A cock (left) and hen (right) roosting together
The Chicken (Gallus gallus, sometimes G. gallus domesticus) is a domesticated fowl likely descended from the wild Indian and southeast Asian Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) and the related Grey Junglefowl (G. Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals Most or all Birds collectively referred to as fowl belong to one of two orders namely the gamefowl or landfowl ( Galliformes) and the waterfowl India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Red Junglefowl, Gallus gallus, is a Tropical member of the Pheasant family and is often believed to be the direct ancestor of the domestic Chicken The Grey Junglefowl, Gallus sonneratii also known as Sonnerat's Junglefowl is a wild relative of domestic fowl found in India. sonneratii). Traditionally it has been widely accepted that the chicken was descended solely from the former, as hybrids of both wild types tended toward sterility; but recent genetic work has revealed that the genotype for yellow skin present in the domestic fowl is not present in what is otherwise its closest kin, the Red Junglefowl. It is deemed most likely, then, that the yellow skin trait in domestic birds originated in the Grey Junglefowl. 
The chicken is one of the most common and widespread domestic animals. This is a list of animals that have been domesticated by Humans. With a population of more than 24 billion in 2003, there are more chickens in the world than any other bird. Humans keep chickens primarily as a source of food, with both their meat and their eggs consumed. Chicken is the Meat derived from the Chicken. It is the most common type of Poultry in the world and is frequently prepared as Food An egg is a round or oval body laid by the female of many animals consisting of an Ovum surrounded by layers of Membranes and an outer casing which acts to nourish
In the U. S. A. , Canada and Australia, adult male chickens are known as roosters; in the UK they are known as cocks. A rooster (also called a cock or chanticleer) is a male Chicken ( Gallus gallus) the female being called a Hen. Males under a year old are cockerels.  Castrated roosters are called capons (though both surgical and chemical castration are now illegal in some parts of the world). A capon is a Rooster whose reproductive organs were removed at a young age Females over a year old are known as hens, and younger females are pullets. The chicken ( Gallus gallus, sometimes G gallus domesticus) is a domesticated Fowl which is traditionally believed to have descended from  In Australia and New Zealand (also sometimes in Britain), there is a useful generic term chook (rhymes with "book") to describe all ages and both genders.  Babies are called chicks, and the meat is called chicken.
"Chicken" was originally the word only for chicks, and the species as a whole was then called domestic fowl, or just fowl. This use of "chicken" survives in the phrase "Hen and Chickens," sometimes used as a UK pub or theatre name, and to name groups of one large and many small rocks or islands in the sea (see for example Hen and Chicken Islands). The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one Hen and Chickens Islands (usually simply known as the Hen and Chickens) lie to the east of the North Auckland Peninsula off the coast of northern New Zealand
Chickens in nature may live for five to eleven years depending on the breed.  In commercial intensive farming, a meat Chicken generally lives only six weeks before slaughter.  A free range or organic meat Chicken will usually be slaughtered at about 14 weeks. Free range is a method of Farming Husbandry where the Animals are allowed to roam freely instead of being contained in any manner Hens of special laying breeds may produce as many as 300 eggs a year. After 12 months, the hen's egg-laying ability starts to decline, and commercial laying hens are then slaughtered and used in baby foods, pet foods, pies and other processed foods.  The world's oldest Chicken, according to the Guinness Book of World Records, died of heart failure when she was 16 years. Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records (and in previous U 
Roosters can usually be differentiated from hens by their striking plumage, marked by long flowing tails and shiny, pointed feathers on their necks and backs (the hackles and saddle)—these are often colored differently from the hackles and saddles of females.
However, in some breeds, such as the Sebright, the cock has only slightly pointed neck feathers, the same colour as the hen's. The Sebright is a Breed of Chicken named after its developer Sir John Saunders Sebright. The identification must be made by looking at the comb, or eventually from the development of spurs on the male's legs (in a few breeds and in certain hybrids the male and female chicks may be differentiated by colour). Adult Chickens have a fleshy crest on their heads called a comb or cockscomb, and hanging flaps of skin either side under their beaks called wattles. Anatomically a comb is a fleshy growth Caruncle, or crest on the top of the head of gallinaceous birds most notably turkeys Pheasants and A wattle is a fleshy Dewlap or Caruncle hanging from various parts of the head or neck in several groups of birds goats and other animals These organs help to cool the bird by redirecting blood flow to the skin. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Both the adult male and female have wattles and combs, but in most breeds these are more prominent in males.
In the wild, chickens often scratch at the soil to search for seeds, insects and even larger animals such as lizards or young mice. Lizards are a large and widespread group of Reptiles of the order Squamata, with nearly 5000 species and ranging across all continents except A mouse (plural mice) is a small Animal that belongs to one
Domestic chickens are not capable of long distance flight, although lighter birds are generally capable of flying for short distances, such as over fences or into trees (where they would naturally roost). Chickens will sometimes fly to explore their surroundings, but usually do so only to flee perceived danger. Because of the risk of escape, chickens raised in open-air pens often have one of their wings clipped by the breeder—the tips of the longest feathers on one of the wings are cut, resulting in unbalanced flight which the bird cannot sustain for more than a few meters, and it is thus discouraged from flying at all.
Chickens are gregarious birds and live together as a flock. A herd is a large group of animals The term is usually applied to mammals particularly Ungulates. They have a communal approach to the incubation of eggs and raising of young. Incubation is the process by which Birds hatch their eggs, and to the development of the Embryo within the egg Individual chickens in a flock will dominate others, establishing a "pecking order," with dominant individuals having priority for access to food and nesting locations. Pecking Order is a Card game, where players try to claim the best feeding spots in the jungle by playing their birds on the perches and determining who's stronger Removing hens or roosters from a flock causes a temporary disruption to this social order until a new pecking order is established. Adding hens—especially younger birds—to an existing flock, can lead to violence and injury. 
Hens will try to lay in nests that already contain eggs, and have been known to move eggs from neighbouring nests into their own. Some farmers use fake eggs made from plastic or stone (or golf balls) to encourage hens to lay in a particular location. The result of this behavior is that a flock will use only a few preferred locations, rather than having a different nest for every bird.
Hens can also be extremely stubborn about always laying in the same location. It is not unknown for two (or more) hens to try to share the same nest at the same time. If the nest is small, or one of the hens is particularly determined, this may result in chickens trying to lay on top of each other.
Contrary to popular belief, roosters do not crow only at dawn, but may crow at any time of the day or night. Their crowing—a loud and sometimes shrill call—is a territorial signal to other roosters. However, crowing may also result from sudden disturbances within their surroundings. Hens cluck loudly after laying an egg, and also to call their chicks.
In 2006, scientists researching the ancestry of birds "turned on" a chicken recessive gene, talpid2, and found that the embryo jaws initiated formation of teeth, like those found in ancient bird fossils. John Fallon, the overseer of the project, stated that chickens have ". . . retained the ability to make teeth, under certain conditions. . . "
When a rooster finds food he may call the other chickens to eat it first. He does this by clucking in a high pitch as well as picking up and dropping the food. This behavior can also be observed in mother hens, calling their chicks. In some cases the rooster will drag the wing opposite the hen on the ground, while circling her. This is part of chicken courting ritual. When a hen is used to coming to his "call" the rooster may mount the hen and proceed with the fertilization.
Under natural conditions most birds lay only until a clutch is complete, and they will then incubate all the eggs. Many domestic hens will also do this – and are then said to go broody. The broody hen will stop laying and instead will focus on the incubation of the eggs (a full clutch is usually about 12 eggs). She will sit or set fast on the nest, protesting or pecking in defense if disturbed or removed, and she will rarely leave the nest to eat, drink, or dust-bathe. While brooding, the hen maintains the nest at a constant temperature and humidity, as well as turning the eggs regularly during the first part of the incubation. To stimulate broodiness, an owner may place many artificial eggs in the nest, or to stop it they may place the hen in an elevated cage with an open wire floor.
At the end of the incubation period (about 21 days), the eggs, if fertile, will hatch. Development of the egg starts only when incubation begins, so they all hatch within a day or two of each other, despite perhaps being laid over a period of two weeks or so. Before hatching the hen can hear the chicks peeping inside the eggs, and will gently cluck to stimulate them to break out of their shells. The chick begins by pipping – pecking a breathing hole with its egg tooth towards the blunt end of the egg, usually on the upper side. In some egg -laying Animals the egg tooth is a small sharp cranial protuberance used by Offspring to break or tear through the egg's surface during It will then rest for some hours, absorbing the remaining egg-yolk and withdrawing the blood supply from the membrane beneath the shell (used earlier for breathing through the shell). It then enlarges the hole, gradually turning round as it goes, and eventually severing the blunt end of the shell completely to make a lid. It crawls out of the remaining shell and its wet down dries out in the warmth of the nest.
The hen will usually stay on the nest for about two days after the first egg hatches, and during this time the newly-hatched chicks live off the egg yolk they absorb just before hatching. Any eggs not fertilized by a rooster will not hatch, and the hen eventually loses interest in these and leaves the nest. After hatching the hen fiercely guards the chicks, and will brood them when necessary to keep them warm, at first often returning to the nest at night. She leads them to food and water – she will call them to edible items, but rarely feeds them directly. She continues to care for them until they are several weeks old, when she will gradually lose interest and eventually start to lay again.
Modern egg-laying breeds rarely go broody, and those that do often stop part-way through the incubation. However, some "utility" (general purpose) breeds, such as the Cochin, Cornish and Silkie, do regularly go broody, and they make excellent mothers, not only for chicken eggs but also for those of other species -- even those with much smaller or larger eggs and different incubation periods, such as quail, pheasants, turkeys or geese. The Cochin or Cochin China, originally known as the Chinese Shanghai, is a Breed of Chicken. The Cornish, known as the Indian Game in its native country of England, is a breed of Chicken originating in the county of Cornwall. The Silkie (sometimes spelled Silky) is a Breed of Chicken named for its unique Plumage, which is said to feel like Silk. Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized Birds in the Pheasant family Phasianidae, or in the family Odontophoridae. Pheasants are a group of large Birds in the order Galliformes. A turkey is either of two extant Species of large Birds in the Genus Meleagris native to North America. Goose (plural geese) is the English name for a considerable number of Birds belonging to the family Anatidae. Chicken eggs can also be hatched under a broody duck, with varied success.
Chicken egg incubation can successfully occur artificially as well. Nearly all fertilized Chicken eggs will hatch after 21 days of good conditions - 99. 5 °F (37. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 5 °C) and around 55% relative humidity (increase to 70% in the last three days of incubation to help soften egg shell). The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Relative humidity is a measurement of the amount of Water vapor that exists in a gaseous mixture of air and water Eggs must be turned regularly (usually three to eight times each week) during the first part of the incubation. If the eggs aren't turned, the embryo inside will stick to the shell and may hatch with physical defects. An embryo (from Greek:, plural, lit "that which grows" from en- "in" + bryein "to swell be full" is a multicellular Some incubators turn the eggs automatically. This turning mimics the natural process – an incubating hen will stand up several times a day and shift the eggs around with her beak. Anatomy Stegosaurus --> Beaks can vary significantly in size and shape from species to species However, if the egg is turned during the last week of incubation the chick may have difficulty settling in the correct hatching position.
Many commercial incubators are industrial-sized with shelves holding tens of thousands of eggs at a time, with rotation of the eggs a fully automated process. Home incubators are boxes holding from half a dozen to 75 eggs; they are usually electrically powered, but in the past some were heated with an oil or paraffin lamp.
The meat of the Chicken, also called "chicken," is a type of poultry meat. Chicken is the Meat derived from the Chicken. It is the most common type of Poultry in the world and is frequently prepared as Food In modern English usage meat most often refers to Animal tissue used as food mostly Skeletal muscle and associated Fat, but it may also refer Because of its relatively low cost, chicken is one of the most used meats in the world. Nearly all parts of the bird can be used for food, and the meat is cooked in many different ways around the world. Popular chicken dishes include fried chicken, chicken soup, Buffalo wings, tandoori chicken, butter chicken, and chicken rice. Fried chicken (also referred to as Southern Fried chicken) is chicken which is dipped in a Breading mixture and then deep fried, pan Buffalo wings, chicken wings, hot wings or wings are Chicken wing sections (called Wings or "flats" and drummettes Tandoori Chicken is a semi-fried chicken delicacy that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent. Butter chicken or Murgh makhani is an Indian dish from the Punjab region popular in countries all over the world that have a tradition of Indian restaurants Hainanese chicken rice is a Chinese rice dish most commonly associated with Malaysian cuisine or Singaporean cuisine, although it is also commonly sold Chicken is also a staple of fast food restaurants such as KFC, McDonald's, and Burger King. Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly Kentucky Fried Chicken, usually known as KFC, is a chain of Fast food restaurants based in Louisville Kentucky. Burger King ( often abbreviated to Commercially produced chicken usually has a fairly neutral flavor and texture, and is used as a reference point for describing other foods; many are said to "taste like chicken" if they are indistinctive. When trying to describe the flavor of Meat the listener has never eaten a common declaration is that it tastes like chicken.
Chickens can make good companion animals and can be tamed by hand feeding, but roosters can sometimes become aggressive. A pet is an Animal kept for companionship and enjoyment or a househeld animal as opposed to Livestock, Laboratory animals Working animals Some have advised against keeping them around very young children. Some people find chickens' behaviour entertaining and educational.
While some cities in the United States allow chickens as pets, the practice is not approved in all localities. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Some communities ban only roosters, allowing the quieter hens. The so called "urban hen movement" harks back to the days when Chicken keeping was much more common, and involves the keeping of small groups of hens in areas where they may not be expected, such as closely populated cities and suburban areas. City ordinances, zoning regulations or health boards may determine whether chickens may be kept.  A general requirement is that the birds be confined to the owner's property, not allowed to roam freely. There may be strictures on how far from human dwellings a coop may be located, etc. 
Chickens are generally low-maintenance. The major challenge is protecting the birds from predators such as dogs, raccoons and foxes. The dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated Subspecies of the gray wolf, a Mammal of the Canidae family of the order The raccoon ( Procyon lotor) (sometimes spelt as racoon) also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, northern raccoon A fox is an Animal belonging to any one of about 27 Species (of which only 12 actually belong to the Vulpes genus or 'true foxes' of small A bird left out at night is likely to be killed by a predator. Chickens are usually kept in a roost at night and a pen in the day (unless they are free-range). Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Free range is a method of Farming Husbandry where the Animals are allowed to roam freely instead of being contained in any manner The floor is covered with bedding such as straw or wood shavings, which, with the high-nitrogen droppings, can go into a compost pile.
Roosters are not required, as hens lay eggs whether or not they are fertilized (see Egg (food)). An egg is a round or oval body laid by the female of many animals consisting of an Ovum surrounded by layers of Membranes and an outer casing which acts to nourish Fresh egg yolks are "perky" and float above the white. An egg yolk is the part of an egg which serves as the Food source for the developing Embryo inside Yolk color varies. According to Gail Damerow's handbook, "Egg yolks get their color from xanthophyll, a natural yellow-orange pigment in green plants and yellow corn, and the same pigment that colors the skin and shanks of yellow-skinned hens. The exact color of a yolk depends on the source of the xanthophyll. " A subsequent table ascribes raw yolks colored "orange to dark yellow" to "green feed, yellow corn. "
If hens are allowed to forage or are fed additional greens, their eggs may differ from USDA standards. Barb Gorski, a Pennsylvania farmer of pastured poultry, had some of her chicken eggs analyzed under the USDA-supported Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program. According to the laboratory results, "Eggs of the pastured chickens contained 34% less cholesterol, 10% less fat, 40% more vitamin A, twice as much omega-6 fatty acid, and four times as much omega-3 fatty acid as the USDA standard. "
While the bulk of a pet chickens' diet should be a balanced commercial mix, for household chickens "green feed" can be as simple as poison-free, short grass clippings from lawn mowing. Chickens will forage for chickweed and other plants, seeds, and insects.
Chickens can also consume pulverized eggshells or otherwise unused food, such as meal leavings and old (but not rotted) produce. Damerow recommends leftover baked goods, fruit, or vegetable peelings, excess milk in modest amounts; advises against making such scraps the sole diet, or including raw potato peels "which chickens can't easily digest. . . " or ". . . anything spoiled or rotten. . . strong-tasting foods like onions, garlic, or fish. "
In Asia, chickens with striking plumage have long been kept for ornamental purposes, including feather-footed varieties such as the Cochin from Vietnam, the Silkie from China, and the extremely long-tailed Phoenix from Japan. The Cochin or Cochin China, originally known as the Chinese Shanghai, is a Breed of Chicken. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The Silkie (sometimes spelled Silky) is a Breed of Chicken named for its unique Plumage, which is said to feel like Silk. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Phoenix is a Breed of Chicken originating in Japan. Its colour is an unusual combination of silver and black For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Asian ornamental varieties were imported into the United States and Great Britain in the late 1800s. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Distinctive American varieties of chickens have been developed from these Asian breeds. Poultry fanciers began keeping these ornamental birds for exhibition, a practice that continues today. Individuals in rural communities commonly keep chickens for both ornamental and practical value. Zoos sometimes use chickens instead of insecticides to control insect populations. A zoological garden, shortened to zoo, is an institution in which living animals are exhibited in captivity An insecticide is a Pesticide used against Insects in all developmental forms Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described
In the United States, chickens were raised primarily on family farms until roughly 1960. Free range is a method of Farming Husbandry where the Animals are allowed to roam freely instead of being contained in any manner The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A farm is an area of land including various structures devoted primarily to the practice of producing and managing food ( Produce, Grains, or Livestock Originally, the primary value in poultry keeping was eggs, and meat was considered a byproduct of egg production.  Its supply was less than the demand, and poultry was expensive. Except in hot weather, eggs can be shipped and stored without refrigeration for some time before going bad; this was important in the days before widespread refrigeration.
Farm flocks tended to be small because the hens largely fed themselves through foraging, with some supplementation of grain, scraps, and waste products from other farm ventures. Such feedstuffs were in limited supply, especially in the winter, and this tended to regulate the size of the farm flocks. Soon after poultry keeping gained the attention of agricultural researchers (around 1896), improvements in nutrition and management made poultry keeping more profitable and businesslike.
Prior to about 1910, chicken was served primarily on special occasions or Sunday dinner. Poultry was shipped live or killed, plucked, and packed on ice (but not eviscerated). Disembowelment ( evisceration) is the removing of some or all of the vital organs usually from the Abdomen. The "whole, ready-to-cook broiler" wasn't popular until the Fifties, when end-to-end refrigeration and sanitary practices gave consumers more confidence. The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive Before this, poultry were often cleaned by the neighborhood butcher, though cleaning poultry at home was a commonplace kitchen skill. A butcher is someone who prepares various Meats and other related goods for sale
Two kinds of poultry were generally offered: broilers or "spring chickens," young male chickens, a byproduct of the egg industry, which were sold when still young and tender (generally under 3 pounds live weight); and "fowls" or "stewing hens," also a byproduct of the egg industry, which were old hens past their prime for laying. Poultry is the category of Domesticated Birds which some humans keep for the purpose of collecting their eggs, or kill for their Meat and/or  This is no longer practiced; modern meat chickens are a different breed. Egg-type chicken carcasses no longer appear in stores.
The major milestone in 20th century poultry production was the discovery of Vitamin-D (named in 1922), which made it possible to keep chickens in confinement year-round. Before this, chickens did not thrive during the winter (due to lack of sunlight), and egg production, incubation, and meat production in the off-season were all very difficult, making poultry a seasonal and expensive proposition. Year-round production lowered costs, especially for broilers.
At the same time, egg production was increased by scientific breeding. After a few false starts, such as the Maine Experiment Station's failure at improving egg production, success was shown by Professor Dryden at the Oregon Experiment Station. 
Improvements in production and quality were accompanied by lower labor requirements. In the Thirties through the early Fifties, 1,500 hens was considered to be a full-time job for a farm family. The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. In the late Fifties, egg prices had fallen so dramatically that farmers typically tripled the number of hens they kept, putting three hens into what had been a single-bird cage or converting their floor-confinement houses from a single deck of roosts to triple-decker roosts. Not long after this, prices fell still further and large numbers of egg farmers left the business. This marked the beginning of the transition from family farms to larger, vertically integrated operations.
Robert Plamondon reports that the last family chicken farm in his part of Oregon, Rex Farms, had 30,000 layers and survived into the Nineties. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 But the standard laying house of the surviving operations is around 125,000 hens.
This fall in profitability was accompanied by a general fall in prices to the consumer, allowing poultry and eggs to lose their status as luxury foods.
The vertical integration of the egg and poultry industries was a late development, occurring after all the major technological changes had been in place for years (including the development of modern broiler rearing techniques, the adoption of the Cornish Cross broiler, the use of laying cages, etc. In Microeconomics and Management, the term vertical integration describes a style of Management control. ).
By the late Fifties, poultry production had changed dramatically. Large farms and packing plants could grow birds by the tens of thousands. Chickens could be sent to slaughterhouses for butchering and processing into prepackaged commercial products to be frozen or shipped fresh to markets or wholesalers. A slaughterhouse, also called an abattoir (from the French verb abattre, "to strike down" or freezing works ( New Zealand A butcher is someone who prepares various Meats and other related goods for sale Meat-type chickens currently grow to market weight in six to seven weeks whereas only fifty years ago it took three times as long.  This is due to genetic selection and nutritional modifications (and not the use of growth hormones, which are illegal for use in poultry in the US and many other countries). Once a meat consumed only occasionally, the common availability and lower cost has made chicken a common meat product within developed nations. Growing concerns over the cholesterol content of red meat in the 1980s and 1990s further resulted in increased consumption of chicken. Cholesterol is a Lipid found in the Cell membranes and transported in the Blood plasma of all Animals It is an essential component of mammalian For mammal meat see Red meat. For the band see Red Meat (band.
Today, eggs are produced on large egg ranches on which environmental parameters are controlled. Chickens are exposed to artificial light cycles to stimulate egg production year-round. In addition, it is a common practice to induce molting through manipulation of light and the amount of food they receive in order to further increase egg size and production. In Biology, moulting (or molting, also known as shedding or for some species Ecdysis) signifies the manner in which an animal routinely
On average, a chicken lays one egg a day for a number of days (a "clutch"), then does not lay for one or more days, then lays another clutch. Originally, the hen presumably laid one clutch, became broody, and incubated the eggs. Selective breeding over the centuries has produced hens that lay more eggs than they can hatch. Some of this progress was ancient, but most occurred after 1900. In 1900, average egg production was 83 eggs per hen per year. In 2000, it was well over 300.
In the United States, laying hens are butchered after their second egg laying season. In Europe, they are generally butchered after a single season. The laying period begins when the hen is about 18-20 weeks old (depending on breed and season). Males of the egg-type breeds have little commercial value at any age, and all those not used for breeding (roughly fifty percent of all egg-type chickens) are killed soon after hatching. The old hens also have little commercial value. Thus, the main sources of poultry meat 100 years ago (spring chickens and stewing hens) have both been entirely supplanted by meat-type broiler chickens.
Traditionally, chicken production was distributed across the entire agricultural sector. In the Twentieth Century, it gradually moved closer to major cities to take advantage of lower shipping costs. This had the undesirable side effect of turning the chicken manure from a valuable fertilizer that could be used profitably on local farms to an unwanted byproduct. This trend may be reversing itself due to higher disposal costs on the one hand and higher fertilizer prices on the other, making farm regions attractive once more.
From the farmer's point of view, eggs used to be practically the same as currency, with general stores buying eggs for a stated price per dozen. Egg production peaks in the early spring, when farm expenses are high and income is low. On many farms, the flock was the most important source of income, though this was often not appreciated by the farmers, since the money arrived in many small payments. Eggs were a farm operation where even small children could make a valuable contribution.
FAO reports that China was the top chicken market in 2004 followed by the USA.
Animal welfare groups have frequently targeted the poultry industry for engaging in practices which they believe to be inhumane. Industrial agriculture is a form of modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of Livestock, Poultry, Fish, and Animal welfare refers to the viewpoint that it is morally acceptable for humans to use nonhuman animals for food in animal research, as clothing and in entertainment Many animal welfare advocates object to killing chickens for food, the "factory farm conditions" under which they are raised, methods of transport, and slaughter. Factory farming is the practice of raising Farm animals in confinement at high stocking density where a farm operates as a Factory &mdash a practice typical in PETA and other groups have repeatedly conducted undercover investigations at chicken farms and slaughterhouses which they allege confirm their claims of cruelty. 
Laying hens are routinely debeaked to prevent fighting. Debeaking, also called beak trimming is the partial removal of the Beak of Poultry, especially Chickens and Turkeys Most commonly Because beaks are sensitive, trimming them without anaesthesia is considered inhumane by some. It is also argued that the procedure causes life-long discomfort. Conditions in intensive chicken farms may be unsanitary, allowing the proliferation of diseases such as salmonella and E coli. Salmonella is a Genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes Typhoid fever, Paratyphoid fever Chickens may be raised in total darkness. Rough handling and crowded transport during various weather conditions and the failure of existing stunning systems to render the birds unconscious before slaughter have also been cited as welfare concerns.
Another animal welfare concern is the use of selective breeding to create heavy, large-breasted birds, which can lead to crippling leg disorders and heart failure for some of the birds. This article focuses on selective breeding in domesticated animals Concerns have been raised that companies growing single varieties of birds for eggs or meat are increasing their susceptibility to disease.
Some groups who advocate for more humane treatment of chickens, claim that they are intelligent. Dr. Chris Evans of Macquarie University claims that their range of 20 calls, problem solving skills, use of representational signalling, and the ability to recognize each other by facial features demonstrate the intelligence of chickens. Macquarie University is an Australian public University located in Sydney. .
In 2004, 8. 9 billion chickens were slaughtered in the United States.  There is no federal law that regulates the humane treatment of chickens.
Antibiotics have been used on poultry in large quantities since the Forties, when it was found that the byproducts of antibiotic production, fed because the antibiotic-producing mold had a high level of vitamin B12 after the antibiotics were removed, produced higher growth than could be accounted for by the vitamin B12 alone. Eventually it was discovered that the trace amounts of antibiotics remaining in the byproducts accounted for this growth. 
The mechanism is apparently the adjustment of intestinal flora, favoring "good" bacteria while suppressing "bad" bacteria, and thus the goal of antibiotics as a growth promoter is the same as for probiotics. Because the antibiotics used are not absorbed by the gut, they do not put antibiotics into the meat or eggs. 
Antibiotics are used routinely in poultry for this reason, and also to prevent and treat disease. Many contend that this puts humans at risk as bacterial strains develop stronger and stronger resistances.  Critics point out that, after six decades of heavy agricultural use of antibiotics, opponents of antibiotics must still make arguments about theoretical risks, since actual examples are hard to come by. Those antibiotic-resistant strains of human diseases whose origin is known originated in hospitals rather than farms.
A proposed bill in the American congress would make the use of antibiotics in animal feed legal only for therapeutic (rather than preventative) use, but it has not been passed yet.  However, this may present the risk of slaughtered chickens harboring pathogenic bacteria and passing them on to humans that consume them.
In October 2000, the FDA discovered that two antibiotics were no longer effective in treating diseases found in factory-farmed chickens; one antibiotic was swiftly pulled from the market, but the other, Baytril was not. Enrofloxacin is a Fluoroquinolone antibiotic sold by the Bayer Corporation under the trade name Baytril (r Bayer, the company which produced it, contested the claim and as a result, Baytril remained in use until July of 2005. For other uses see Bayer (disambiguation or Beyer or Buyer. Bayer AG (German ˈbaɪə () is a German 
Chicken feed can also include Roxarsone, an antimicrobial drug that also promotes growth. 4-Hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenearsonic acid is an Organic compound that is widely used as a food additive for chickens An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of Microbes such as Bacteria, Fungi, or Viruses. The drug has generated controversy because it contains the element arsenic, which can cause cancer, dementia, and neurological problems in humans. Arsenic (ˈɑrsənɪk is a Chemical element that has the symbol As and Atomic number of 33 Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled Dementia (from Latin de- "apart away" + Mens ( genitive mentis) "mind" is the progressive decline Yet the arsenic in Roxarsone is not of the type which has been linked to cancer. A Consumer Reports study in 2004 reported finding "no detectable arsenic in our samples of muscle" but found "A few of our chicken-liver samples has an amount that according to EPA standards could cause neurological problems in a child who ate 2 ounces of cooked liver per week or in an adult who ate 5. The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals 5 ounces per week. " However, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the organization responsible for the regulation of foods in America, and all samples tested were "far less than the. . . amount allowed in a food product. "
Chickens grow much more rapidly than they once did and some consumers have concluded that this rapid growth is due to the use of hormones in these animals. Some consumers believe that the increasingly earlier onset of puberty in humans is the result of the liberal use of such hormones. However, hormone use in poultry production is illegal in the United States.  Similarly, no chicken meat for sale in Australia is fed hormones.  Furthermore, several scientific studies have documented the fact that chickens grow rapidly because they are bred to do so.  A small producer of natural and organic chickens confirmed this assumption:
|“||If this were 1948, you might have something to worry about. Using hormones to boost egg production was a brief fad in the Forties, but was abandoned because it didn't work. Using hormones to produce soft-meated roasters was used to some extent in the Forties and Fifties, but the increased growth rates of broilers made the practice irrelevant--the broilers got as big as anyone wanted them to get when they were still young enough to be soft-meated without chemicals. |
The only hormone that was ever used in any quantity on poultry (DES) was banned in 1959, after everyone but a few die-hard farmers had given them up as a silly idea. Hormones are now illegal in poultry and eggs. The people who advertise "No hormones" are either woefully ignorant or are indulging in cynical fear-mongering, maybe both. 
According to Consumer Reports, "1. For the garage punk band see Bantam Rooster. A bantam is a small variety of Poultry, especially Chickens Etymologically A rooster (also called a cock or chanticleer) is a male Chicken ( Gallus gallus) the female being called a Hen. Key West is a city in Monroe County Florida, United States. The city encompasses Key West, the namesake island the part of Stock Island Consumer Reports is an American Magazine published monthly by Consumers Union. 1 million or more Americans [are] sickened each year by undercooked, tainted chicken. " A USDA study discovered E. coli in 99% of supermarket chicken, the result of chicken butchering not being a sterile process. Feces tend to leak from the carcass until the evisceration stage, and the evisceration stage itself gives an opportunity for the interior of the carcass to receive intestinal bacteria. (So does the skin of the carcass, but the skin presents a better barrier to bacteria and reaches higher temperatures during cooking). Before 1950, this was contained largely by not eviscerating the carcass at the time of butchering, deferring this until the time of retail sale or in the home. This gave the intestinal bacteria less opportunity to colonize the edible meat. The development of the "ready-to-cook broiler" in the 1950s added convenience while introducing risk, under the assumption that end-to-end refrigeration and thorough cooking would provide adequate protection. E. coli can be killed by proper cooking times, but there is still some risk associated with it, and its near-ubiquity in commercially-farmed chicken is troubling to some. Irradiation has been proposed as a means of sterilizing chicken meat after butchering.
There is also a risk that the crowded conditions in many chicken farms will allow avian influenza to spread quickly. For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. Avian influenza, sometimes Avian flu, and commonly Bird flu refers For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. Avian influenza, sometimes Avian flu, and commonly Bird flu refers A United Nations press release states: "Governments, local authorities and international agencies need to take a greatly increased role in combating the role of factory-farming, commerce in live poultry, and wildlife markets which provide ideal conditions for the virus to spread and mutate into a more dangerous form. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security . . "
Farming of chickens on an industrial scale relies largely on high protein feeds derived from soybeans; in the European Union the soybean dominates the protein supply for animal feed, and the poultry industry is the largest consumer of such feed.  Giving the feed to chickens means the protein reaches humans with a much lower efficiency than through direct consumption of soybean products. Some nutrients, however, are present in chicken but not in the soybean.
One other major problem concerns the wild Red Junglefowl. Feral populations of domestic birds may stray across the ranges of the wild Junglefowl species, it has created a concern of genetic pollution. Genetic pollution is undesirable Gene flow into wild populations Wild Junglefowl should have an eclipse plumage but apparently some males lack such a plumage, indicating hybridisation with the domestic chicken. Further confusing the issue of hybrids is that the domestic chicken itself is a hybrid between the Red and Grey Junglefowl. It has even been suggested that pure populations of Red Junglefowl may already be extinct.
Chickens are susceptible to several parasites, including lice, mites, ticks, fleas, and intestinal worms, as well as other diseases. Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between Organisms of different Species. Lice (singular louse) ( order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 Species of wingless Insects three of which are classified Mites, along with Ticks belong to the subclass Acarina (also known as Acari and the class Arachnida Mites are among the most diverse and successful Tick is the common name for the small Arachnids in Superfamily Ixodoidea that along with other Mites constitute the Acarina. Flea is the Common name for any of the small wingless Insects of the order Siphonaptera (some authorities use the name Aphaniptera The nematodes or roundworms ( Phylum Nematoda from Greek (nema "thread" + -ode "like" are one of the most common (Despite the name, they are not affected by Chickenpox; that is a disease of humans, not chickens. Chickenpox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with Varicella zoster virus (VZV )
Some of the common diseases that affect chickens are shown below:
|Name||Common Name||Caused by|
|Avian influenza||bird flu||virus|
|Histomoniasis||Blackhead disease||protozoal parasite|
|Cage Layer Fatigue||mineral deficiencies, lack of exercise|
|Crop Bound||improper feeding|
|Dermanyssus gallinae||Red mite||parasite|
|Egg bound||oversized egg|
|Fatty Liver Hemorrhagic Syndrome||high-energy food|
|Gallid herpesvirus 1|
or Infectious Laryngotracheitis
|Infectious Bursal Disease||Gumboro||virus|
|Lymphoid leukosis||Avian leukosis virus|
|Omphalitis||Mushy chick disease||umbilical cord stump|
|Squamous cell carcinoma||cancer|
|Tibial dyschondroplasia||speed growing|
In Islam, The Messenger of Allah said, "When you hear the crowing of cocks, ask for Allah's Blessings for (their crowing indicates that) they have seen an angel. Aspergillosis is the name given to a wide variety of diseases caused by Fungi of the genus Aspergillus. For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. Avian influenza, sometimes Avian flu, and commonly Bird flu refers Blackhead disease (also known simply as blackhead) is a commercially important avian Disease that affects chickens turkeys and other poultry Botulism ( Latin, botulus, "sausage" is a rare but serious Paralytic illness caused by Botulin Toxin. Coccidia are microscopic spore-forming single-celled parasites belonging to the Apicomplexan class Conoidasida. Acute viral nasopharyngitis or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious viral Infectious disease of the In Farming and Animal husbandry, the term egg bound refers to a condition in laying hens where a hen is unable to pass an egg that has formed Erysipelas ( Greek ερυσίπελας - red skin) is an acute Streptococcus Bacterial infection of the Dermis, resulting in inflammation Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (also referred to as fatty liver syndrome) a Disease in Chickens and other Birds, affects only hens (females Fowlpox is a worldwide disease of Poultry caused by Viruses of the family Poxviridae and the genus Avipoxvirus. Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1 (also known as Avian herpesvirus 1) is a Virus of the family Herpesviridae that causes avian infectious A gapeworm ( Syngamus trachea) is a Parasitic Nematode worm infecting the tracheas of certain Birds The resulting disease known Infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious disease of young Chickens caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV characterized by Immunosuppression Avian leukosis virus is a Species of Retrovirus that causes disease in Chickens experimentally it can infect other species of birds and mammals Marek's disease is a highly contagious viral neoplastic disease in Chickens Occasionally misdiagnosed as an Abtissue pathology it is caused Candidiasis, commonly called yeast infection or thrush, is a Fungal infection (mycosis of any of the Candida species of which Mycoplasma is a Genus of bacteria which lack a Cell wall. Without a cell wall they are unaffected by many common Antibiotics such Newcastle disease is a highly contagious Zoonotic Bird Disease affecting many domestic and wild avian species Omphalitis is the medical term for infection of the Umbilical cord stump in the neonatal newborn period In Medicine ( Pulmonology) psittacosis &mdash also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis &mdash is a zoonotic Salmonella is a Genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes Typhoid fever, Paratyphoid fever Scaly leg is a Disease of Chickens and other Birds It is caused by a Parasitic Mite, Knemidocoptes mutans. In Medicine, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is a form of Cancer of the Carcinoma type that may occur in many different organs including the Skin Tibial dyschondroplasia ( TD) is a Metabolic disease of young Poultry that affects the growth of Bone and Cartilage. Toxoplasmosis is a Parasitic disease caused by the Protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Allah ( Arabic: الله, ʔalˤːɑːh) is the standard Arabic word for ' An angel is a Spiritual Supernatural being found in many Religions Although the nature of angels and the tasks given to them vary from tradition to tradition And when you hear the braying of donkeys, seek Refuge with Allah from Satan for (their braying indicates) that they have seen a Satan. The donkey or ass, Equus asinus, is a member of the Equidae or horse family and an odd-toed ungulate. Satan, ( Standard Hebrew Satan'el, English accuser) is a term that originates from the Abrahamic faiths, being traditionally " Sahih Al-Bukhari Vol. 4, Book 54, Number 522: Narrated Abu Huraira.
In Indonesia the chicken has great significance during the Hindu cremation ceremony. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Cremation is the act of reducing a Corpse by burning, generally in a crematorium furnace or crematory fire A chicken is considered a channel for evil spirits which may be present during the ceremony. A chicken is tethered by the leg and kept present at the ceremony for its duration to ensure that any evil spirits present during the ceremony go into the chicken and not the family members present. A leg is a limb on an Animal 's Body that supports the rest of the animal above the ground between the Ankle and the Hip and is used for The chicken is then taken home and returns to its normal life.
In ancient Greece, the chicken was not normally used for sacrifices, perhaps because it was still considered an exotic animal. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Because of its valour, the cock is found as an attribute of Ares, Heracles, and Athena. In Greek mythology, Ares ( Ancient Greek:, Μodern Greek Άρης) is the son of Zeus and Hera. In Greek mythology, Heracles or Herakles ("glory of Hera " or ATHENA was an Antimatter research project that took place at the AD Ring at CERN. The alleged last words of Socrates as he died from hemlock poisoning, as recounted by Plato, were "Crito, I owe a cock to Asclepius; will you remember to pay the debt?", signifying that death was a cure for the illness of life. SOCRATES is the European Community action programme in the field of Education. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece The Crito (IPA; in English usually) is a short but important Dialogue by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. Asclepius (pronounced /æsˈkliːpiːəs/, Greek, transliterated Asklēpiós; Latin Aesculapius) is the god of Medicine Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific
The Greeks believed that even lions were afraid of cocks. The lion ( Panthera leo) is a member of the family Felidae and one of four Big cats in the Genus Panthera. Several of Aesop's Fables reference this belief. Aesop's Fables or Aesopica refers to a collection of Fables credited to Aesop (620&ndash 560 BC) a slave and story-teller who lived In the cult of Mithras, the cock was a symbol of the divine light and a guardian against evil. The Mithraic Mysteries or Mysteries of Mithras (also Mithraism) was a Roman mystery religion which became popular among the military in the late
In the New Testament, Jesus prophesied the betrayal by Peter: "Jesus answered, 'I tell you, Peter, before the rooster crows today, you will deny three times that you know me. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Peter is a popular male Given name. It comes from the Greek word πετρος (petros meaning "rock" '" (Luke 22:34) Thus it happened (Luke 22:61), and Peter cried bitterly. The Gospel of Luke (Gk Κατά Λουκάν Ευαγγέλιον) is a synoptic Gospel, and is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the The Gospel of Luke (Gk Κατά Λουκάν Ευαγγέλιον) is a synoptic Gospel, and is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the This made the cock a symbol for both vigilance and betrayal.
Earlier, Jesus compares himself to a mother hen when talking about Jerusalem: "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, how often I have longed to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the " (Matthew 23:37; also Luke 13:34). The Gospel of Matthew (Gk Κατά Ματθαίον Ευαγγέλιον is one of the four Canonical gospels in the New Testament and is a Synoptic gospel
In many Central European folk tales, the devil is believed to flee at the first crowing of a cock. Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological The Devil is the
In traditional Jewish practice, a chicken is swung around the head and then slaughtered on the afternoon before Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, in a ritual called kapparos. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּפּוּר ˈjɔm kiˈpur also known in English as the Day of Atonement, is the most solemn and important of the Jewish holidays Its Kapparos or Kaparot ( כפרות, "atonements" is a traditional Jewish religious ritual that takes place on the eve of Yom Kippur The sacrifice of the chicken is to receive atonement, for the bird takes on all the person's sins in kapparos. The meat is then donated to the poor. A woman brings a hen for the ceremony, while a man brings a rooster. A man is a Male Human. The term man (irregular plural Although not actually a sacrifice in the biblical sense, the death of the chicken reminds the penitent sinner that his or her life is in God's hands. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity.
The Talmud speaks of learning "courtesy toward one's mate" from the rooster. The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history This might refer to the fact that when a rooster finds something good to eat, he calls his hens to eat first.
The chicken is one of the Zodiac symbols of the Chinese calendar. Zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the Ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the Constellations that divide the ecliptic The Chinese calendar is lunisolar, incorporating elements of a Lunar calendar with those of a Solar calendar. Also in Chinese religion, a cooked chicken as a religious offering is usually limited to ancestor veneration and worship of village deities. Vegetarian deities such as the Buddha are not one of the recipients of such offerings. Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes Meat (including game and slaughter by-products Fish (including Shellfish and other sea Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder Under some observations, an offering of chicken is presented with "serious" prayer (while roasted pork is offered during a joyous celebration). Pork' is the Culinary name for Meat from the domestic Pig ( Sus scrofa) often specifically the fresh meat but can be used as an all-inclusive In Confucian Chinese Weddings, a chicken can be used as a substitute for one who is seriously ill or not available (e. Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B A wedding is the Ceremony in which two people are united in Marriage. g sudden death) to attend the ceremony. A red silk scarf is placed on the chicken's head and a close relative of the absent bride/groom holds the chicken so the ceremony may proceed. Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons However, this practice is rare today.
The first pictures of chickens in Europe are found on Corinthian pottery of the 7th century BCE. Corinth, or Korinth ( Greek Κόρινθος ( is a city in Greece. Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware The poet Cratinus (mid-5th century BCE, according to the later Greek author Athenaeus) calls the chicken "the Persian alarm". Cratinus ( Greek Κρᾰτῖνος, ca 520 BC- after 423 BC Athenian comic Poet. Athenaeus ( Ancient Greek - Athếnaios Naukratios Latin Athenaeus Naucratita of Naucratis in Egypt Greek rhetorician and grammarian flourished For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. In Aristophanes's comedy The Birds (414 BCE) a chicken is called "the Median bird", which points to an introduction from the East. Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης ˌærɪˈstɒfəniːz in English ca The Birds ( Greek: Ornithes) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes in 414 BC The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. Pictures of chickens are found on Greek red figure and black-figure pottery. Red-figure vase painting is one of the most important styles of figural Greek vase painting. The black-figure pottery ( Greek, ' μελανόμορφαmelanomorpha) technique is a style of ancient Greek pottery painting in which the decoration appears
In ancient Greece, chickens were still rare and were a rather prestigious food for symposia. Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means "to drink together" but has since come to refer to any Academic conference Delos seems to have been a centre of chicken breeding. The island of Delos ( Greek: Δήλος Dhilos) isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos
An early domestication of chickens in Southeast Asia is probable, since the word for domestic chicken (*manuk) is part of the reconstructed Proto-Austronesian language (see Austronesian languages). Vocabulary Numerals Pronouns Nouns Chickens, together with dogs and pigs, were the domestic animals of the Lapita culture, the first Neolithic culture of Oceania. Pigs, also called hogs or' swine', are Ungulates which have been domesticated as sources of food leather and similar products since ancient times For the Fly Genus, see Lapita (fly. Lapita is the common name The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos
Chickens were spread by Polynesian seafarers and reached Easter Island in the 12th century BCE, where they were the only domestic animal, with the possible exception of the Polynesian Rat (Rattus exulans). Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a Subregion of Oceania, comprising a large grouping of over The Polynesian Rat, or Pacific Rat ( Rattus exulans) known to the Māori as kiore, is the third most widespread species of Rat in They were housed in extremely solid chicken coops built from stone. Traveling as cargo on trading boats, they reached the Asian continent via the islands of Indonesia and from there spread west to Europe and western Asia.
The Romans used chickens for oracles, both when flying ("ex avibus") and when feeding ("auspicium ex tripudiis"). Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The hen ("gallina") gave a favourable omen ("auspicium ratum"), when appearing from the left (Cic. ,de Div. ii. 26), like the crow and the owl.
For the oracle "ex tripudiis" according to Cicero (Cic. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman de Div. ii. 34), any bird could be used, but normally only chickens ("pulli") were consulted. The chickens were cared for by the pullarius, who opened their cage and fed them pulses or a special kind of soft cake when an augury was needed. If the chickens stayed in their cage, made noises ("occinerent"), beat their wings or flew away, the omen was bad; if they ate greedily, the omen was good.
In 249 BCE, the Roman general Publius Claudius Pulcher had his chickens thrown overboard when they refused to feed before the battle of Drepana, saying "If they won't eat, perhaps they will drink. Publius Claudius Pulcher (d 249 BC/246 BC (of the Claudii family) was a Roman general The naval Battle of Drepana (or Drepanum) took place in 249 BC during the First Punic War near modern Trapani western Sicily between the " He promptly lost the battle against the Carthaginians and 93 Roman ships were sunk. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers Back in Rome, he was tried for impiety and heavily fined.
In 161 BCE a law was passed in Rome that forbade the consumption of fattened chickens. It was renewed a number of times, but does not seem to have been successful. Fattening chickens with bread soaked in milk was thought to give especially delicious results. The Roman gourmet Apicius offers 17 recipes for chicken, mainly boiled chicken with a sauce. All parts of the animal are used: the recipes include the stomach, liver, testicles and even the pygostyle (the fatty "tail" of the chicken where the tail feathers attach). A recipe is a set of instructions that show how to prepare or make something especially a culinary dish. In Human anatomy, the stomach is a J-shaped hollow muscular organ of the Gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of Digestion, following The testicle (from Latin testiculus, diminutive of testis, meaning "witness" virility plural testes) is the male Pope's nose redirects here It may also refer to the license plate light on early Volkswagen Beetles Pygostyle refers to a number of the
The Roman author Columella gives advice on chicken breeding in his eighth book of his treatise on agriculture. Lucius Iunius Moderatus Columella ( Gades, Hispania Baetica, AD 4 - ca Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture He identifies Tanagrian, Rhodic, Chalkidic and Median (commonly misidentified as Melian) breeds, which have an impressive appearance, a quarrelsome nature and were used for cockfighting by the Greeks. A cockfight is a Blood sport between two Roosters held in a ring called a cockpit For farming, native (Roman) chickens are to be preferred, or a cross between native hens and Greek cocks. Dwarf chickens are nice to watch because of their size but have no other advantages.
Per Columella, the ideal flock consists of 200 birds, which can be supervised by one person if someone is watching for stray animals. White chickens should be avoided as they are not very fertile and are easily caught by eagles or goshawks. One cock should be kept for five hens. In the case of Rhodian and Median cocks that are very heavy and therefore not much inclined to sex, only three hens are kept per cock. The hens of heavy fowls are not much inclined to brood; therefore their eggs are best hatched by normal hens. A hen can hatch no more than 15-23 eggs, depending on the time of year, and supervise no more than 30 hatchlings. Eggs that are long and pointed give more male, rounded eggs mainly female hatchlings.
Per Columella, Chicken coops should face southeast and lie adjacent to the kitchen, as smoke is beneficial for the animals. Coops should consist of three rooms and possess a hearth. Dry dust or ash should be provided for dust-baths.
According to Columella, chicken should be fed on barley groats, small chick-peas, millet and wheat bran, if they are cheap. Wheat itself should be avoided as it is harmful to the birds. Boiled ryegrass (Lollium sp. ) and the leaves and seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. ) can be used as well. Grape marc can be used, but only when the hens stop laying eggs, that is, about the middle of November; otherwise eggs are small and few. When feeding grape marc, it should be supplemented with some bran. Hens start to lay eggs after the winter solstice, in warm places around the first of January, in colder areas in the middle of February. Parboiled barley increases their fertility; this should be mixed with alfalfa leaves and seeds, or vetches or millet if alfalfa is not at hand. Free-ranging chickens should receive two cups of barley daily.
Columella advises farmers to slaughter hens that are older than three years, because they no longer produce sufficient eggs.
Capons were produced by burning out their spurs with a hot iron. The wound was treated with potter's chalk.
For the use of poultry and eggs in the kitchens of ancient Rome see Roman eating and drinking. Roman cuisine changed over the long duration (over a thousand years of their ancient civilization.
An unusual variety of chicken that has its origins in South America is the araucana. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The Araucana, also known as a South American Rumpless, is a Breed of Chicken originating in Chile. Araucanas, some of which are tailless and some of which have tufts of feathers around their ears, lay blue-green eggs. It has long been suggested that they predate the arrival of European chickens brought by the Spanish and are evidence of pre-Columbian trans-Pacific contacts between Asian or Pacific Oceanic peoples, particularly the Polynesians and South America. The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spain 's conquest settlement and rule over much of the Western hemisphere. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences In 2007, an international team of researchers reported the results of analysis of chicken bones found on the Arauco Peninsula in south central Chile. Radiocarbon dating indicated that the chickens were Pre-Columbian, and DNA analysis showed that they were related to prehistoric populations of chickens in Polynesia.  These results appear to confirm that the chickens came from Polynesia and that there were transpacific contacts between Polynesia and South America before Columbus's arrival in the Americas.