Southern Hemisphere, signalled the The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious Calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith and it is an approximation of the (tropical Solar calendar. The Runic calendar is a Perpetual calendar based on the 19 year long Metonic cycle of the Moon Mesoamerican calendars are the calendrical systems devised and used by the Pre-Columbian cultures of Mesoamerica. In the Mesoamerican calendars, Calendar Round dates are composed by interlacing the dates of a 260-day period ( Tzolk'in in the Maya Calendar, Tonalpohualli The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar describes and dictates the rhythm of the life of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches which determines when The Darian Calendar is a proposed system of time-keeping designed to serve the needs of any possible future human settlers on the planet Mars. The Discordian or Erisian calendar is an alternative Calendar used by some adherents of Discordianism. A perpetual calendar is a Calendar which is good for a span of many years such as the Runic calendar. A wall calendar is a Calendar intended for placement on a wall Economic calendar is a type of Calendar that is intended to inform financiers and traders about the scheduled major economic numbers (like CPI, A lunisolar calendar is a Calendar in many Cultures whose date indicates both the Moon phase and the time of the solar Year. A lunar calendar is a Calendar that is based on cycles of the Moon phase. A solar calendar is a Calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the Sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving This measure of time is not exclusive to China, but followed by many other Asian cultures. However, it is often referred to by the Western cultures as the Chinese calendar. In most of Asia today, the Gregorian calendar is used for day to day activities, but the Chinese calendar is still used for marking traditional East Asian holidays such as the Lunar New Year (Spring Festival), and in China the Duan Wu festival, and the Mid-Autumn Festival, and in astrology, such as choosing the most auspicious date for a wedding or the opening of a building. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today The Mid-Autumn Festival, also known as the Moon Festival, or in Chinese Zhongqiu Jie ( is a popular harvest festival celebrated by Chinese Because each month follows one cycle of the moon, it is also used to determine the phases of the moon.
In China, the traditional calendar is known as the "agricultural calendar" (traditional Chinese: 農曆; simplified Chinese: 农历; pinyin: nónglì) while the Gregorian calendar is known as the "common calendar" (traditional Chinese: 公曆; simplified Chinese: 公历; pinyin: gōnglì) or "Common calendar" . Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Another name for the Chinese calendar is the "Yin Calendar" (traditional Chinese: 陰曆; simplified Chinese: 阴历; pinyin: yīnlì) in reference to the lunar aspect of the calendar, whereas the Gregorian calendar is the "Yang Calendar" (traditional Chinese: 陽曆; simplified Chinese: 阳历; pinyin: yánglì) in reference to its solar properties. In Chinese philosophy, the concept of yin and yang ( is used to describe how seemingly opposing forces are bound together intertwined and interdependent in the Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use In Chinese philosophy, the concept of yin and yang ( is used to describe how seemingly opposing forces are bound together intertwined and interdependent in the Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use The Chinese calendar was also called the "old calendar" (traditional Chinese: 舊曆; simplified Chinese: 旧历; pinyin: jìulì) after the "new calendar" (traditional Chinese: 新曆; simplified Chinese: 新历; pinyin: xīnlì), i. Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use e. the Gregorian calendar, was adopted as the official calendar. The traditional calendar is also often referred to as "the Xia Calendar", following a comment in the Shiji which states that under the Xia Dynasty, the year began on the second moon after the winter solstice (just as in the modern calendar). The Xia Dynasty ( of China is the first dynasty to be described in ancient historical records such as Records of the Grand Historian and The Records of the Grand Historian, also known in English by the Chinese name 史記 or Shiji, written from 109 BC to 91 BC
The current year in the Chinese calendar is the Year of the Earth Rat (year of Wù Zǐ, 戊子). The ten Celestial Stems ( sometimes known as Heavenly Stems, are the elements of an ancient Chinese cyclic character Numeral system: Jia (甲 Yi (乙 The Earthly Branches ( or) provide one Chinese system for reckoning Time. It lasts from 7 February 2008 to 25 January 2009. Events 457 - Leo I becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire. 1074 - Battle of Montesarchio in which the Prince 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 41 - After a night of negotiation Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate This article is about the year For the film see 2009 Lost Memories. Based on traditional beliefs, some form of the calendar has been in use for almost five millennia. Based on archaeological evidence some form of it has been in use for three and a half millennia.
The earliest evidence of the Chinese calendar is found on oracle bones of the Shang dynasty (late second millennium BC), which seem to describe a lunisolar year of twelve months, with a possible intercalary thirteenth, or even fourteenth, added empirically to prevent calendar drift. Oracle bones ( Chinese: 甲骨 Pinyin: jiǎgǔpiàn are pieces of Bone or turtle shell that were heated and cracked during divination The Shang Dynasty ( Chinese: 商[[wiktionary 朝|朝]] or Yin Dynasty ( 殷[[wiktionary 代|代]] was according to traditional sources the The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. Intercalation is the insertion of a leap day week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases The Sexagenary cycle for recording days was already in use. The Chinese sexagenary cycle ( is a cyclic numeral system of 60 combinations of the two basic cycles the ten Heavenly Stems (天干 tiāngān Tradition holds that, in that era, the year began on the first new moon after the winter solstice.
Early Eastern Zhou texts, such as the Spring and Autumn Annals, provide better understanding of the calendars used in the Zhou dynasty. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. The Spring and Autumn Annals ( is the official chronicle of the State of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. One year usually had 12 months, which were alternatively 29 and 30 days long (with an additional day added from time to time, to catch up with "drifts" between the calendar and the actual moon cycle), and intercalary months were added in an arbitrary fashion, at the end of the year. Intercalation is the insertion of a leap day week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases
These arbitrary rules on day and month intercalation caused the calendars of each state to be slightly different, at times. Thus, texts like the Annals will often state whether the calendar they use (the calendar of Lu) is in phase with the Royal calendar (used by the Zhou kings).
Although tradition holds that in the Zhou, the year began on the new moon which preceded the winter solstice, the Spring and Autumn Annals seem to indicate that (in Lu at least) the Yin calendar (the calendar used in Shang dynasty, with years beginning on the first new moon after the winter solstice) was in use until the middle of the 7th century, and that the beginning of the year was shifted back one month around 650 BC. The winter solstice occurs at the instant when the Sun 's position in the sky is at its greatest angular distance on the other side of the equatorial plane from the The Spring and Autumn Annals ( is the official chronicle of the State of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE. The Shang Dynasty ( Chinese: 商[[wiktionary 朝|朝]] or Yin Dynasty ( 殷[[wiktionary 代|代]] was according to traditional sources the The winter solstice occurs at the instant when the Sun 's position in the sky is at its greatest angular distance on the other side of the equatorial plane from the Events and trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras Guatemala.
By the beginning of the Warring States, progress in astronomy and mathematics allowed the creation of calculated calendars (where intercalary months and days are set by a rule, and not arbitrarily). The Warring States Period ( also known as the Era of Warring States covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the The sìfēn 四分 (quarter remainder) calendar, which began about 484 BC, was the first calculated Chinese calendar, so named because it used a solar year of 365¼ days, along with a 19-year (235-month) Rule Cycle, known in the West as the Metonic cycle. Events By place Persian Empire Xerxes I quells the Egyptian revolt against Persian rule Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris in Astronomy and Calendar studies is a particular approximate common multiple of the Tropical year The year began on the new moon preceding the winter solstice, and intercalary months were inserted at the end of the year.
In 256 BC, as the last Zhou king ceded his territory to Qin, a new calendar (the Qin calendar) began to be used. Events By place Roman Republic Rome aims for a quick end to hostilities in the First Punic War and decides to invade the It followed the same principles as the Sifen calendar, except the year began one month before (the second new moon before the winter solstice, which now fell in the second month of the year). The Qin calendar was used during the Qin dynasty, and in the beginning of the Western Han dynasty. Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China.
The Emperor Wu of the Western Han dynasty introduced reforms that have governed the Chinese calendar ever since. Background birth and years as crown prince Emperor Wu was the tenth child of Emperor Jing, and was born to one of Emperor Jing's favorite Concubines, The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. His Tàichū 太初 (Grand Inception) calendar of 104 BC had a year with the winter solstice in the eleventh month and designated as intercalary any calendar month (a month of 29 or 30 whole days) during which the sun does not pass a principal term (that is, remained within the same sign of the zodiac throughout). The Taichuli calendar was one of the most advanced calendars of Ancient China. The winter solstice occurs at the instant when the Sun 's position in the sky is at its greatest angular distance on the other side of the equatorial plane from the Zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the Ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the Constellations that divide the ecliptic Because the sun's mean motion was used to calculate the jiéqì (traditional Chinese: 節氣; simplified Chinese: 节气) (or seasonal markings) until 1645, this intercalary month was equally likely to occur after any month of the year. The conjunction of the sun and moon (the astronomical new moon) was calculated using the mean motions of both the sun and moon until 619, the second year of the Tang dynasty, when chronologists began to use true motions modeled using two offset opposing parabolas (with small linear and cubic components). Events By Place Byzantine Empire The Avars attack Constantinople. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by In Mathematics, the parabola (pəˈræbələ from the Greek παραβολή) is a Conic section, the intersection of a right circular Unfortunately, the parabolas did not meet smoothly at the mean motion, but met with a discontinuity or jump.
With the introduction of Western astronomy into China via the Jesuits, the motions of both the sun and moon began to be calculated with sinusoids in the 1645 Shíxiàn calendar (時憲書, Book of the Conformity of Time) of the Qing dynasty, made by the Jesuit Adam Schall. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Johann Adam Schall von Bell (湯若望 ( 1591 - 15 August 1666) was a German Jesuit Missionary to China The true motion of the sun was now used to calculate the jiéqì, which caused the intercalary month to often occur after the second through the ninth months, but rarely after the tenth through first months. A few autumn-winter periods have one or two calendar months where the sun enters two signs of the zodiac, interspersed with two or three calendar months where the sun stays within one sign.
The Gregorian calendar was adopted by the nascent Republic of China effective January 1, 1912 for official business, but the general populace continued to use the traditional calendar. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting The status of the Gregorian calendar was unclear between 1916 and 1921 while China was controlled by several competing warlords each supported by foreign colonial powers. A warlord is a person with power who has military control over a subnational area due to Armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority From about 1921 until 1928 warlords continued to fight over northern China, but the Kuomintang or Nationalist government controlled southern China and used the Gregorian calendar. After the Kuomintang reconstituted the Republic of China October 10, 1928, the Gregorian calendar was officially adopted, effective 1 January 1929. Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Along with this, the time zone for the whole country was adjusted to the coastal time zone that had been used in European treaty ports along the Chinese coast since 1904. This article refers to ports in East Asia For the Anglo-Irish Treaty ports see Treaty Ports (Ireland. This changed the beginning of each calendar day, for both the traditional and Gregorian calendars, by plus 14 minutes and 26 seconds from Beijing midnight to midnight at the longitude 120° east of Greenwich. Midnight is literally "the middle of the night" In most systems it is when one day ends and the next begins when the date changes Longitude (ˈlɒndʒɪˌtjuːd or ˈlɒŋgɪˌtjuːd symbolized by the Greek character Lambda (λ is the east-west Geographic coordinate measurement Greenwich ( ˈɡrɛnɪtʃ GREN-itch /ˈɡrɛnɪdʒ/ GREN-idge or /ˈɡrɪnɪdʒ/ GRIN-idge is a district in south-east London,
This caused some discrepancies, such as with the 1978 Mid-Autumn Festival. The Mid-Autumn Festival, also known as the Moon Festival, or in Chinese Zhongqiu Jie ( is a popular harvest festival celebrated by Chinese There was a new moon on September 3, 1978, at 00:07, Chinese Standard Time . Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius China standard time or Beijing time is the Time zone observed in the People's Republic of China ( PRC) Using the old Beijing timezone, the New Moon occurred at 23:53 on the 2nd, so the eighth month began on a different day in the calendars. Thus people in Hong Kong (using the traditional calendar) celebrated the Festival on 16 September, but those in the mainland celebrated on 17 September. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec  (see page 18)
The following rules outline the Chinese calendar since c. 104 BC. Note that the rules allow either mean or true motions of the Sun and Moon to be used, depending on the historical period.
The zodiac sign which the sun enters during the month and the ecliptic longitude of that entry point usually determine the number of a regular month. Month 1, zhēngyuè, literally means principal month. All other months are literally numbered, second month, third month, etc.
|#||Chinese name||Long.||Zodiac sign|
Some believe the above correspondence to be always true, but there are exceptions, which, for example, prevent Chinese New Year from always being the second new moon after the winter solstice, or that cause the holiday to occur after the Rain Water jieqi. Capricorn is the tenth Astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Capricornus. Aquarius is the eleventh Astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation Aquarius. Pisces is the twelfth Astrological sign in the Zodiac, which originates from the Pisces constellation. Aries, the ram, is the first Astrological sign in the Zodiac. Taurus is the second Astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Taurus. Gemini is the third Astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Gemini. Cancer is the fourth Astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Cancer. Leo is the fifth Astrological sign of the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Leo. Virgo is the sixth Astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Virgo. Libra is the seventh Astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Libra. Scorpio is the eighth Astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Scorpius. Sagittarius is the ninth Astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Sagittarius. Chinese New Year is the most important of the Traditional Chinese holidays. An exception will occur in 2033-2034, when the winter solstice is the second solar term in the eleventh month. The next month is a no-entry month and so is intercalary, and a twelfth month follows which contains both the Aquarius and Pisces solar terms (deep cold and rain water). The Year of the Tiger thus begins on the third new moon following the Winter Solstice, and also occurs after the Pisces (rain water) jieqi, on February 19. Events 197 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum
Another occurrence was in 1984-85, after the sun had entered both Capricorn at 270° and Aquarius at 300° in month 11, and then entered Pisces at 330° during the next month, which should have caused it to be month 1. The sun did not enter any sign during the next month. In order to keep the winter solstice in month 11, the month which should have been month 1 became month 12, and the month thereafter became month 1, causing Chinese New Year to occur on 20 February 1985 after the sun had already passed into Pisces at 330° during the previous month, rather than during the month beginning on that day. Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar)
On those occasions when a dual-entry month does occur, it always occurs somewhere between two months that do not have any entry (non-entry months). It usually occurs alone and either includes the winter solstice or is nearby, thus placing the winter solstice in month 11 (rule 4) chooses which of the two non-entry months becomes the intercalary month. In 1984-85, the month immediately before the dual-entry month 11 was a non-entry month which was designated as an intercalary month 10. All months from the dual-entry month to the non-entry month that is not to be intercalary are sequentially numbered with the nearby regular months (rule 2). The last phrase of rule 5, choosing the first of two non-entry months between months 11, has not been required since the last calendar reform, and will not be necessary until the 2033-34 occasion, when two dual-entry months will be interspersed among three non-entry months, two of which will be on one side of month 11. The leap eleventh month produced is a very rare occasion. See  for details.
Exceptions such as these are rare. Fully 96. 6% of all months contain only one entry into a zodiacal sign (have one principal term or cusp), all obeying the numbering rules of the jiéqì table, and 3. 0% of all months are intercalary months (always non-entry months between principal terms or cusps). Only 0. 4% of all months either are dual-entry months (have two principal terms or cusps) or are neighboring months that are renumbered.
It is only after the 1645 reform that this situation arose. Then it became necessary to fix one month to always contain its principal term and allow any other to occasionally not contain its principal term. Month 11 was chosen, because its principal term (the winter solstice) forms the start of the Chinese Solar year (the sui).
The Chinese lunar calendar and the Gregorian Calendar often sync up every 19 years (Metonic cycle). Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris in Astronomy and Calendar studies is a particular approximate common multiple of the Tropical year Most Chinese people notice that their Chinese and Western birthdays often fall on the same day on their 19th, 38th birthday etc. However, a 19-year cycle with a certain set of intercalary months is only an approximation, so an almost identical pattern of intercalary months in subsequent cycles will eventually change after some multiple of 19 years to a quite different 19-year cycle.
The Chinese zodiac (see Nomenclature and Twelve Animals sections) is only used in naming years—it is not used in the actual calculation of the calendar. The Chinese Zodiac is a 12 year cycle Each year of the 12 year cycle is named after one of the original 12 animals In fact, the Chinese have a very different constellation system.
The twelve months are closely connected with agriculture, so they are alternatively named after plants:
Traditional Chinese years were not continuously numbered in the way that the BC/AD system is. More commonly, official year counting always used some form of a regnal year. A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign. From Latin regnum meaning kingdom rule This system began in 841 BC during the Zhou dynasty. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. Prior to this, years were not marked at all, and historical events cannot be dated exactly.
In 841 BC, the Li King Hu of Zhou (周厲王胡) was ousted by a civilian uprising (國人暴動), and the country was governed for the next fourteen years by a council of senior ministers, a period known as the Regency (共和行政). Events and trends 845 BC — Pherecles, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 19 years and is succeeded by his son Ariphron. King Li of Zhou (d 841 BC ( Simplified Chinese: 周厉王 Traditional Chinese: 周厲王 Pinyin:Zhōu Lìwáng was the tenth sovereign of the Chinese The Gonghe (共和 regency ruled China from 841 BC to 828 BC. In this period, years were marked as First (second, third, etc) Year of the Regency.
Subsequently, years were marked as regnal years, e. g. the year 825 BC was marked as the 3rd Year of the Xuan King Jing of Zhou (周宣王三年). Events and trends 828 BC /827 BC (14th year in the era of Gònghé — King Xuan of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China King Xuan of Zhou (before 841 BC - 781 BC ( ch 周宣王 zhōu xūan wáng was the eleventh sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. This system was used until early in the Han dynasty, when the Wen Emperor of Han (漢文帝劉恒) instituted regnal names. Emperor Wen of Han (202 BC&ndash157 BC was an emperor of the Han Dynasty in China. A Chinese era name ( is the Era name, reign period or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese After this, most emperors used one or more regnal names to mark their reign. Usually, the emperor would institute a new name upon accession to the throne, and then change to new names to mark significant events, or to end a perceived cycle of bad luck. In the Ming dynasty, however, each emperor usually used only one regnal name for their reign. In Qing dynasty, each emperor used only one regnal name for their reign.
This system continued until the Republic of China, which counted years as Years of the Republic, beginning in 1912. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Thus, 1912 is the 1st Year of the Republic, and 1949 the 38th. This system is still used for official purposes in Taiwan. For the rest of China, in 1949 the People's Republic of China chose to use the Common Era system (equivalently, AD/BC system), in line with international standards. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES
The other system by which years are marked historically in China was by the stem-branch or sexagenary cycle. The Chinese sexagenary cycle ( is a cyclic numeral system of 60 combinations of the two basic cycles the ten Heavenly Stems (天干 tiāngān This system is based on two forms of counting: a cycle of 10 Heavenly Stems and a cycle of 12 Earthly Branches. The ten Celestial Stems ( sometimes known as Heavenly Stems, are the elements of an ancient Chinese cyclic character Numeral system: Jia (甲 Yi (乙 The Earthly Branches ( or) provide one Chinese system for reckoning Time. Each year is named by a pair of one stem and one branch called a Stem-Branch (干支 gānzhī). The Heavenly Stems are associated with Yin Yang and the Five Elements. In Chinese philosophy, the concept of yin and yang ( is used to describe how seemingly opposing forces are bound together intertwined and interdependent in the In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Wu Xing ( or the Five Phases, usually translated as five elements, Recent 10-year periods began in 1984, 1994, and 2004. The Earthly Branches are associated with the twelve signs of the Zodiac. Zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the Ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the Constellations that divide the ecliptic Each Earthly Branch is also associated with an animal, collectively known as the Twelve Animals. Recent 12-year periods began in 1984 and 1996.
Since the numbers 10 (Heavenly Stems) and 12 (Earthly Branches) have a common factor of 2, only 1/2 of the 120 possible stem-branch combinations actually occur. The resulting 60-year (or sexagesimal) cycle takes the name jiǎzǐ (甲子) after the first year in the cycle, being the Heavenly Stem of "jiǎ" and Earthly Branch of "zǐ". The term "jiǎzǐ" is used figuratively to mean "a full lifespan"—one who has lived more than a jiǎzǐ is obviously blessed. (Compare the Biblical "three-score years and ten. ")
At first, this system was used to mark days, not years. The earliest evidence of this were found on oracle bones dated c. Oracle bones ( Chinese: 甲骨 Pinyin: jiǎgǔpiàn are pieces of Bone or turtle shell that were heated and cracked during divination 1350 BC in Shang Dynasty. The Shang Dynasty ( Chinese: 商[[wiktionary 朝|朝]] or Yin Dynasty ( 殷[[wiktionary 代|代]] was according to traditional sources the This system of date marking continues to this day, and can still be found on Chinese calendars today. Although a stem-branch cannot be used to deduce the actual day in historical events, it can assist in converting Chinese dates to other calendars more accurately.
Around the Han Dynasty, the stem-branch cycle also began to be used to mark years. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The 60-year system cycles continuously, and determines the animal or sign under which a person is born (see Chinese Zodiac). These cycles were not named, and were used in conjunction with regnal names declared by the Emperor. A Chinese era name ( is the Era name, reign period or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese The Emperor of China ( refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning since the founding of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of For example: 康熙壬寅 (Kāngxī rényín) (1662 AD) is the first 壬寅 (rényín) year during the reign of 康熙 (Kāngxī), regnal name of an emperor of the Qing Dynasty
The months and hours can also be denoted using Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches, though they are commonly addressed using Chinese numerals instead. The Kangxi Emperor ( Mongolian Enkh Amgalan Khaan, May 4, 1654 &ndash December 20, 1722) was the third Emperor of Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Chinese numerals are characters for writing Numbers in Chinese. In Chinese astrology, four Stem-Branch pairs form the Eight Characters (八字 bāzì). The Chinese Zodiac is a 12 year cycle Each year of the 12 year cycle is named after one of the original 12 animals
There is no universally agreed upon "epoch" or starting point for the Chinese calendar. In the fields of Chronology and Periodization, an epoch means an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular Era. Tradition holds that the calendar was invented by Huang Di (黄帝) in the 61st year of his reign in what is now known under the proleptic Gregorian calendar as 2637 BCE. Many have used this date as the epoch, i. e. the first year of the first sixty-year (sexagesimal) cycle, of the Chinese calendar, but others have used the date of the beginning of his reign in 2697 BCE as the epoch. Since these dates are exactly sixty years apart, it does not matter which is used to determine the stem/branch sequence or the astrological sign for any succeeding year. That is, 2006 is a bingxu year and the Year of the Dog regardless of whether years are counted from 2637 BCE or 2697 BCE.
For the most part, the imposition of a continuous numbering system on the Chinese calendar was of interest mostly to Jesuit missionaries and other Westerners who assumed that calendars obviously had to be continuous. However, in the early 20th century, some Chinese Republicans began to advocate widespread use of continuously numbered years, so that year markings would be independent of the Emperor's regnal name. Republicanism is the Ideology of governing a nation as a Republic, with an emphasis on Liberty, Rule of law, Popular sovereignty A Chinese era name ( is the Era name, reign period or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese (This was part of their attempt to delegitimise the Qing Dynasty. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China ) When Sun Yat-sen became the provisional president of the Republic of China, he sent telegrams to leaders of all provinces and announced the 13th day of 11th Month of the 4609th year of the Yellow Emperor's reign (corresponding to 1st January 1912) to be the 1st year of the Republic of China. Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often His choice was adopted by many overseas Chinese communities outside Southeast Asia such as San Francisco's Chinatown. San Francisco 's Chinatown is the oldest Chinatown in North America.
The following link provides conversion of Chinese calendar dates to Western calendar dates: http://www.sinica.edu.tw/~tdbproj/sinocal/luso.html This table shows the stem/branch year names, correspondences to the Western (Gregorian) calendar, and other related information for the current decade. (These years are all part of the 79th sexagenary cycle, or the 78th if an epoch of 2637 BCE is accepted. ) Or see this larger table of the full 60-year cycle. See also Chinese calendar This table shows the stem/branch year names correspondences to the Western (Gregorian calendar and other related information for the current 79th
|Jiǎzǐ (甲子) sequence||Stem/ branch||Gānzhī (干支)||Year of the. . . [Note 1]||Continuous [Note 2]||Gregorian [Note 3]||New Year's Day (chūnjié, 春節)|
|15||5/3||wùyín (戊寅)||Earth Tiger||4695||1998||January 28|
|16||6/4||jǐmăo (己卯)||Earth Rabbit||4696||1999||February 16|
|17||7/5||gēngchén (庚辰)||Metal Dragon||4697||2000||February 5|
|18||8/6||xīnsì (辛巳)||Metal Snake||4698||2001||January 24|
|19||9/7||rénwǔ (壬午)||Water Horse||4699||2002||February 12|
|20||10/8||guǐwèi (癸未)||Water Sheep||4700||2003||February 1|
|21||1/9||jiǎshēn (甲申)||Wood Monkey||4701||2004||January 22|
|22||2/10||yǐyǒu (乙酉)||Wood Rooster||4702||2005||February 9|
|23||3/11||bǐngxū (丙戌)||Fire Dog||4703||2006||January 29|
|24||4/12||dīnghài (丁亥)||Fire Pig||4704||2007||February 18|
|25||5/1||wùzǐ (戊子)||Earth Rat||4705||2008||February 7|
|26||6/2||jǐchǒu (己丑)||Earth Ox||4706||2009||January 26|
|27||7/3||gēngyín (庚寅)||Metal Tiger||4707||2010||February 14|
|28||8/4||xīnmăo (辛卯)||Metal Rabbit||4708||2011||February 3|
1 The beginning of each zodiac year should correspond to the first day of the lunar year.
2 As discussed above, there is considerable difficulty in establishing a basis for the chronology of the continuous year numbers. The numbers listed here are too high by 60 if an epoch of 2637 BCE is accepted. They may be too low by 1 if an epoch of 2698 BCE is accepted. That is, according to some sources, Gregorian 2006 could alternatively correspond to 4643, or perhaps 4704.
3 In any case, the correspondence between a lunisolar Chinese year and a solar Gregorian year is of course not exact. The first few months of each Gregorian year—those preceding Chinese New Year—belong to the previous Chinese year. For example, January 1 – January 28 of 2006 correspond to yǐyǒu or 4702. Thus, it might be more precise to state that Gregorian 2006 corresponds to 4702–4703, or that continuous Chinese 4703 corresponds to 2006–2007.
There is a distinction between a solar year and a lunar year in the Chinese calendar because the calendar is lunisolar. A lunar year (年 nián) is from one Chinese new year to the next. A solar year (歲 suì) is either the period between one Spring Equinox and the next or the period between two winter solstices (see Jiéqì section). An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle Solstices occur twice a year when the tilt of the Earth's axis is most oriented toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to reach its northernmost and southernmost extremes A lunar year is exclusively used for dates, whereas a solar year, especially that between winter solstices, is used to number the months.
Under the traditional system of hour-marking, each day is divided into 12 units (時辰). Each of these units is equivalent to two hours of international time. Each is named after one of the twelve Earthly Branches. The Earthly Branches ( or) provide one Chinese system for reckoning Time. The first unit, Hour of Zi (子時), begins at 11 p. m. of the previous day and ends at 1 a. m. Traditionally, executions of condemned prisoners occur at the midpoint of Hour of Wu (正午時), i. e. noon.
A second system subdivided the day into 100 equal parts, ke, each of which equalling 14. The ke (刻 Pinyin: kè) is a traditional Chinese unit of Decimal time lasting approximately a quarter of a western Hour. The ke (刻 Pinyin: kè) is a traditional Chinese unit of Decimal time lasting approximately a quarter of a western Hour. 4 minutes or a familiar rough quarter of a standard Western hour. This was valid for centuries, making the Chinese first to apply decimal time - long before the French revolution. Decimal time is the representation of the Time of Day using units which are Decimally related The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an However, because 100 could not be divided equally into the 12 "hours", the system was changed to variously 96, 108, and 120 ke in a day. During the Qing Dynasty, the number was officially settled at 96, making each ke exactly a quarter of a Western hour. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China Today, ke is often used to refer to a quarter of an hour.
The Twelve animals (十二生肖 shí'èr shēngxiào, or colloquially 十二屬相 shí'èr shǔxiàng) representing the twelve Earthly Branches are, in order, the rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep (or goat), monkey, rooster, dog, and pig (or boar). The Chinese Zodiac is a 12 year cycle Each year of the 12 year cycle is named after one of the original 12 animals The Earthly Branches ( or) provide one Chinese system for reckoning Time. The Ox ( 牛) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Tiger ( 虎) associated with good fortune power and royalty is viewed with both fear and respect The Rabbit ( 兔) is the fourth animal in the 12-year cycle of the Chinese zodiac. The Dragon ( 龍) is the only mythical creature in the Chinese zodiac The Snake ( 蛇) (also known as the Serpent) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese The Horse ( 馬) is the seventh of the 12 animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Sheep ( 羊) (also known as Goat or Ram) is the eighth sign of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac The domestic goat ( Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat Domesticated from the Wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe The Monkey ( 猴) is one of the 12-year cycle of Animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Rooster ( 酉) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Dog ( 狗) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. Hai ( 亥) is the twelfth sign of the Earthly Branches. Its animal representation is the Boar ( 豬) The boar or wild boar ( Sus scrofa) is an Omnivorous, gregarious Mammal of the biological family Suidae.
A legend explains the sequence in which the animals were assigned. A legend ( Latin, legenda, "things to be read" is a Narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to Supposedly, the twelve animals fought over the precedence of the animals in the cycle of years in the calendar, so the Chinese gods held a contest to determine the order. All the animals lined up on the bank of a river and were given the task of getting to the opposite shore. Their order in the calendar would be set by the order in which the animals managed to reach the other side. The cat wondered how he would get across if he was afraid of water. At the same time, the ox wondered how he would cross with his poor eyesight. The calculating rat suggested that he and the cat jump onto the ox's back and guide him across. The ox was steady and hard-working so that he did not notice a commotion on his back. In the meanwhile, the rat sneaked up behind the unsuspecting cat and shoved him into the water. Just as the ox came ashore, the rat jumped off and finished the race first. The lazy pig came to the far shore in twelfth place. And so the rat got the first year named after him, the ox got the second year, and the pig ended up as the last year in the cycle. The cat finished too late to win any place in the calendar, and vowed to be the enemy of the rat forevermore.
Chinese months follow the phases of the moon. A solar term is one of 24 points in traditional East Asian Lunisolar calendars that matches a particular astronomical event or signifies some natural phenomenon As a result, they do not accurately follow the seasons of the solar year. To assist farmers to decide when to plant or harvest crops, the drafters of the calendar put in 24 seasonal markers, which follow the solar year, and are called jiéqì 節氣. A solar term is one of 24 points in traditional East Asian Lunisolar calendars that matches a particular astronomical event or signifies some natural phenomenon
The term Jiéqì is usually translated as "Solar Terms" (lit. Nodes of Weather). Each node is the instant when the sun reaches one of twenty-four equally spaced points along the ecliptic, including the solstices and equinoxes, positioned at fifteen degree intervals. The ecliptic is the apparent path that the Sun traces out in the sky during the year Solstices occur twice a year when the tilt of the Earth's axis is most oriented toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to reach its northernmost and southernmost extremes An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle This article describes the unit of angle For other meanings see Degree. Because the calculation is solar-based, these jiéqì fall around the same date every year in solar calendars (e. A solar calendar is a Calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the Sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving g. the Gregorian Calendar), but do not form any obvious pattern in the Chinese calendar. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today The dates below are approximate and may vary slightly from year to year due to the intercalary rules (i. e. system of leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing one or more extra days (or in the case of Lunisolar calendars an extra month in order to keep the Jiéqì are published each year in farmers' almanacs. ALMANAC is the name of a major Breast cancer trial The Acronym stands for "Axillary Lymphatic Mapping Against Nodal Axillary Clearance Chinese New Year is usually the new moon closest to lìchūn. Chinese New Year is the most important of the Traditional Chinese holidays. This article is about the lunar phase for other uses see New Moon (disambiguation.
In the table below, these measures are given in the standard astronomical convention of ecliptic longitude, zero degrees being positioned at the vernal equinox point. Ecliptic longitude ( solar longitude or celestial longitude) is one of the co-ordinates which can be used to define the location of an Astronomical object An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle Each calendar month under the heading "M" contains the designated jiéqì called a principal term, which is an entry into a sign of the zodiac, also known as a cusp. Here term has the archaic meaning of a limit, not a duration. In Chinese astronomy, seasons are centered on the solstices and equinoxes, whereas in the standard Western definition, they begin at the solstices and equinoxes. Thus the term Beginning of Spring and the related Spring Festival fall in February, when it is still very chilly in temperate latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.
Date (approx. )
|315°||立春 lìchūn||February 4||start of spring||spring starts here according to the Chinese definition of a season, see also Cross-quarter day|
|330°||雨水 yǔshuǐ||February 19||rain water||starting at this point, the temperature makes rain more likely than snow|
|March 5||awakening of insects||when hibernating insects awake|
|0°||春分 chūnfēn||March 21||vernal equinox||lit. The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 A cross-quarter day is a day falling approximately halfway between a Solstice and an Equinox. Jīngzhé ( pīnyīn) or Keichitsu ( rōmaji) ( is the 3rd of 24 Solar terms (節氣 in the traditional For the ability of certain operating systems see Hibernate (OS feature Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression See also Vernal equinox The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle the central divide of spring (referring to the Chinese seasonal definition)|
|15°||清明 qīngmíng||April 5||clear and bright||a Chinese festival where, traditionally, ancestral graves are tended|
|30°||穀雨 gǔyǔ or gǔyù||April 20||grain rains||rain helps grain grow|
|45°||立夏 lìxià||May 6||start of summer||refers to the Chinese seasonal definition|
|60°||小滿 xiǎomǎn||May 21||grain full||grains are plump|
|75°||芒種 mángzhòng or mángzhǒng||June 6||grain in ear||lit. The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 awns (beard of grain) grow|
|90°||夏至 xiàzhì||June 21||summer solstice||lit. Solstices occur twice a year when the tilt of the Earth's axis is most oriented toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to reach its northernmost and southernmost extremes summer extreme (of sun's height)|
|105°||小暑 xiǎoshǔ||July 7||minor heat||when heat starts to get unbearable|
|120°||大暑 dàshǔ||July 23||major heat||the hottest time of the year|
|135°||立秋 lìqiū||August 7||start of autumn||uses the Chinese seasonal definition|
|150°||處暑 chùshǔ||August 23||limit of heat||lit. The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 dwell in heat|
|165°||白露 báilù||September 8||white dew||condensed moisture makes dew white; a sign of autumn|
|180°||秋分 qiūfēn||September 23||autumnal equinox||lit. The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 See also Autumnal equinox The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle central divide of autumn (refers to the Chinese seasonal definition)|
|195°||寒露 hánlù||October 8||cold dew||dew starts turning into frost|
|210°||霜降 shuāngjiàng||October 23||descent of frost||appearance of frost and descent of temperature|
|225°||立冬 lìdōng||November 7||start of winter||refers to the Chinese seasonal definition|
|240°||小雪 xiǎoxuě||November 22||minor snow||snow starts falling|
|255°||大雪 dàxuě||December 7||major snow||season of snowstorms in full swing|
|270°||冬至 dōngzhì||December 22||winter solstice||lit. The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 Solar terms (節氣 Solstices occur twice a year when the tilt of the Earth's axis is most oriented toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to reach its northernmost and southernmost extremes winter extreme (of sun's height)|
|285°||小寒 xiǎohán||January 6||minor cold||cold starts to become unbearable|
|300°||大寒 dàhán||January 20||major cold||coldest time of year|
Note: The third jiéqì was originally called 啓蟄 (qǐzhé) but renamed to 驚蟄 (jīngzhé) in the era of the Emperor Jing of Han (漢景帝) to avoid writing his given name 啓 (also written as 啟, a variant of 啓). For other uses see Xiaohan (disambiguation. The traditional East Asian calendars Dahan may mean Dahan (solar term, solar term of traditional East Asian Lunisolar calendar Olivier Dahan, French film director and screenwriter Early life and career as crown prince Emperor Jing was born to Emperor Wen, then Prince of Dai, and Consort Dou, one of his favorite consorts in
The Chinese calendar year has nine main festivals, seven determined by the lunisolar calendar, and two derived from the solar agricultural calendar. The Traditional Chinese holidays have been part of Chinese tradition for thousands of years they are an essential part of Chinese culture. (Farmers actually used a solar calendar, and its twenty-four terms, to determine when to plant crops, due to the inaccuracy of the lunisolar traditional calendar. However, the traditional calendar has also come to be known as the agricultural calendar. ) The two special holidays are the Qingming Festival and the Winter Solstice Festival, falling upon the respective solar terms, at ecliptic longitudes of 15° and 270°, respectively. The Qingming Festival ( Vietnamese language: Tết Thanh Minh meaning Clear and Bright Festival, is a traditional Chinese festival on the 104th day after The Dōngzhì Festival or Winter Solstice Festival ( Chinese: 冬至 Pinyin: dōng zhì; "The Extreme of Winter" is one of the most As for all other calendrical calculations, the calculations use civil time in China, UTC+8. UTC+8 is a band of Timezones separated from the Greenwich Mean Time by 8 hours
|Date||English Name||Chinese Name||Vietnamese Name||Remarks||2008||2009||2010||2011||2012|
|Chinese New Year (Spring Festival)||春節|
|Tết Nguyên Đán||Family gathering and festivities for 3–15 days||Feb 7||Jan 26||Feb 14||Feb 3||Jan 23|
|Tết Thượng Nguyên||Tangyuan eating|
|Feb 21||Feb 9||Feb 28||Feb 17||Feb 6|
|Qingming Festival (Clear and Bright)||清明節|
|Tết Thanh Minh||Tomb sweeping||Apr 4||Apr 4||Apr 5||Apr 5||Apr 4|
|Dragon Boat Festival||端午節|
|Tết Đoan Ngọ||Dragon boat racing|
and zongzi eating
|Jun 8||May 28||Jun 16||Jun 6||Jun 23|
|Night of Sevens||七夕|
|Ngày mưa Ngâu||For lovers, like Valentine's Day||Aug 7||Aug 26||Aug 16||Aug 6||Aug 23|
|Ghost Festival (Spirit Festival)||中元節|
|Tết Trung Nguyên||Offer tributes and respect to the deceased||Aug 15||Sep 3||Aug 24||Aug 14||Aug 31|
|Mid-Autumn Festival (Moon Festival)||中秋節|
|Tết Trung Thu||Family gathering and moon cake eating||Sep 14||Oct 3||Sep 22||Sep 12||Sep 30|
|Double Ninth Festival (Double Yang)||重陽節|
|Tết Trùng Cửu||Mountain climbing|
and flower shows
|Oct 7||Oct 26||Oct 16||Oct 5||Oct 23|
|Xia Yuan Festival||下元節|
|Tết Hạ Nguyên||Pray for a peaceful year to the Water God||Nov 12||Dec 1||Oct 16||Nov 10||Nov 28|
|Dec 21 or 22||Winter Solstice Festival||冬至|
|Family gathering||Dec 21||Dec 21||Dec 22||Dec 22||Dec 21|
|Kitchen God Festival||謝灶|
|Tết Táo Quân||Worshipping the kitchen god with thanks||Jan 30||Jan 18||Feb 6||Jan 26||Jan 16|
Most people, upon using or studying the Chinese calendar, are perplexed by the intercalary month because of its seemingly unpredictable nature. Chinese New Year is the most important of the Traditional Chinese holidays. This article is about the Vietnamese holiday For the 1968 military operation that began on that holiday see Tết Offensive. The Lantern Festival a Chinese festival celebrated on the fifteenth day of the first month in the Lunar year in the Chinese calendar. Tāngyuán is a Chinese food made from Glutinous rice flour Glutinous rice flour is mixed with a small amount of water to form balls and is then cooked and served The Qingming Festival ( Vietnamese language: Tết Thanh Minh meaning Clear and Bright Festival, is a traditional Chinese festival on the 104th day after A dragon boat or "dragonboat" is a very long and narrow human-powered Boat now used in the team Paddling sport of dragon boat Zong, or zongzi is a traditional Chinese food, made of Glutinous rice stuffed with different fillings and wrapped in Bamboo Qi Xi ( also known as Magpie Festival falls on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month on the Chinese calendar; thus its name The Ghost Festival ( is a traditional Chinese Festival and Holiday, which is celebrated by Chinese in many countries The Mid-Autumn Festival, also known as the Moon Festival, or in Chinese Zhongqiu Jie ( is a popular harvest festival celebrated by Chinese The Double Ninth Festival ( or, also or Chung Yeung Festival in Hong Kong, Vietnamese language: Tết Trùng Cửu observed on the ninth day of the The Dōngzhì Festival or Winter Solstice Festival ( Chinese: 冬至 Pinyin: dōng zhì; "The Extreme of Winter" is one of the most As mentioned above, the intercalary month refers to additional months added to the calendar in some years to correct for its deviation from the astronomical year, a function similar to that of the extra day in February in leap years. A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the Orbit of the Earth around the Sun
However, because of the complex astronomical knowledge required to calculate if and when an intercalary month needs to be inserted, to most people, it is simply a mystery. This has led to a superstition that intercalary months in certain times of the year bring bad luck.
The main purpose of the intercalary month is to correct for deviations of the calendrical year from the astronomical year. Because the Chinese calendar is mainly a lunar calendar, its standard year is 354 days, whereas the astronomical year is approximately 365¼ days. A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the Orbit of the Earth around the Sun Without the intercalary month, this deviation would build up over time, and the Spring festival, for example, would no longer fall in Spring. Thus, the intercalary month serves a valuable purpose in ensuring that the year in the Chinese calendar remains approximately in line with the astronomical year.
The intercalary month is inserted whenever the Chinese calendar moves too far from the stage of progression of the earth in its orbit. Thus, for example, if the beginning of a certain month in the Chinese calendar deviates by a certain number of days from its equivalent in a solar calendar, an intercalary month needs to be inserted.
The practical benefit of this system is that the calendar is able to approximately keep in pace with the solar cycle, while at the same time retaining months that roughly correspond with lunar cycles. Hence the term lunisolar calendar. The latter is important because many traditional festivals correspond to significant events in the moon's cycle. For example, the mid-autumn festival is always on a day of the full moon.
There have been calls for reform in recent years from experts in China, because of the increasing irrelevance of the Chinese calendar in modern life. They point to the example in Japan, where during the Meiji Restoration the nation adopted the Western calendar, and simply shifted all traditional festivities onto an equivalent date. The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japan 's political and social structure However, the Chinese calendar remains important as an element of cultural tradition, and for certain cultural activities.
The original practical relevance of the lunisolar calendar for date marking has largely disappeared. First, the Gregorian calendar is much easier to compute and more in line with both international standards and the astronomical year. Its adoption for official purposes has meant that the traditional calendar is rarely used for date marking. This, in turn, means that it is more convenient to remember significant events such as birth dates by the Gregorian rather than the Chinese calendar.
Second, the 24 solar terms were important to farmers who would not be able to plan agricultural activities without foreknowledge of these terms. However, the 24 solar terms (including the solstices and equinoxes) are more predictable on the Gregorian calendar than the lunisolar calendar since they are based on the solar cycle. Solstices occur twice a year when the tilt of the Earth's axis is most oriented toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to reach its northernmost and southernmost extremes An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle It is easier for the average Chinese farmer to organise their planting and harvesting with the Gregorian calendar.
However, the Chinese calendar remains culturally essential. For example, most of the traditional festivals, such as Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn Festival, traditionally occur at new moon or full moon. Chinese New Year is the most important of the Traditional Chinese holidays. The Mid-Autumn Festival, also known as the Moon Festival, or in Chinese Zhongqiu Jie ( is a popular harvest festival celebrated by Chinese Furthermore, the traditional Chinese calendar, as an element of traditional culture, is invested with much cultural and nationalistic sentiment.
The calendar is still used in the more traditional Chinese households around the world to pick 'lucky dates' for important events such as weddings, funerals, and business deals. A special calendar is used for this purpose, called Huang Li, literally "Imperial Calendar", which contains auspicious activities, times, and directions for each day. The calendar follows the Gregorian dates but has the corresponding Chinese dates. Every date would have a comprehensive listing of astrological measurements and fortune elements.
Thus, while the traditional calendar could be removed without much practical effect, its sentimental and cultural significance will probably see its retention for some time yet.
Other traditional East Asian calendars are very similar to if not identical to the Chinese calendar: the Korean calendar is identical; the Vietnamese calendar substitutes the cat for the rabbit in the Chinese zodiac; the Tibetan calendar differs slightly in animal names, and the traditional Japanese calendar uses a different method of calculation, resulting in disagreements between the calendars in some years. The traditional Korean calendar is a Lunisolar calendar which like the traditional calendars of other East Asian countries was based on the Chinese calendar This article is about the Vietnamese holiday For the 1968 military operation that began on that holiday see Tết Offensive. The Tibetan calendar is a Lunisolar calendar, that is the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 Lunar months each beginning and ending with a New moon Since January 1, 1873, Japan has used the Gregorian calendar, with local names for the months and mostly fixed holidays
The twelve year cycle, with the animal names translated into the vernacular, was adopted by the Göktürks (its use there is first attested 584), and spread subsequently among many if not most Turkic peoples, as well as the Mongols. Göktürks ( Turkish: Gök Türkler) were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. It appears to have been used by the Bulgars, as attested in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian Khans and in some other documents. The Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) were a seminomadic people probably of Turkic descent originally from Central Asia, The Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans (Именник на българските ханове is a short Manuscript containing the names of some early Bulgarian
In 1258, when both China and the Islamic world were part of the Mongol Empire, Hulagu Khan established an observatory in Maragheh for the astronomer Nasir al-Din al-Tusi at which a few Chinese astronomers were present, resulting in the Chinese-Uighur calendar that al-Tusi describes in his Zij-i Ilkhani. The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate For the head of the Chagatai khanate please see Qara Hülëgü Hulagu Khan, also known as Zij-i Ilkhani or Ilkhanic Tables (literal translation "The Ilkhan Stars" after ilkhan Hulagu, who was the patron of the author at that time  The twelve year cycle, including Turkish/Mongolian translations of the animal names (known as sanawat-e turki سنوات ترکی,) remained in use for chronology, historiography, and bureaucratic purposes in the Persian and Turkish speaking world from Asia Minor to India throughout the Medieval and Early Modern periods. In Iran it remained common in agricultural records and tax assessments until a 1925 law deprecated its use. The Iranian calendar or Solar Hejri (تقویم هجری شمسی؛ سالنمای هجری خورشیدی Taqwim Hejri Shamsi Salanmay Hejri Khurshidi) is an astronomical