Chicago's architecture is famous throughout the world and one style is referred to as the Chicago School. The architecture of Chicago has influenced and reflected the history of American architecture. The style is also known as Commercial style.  In the history of architecture, the Chicago School was a school of architects active in Chicago at the turn of the 20th century. The History of architecture traces the changes in the History of Architecture through various countries and dates An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on They were among the first to promote the new technologies of steel-frame construction in commercial buildings, and developed a spatial aesthetic which co-evolved with, and then came to influence, parallel developments in European Modernism. This article is concerned with architectural aspects of Modernism; for the most recent developments in architecture see Contemporary architecture.
While the term "Chicago School" is widely used to describe buildings in the city during the 1880s and 1890s, this term has been disputed by scholars, in particular in reaction to Carl Condit's 1952 book The Chicago School of Architecture. Carl Condit (1914-1997 was an historian of urban and architectural history writer professor and teacher Historians such as H. Allen Brooks, Winston Weisman and Daniel Bluestone have pointed out that the phrase suggests a unified set of aesthetic or conceptual precepts, when, in fact, Chicago buildings of the era displayed a wide variety of styles and techniques. H Allen Brooks (b 6 November 1925 New Haven Connecticut) is an architectural historian and longtime professor at the University of Toronto. Other scholars have noted that the phrase implies that Chicago was the only locus of technical or aesthetic innovation in skyscraper design, when in fact developments in Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Cincinnati often paralleled or preceded similar work in Chicago. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Contemporary publications used the phrase "Commercial Style" to describe the innovative tall buildings of the era rather than proposing any sort of unified "school".
Some of the distinguishing features of the Chicago School are the use of steel-frame buildings with masonry cladding (usually terra cotta), allowing large plate-glass window areas and the use of limited amounts of exterior ornament. Terra cotta ( Italian: "baked earth" is a Ceramic. Its uses include vessels water & waste water pipes and surface embellishment in Building construction Sometimes elements of neoclassical architecture are used in Chicago School skyscrapers. Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century both as a reaction against the Rococo A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable Building. There is no official definition or a precise cutoff height above which a building may clearly be classified as a skyscraper Many Chicago School skyscrapers contain the three parts of a classical column. A column in Structural engineering is a vertical structural element that transmits through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural The first floor functions as the base, the middle stories, usually with little ornamental detail, act as the shaft of the column, and the last floor or so represent the capital, with more ornamental detail and capped with a cornice. The term cornice comes from Italian cornice, meaning “ledge
The "Chicago window" originated in this school. It is a three-part window consisting of a large fixed center panel flanked by two smaller double-hung sash windows. The arrangement of windows on the facade typically creates a grid pattern, with some projecting out from the facade forming bay windows. A bay window is a Window space projecting outward from the main Walls of a building and forming a bay in a room either square or Polygonal in plan The Chicago window combined the functions of light-gathering and natural ventilation; a single central pane was usually fixed, while the two surrounding panes were operable. These windows were often deployed in bays, known as oriel windows, that projected out over the street. Oriel windows are a form of Bay window commonly found in Gothic revival Architecture, which jut out from the main wall of the building but do not reach
Architects whose names are associated with the Chicago School include Henry Hobson Richardson, Dankmar Adler, Daniel Burnham, William Holabird, William LeBaron Jenney, Martin Roche, John Root, Solon S. Beman, and Louis Sullivan. Henry Hobson Richardson ( September 29, 1838 &ndash April 27, 1886) was a prominent American Architect of the 19th Dankmar Adler ( July 3, 1844 in Stadtlengsfeld, Germany – April 16, 1900 in Chicago Illinois, U Daniel Hudson Burnham, FAIA ( September 4, 1846 &ndash June 1, 1912) was an American Architect and Urban planner. William Holabird ( September 11, 1854 Amenia, New York - July 19, 1923 Evanston Illinois) was an American William Le Baron Jenney ( 25 September 1832 &mdash 14 June 1907) was an American Architect and Engineer who Martin Roche (1853–1927 was an American Architect. In partnership with William Holabird, Martin Roche designed buildings following the Chicago John Wellborn Root ( January 10, 1850 – January 15, 1891) was a significant American architect who worked out of Chicago Solon Spencer Beman (1853-1914 was an American architect born in Brooklyn New York, best known as the architect of the planned Pullman community Louis Henri Sullivan (September 4 1856 &ndash April 14 1924 was an American Architect, and has been called the "father of modernism. Frank Lloyd Wright started in the firm of Adler and Sullivan but created his own Prairie Style of architecture. Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8 1867 &ndash April 9 1959 was an American (of Welsh descent Architect, Interior designer, Writer, and educator who Prairie School was a late 19th and early 20th century architectural style most common to the Midwestern United States. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who had run the Bauhaus in Germany before coming to Chicago, is sometimes credited with the rise of a second "Chicago school" between 1939 and 1975. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (ˈlʊdvɪç miːs faːn dɛʀ ˈʀoːɐ born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies ( March 27, 1886 &ndash August 17, 1969 ("House of Building" or "Building School" is the common term for the, a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts and was famous
The Home Insurance Building, which some regarded as the first skyscraper in the world, was built in Chicago in 1885 and was demolished in 1931. The Home Insurance Building was built in 1885 in Chicago, Illinois and demolished in 1931 to make way for the Field Building (now the The year 1885 in architecture involved some significant events The year 1931 in architecture involved some significant events Some of the more famous Chicago School buildings include:
Today, there are different styles of architecture all throughout the city, such as the Chicago School, neo-classical, art deco, modern, and postmodern. The Auditorium Building of Roosevelt University in Chicago Illinois is one of the best-known designs of Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan. The Sullivan Center (formerly known as the Carson Pirie Scott and Company Building or Carson Pirie Scott and Compnay Store) is a commercial building at 1 The Reliance Building is the first Skyscraper to have large Plate glass windows make up the majority of its surface area foreshadowing a feature of skyscrapers that The Gage Group Buildings consist of three buildings located at 18 24 and 30 S The Brooks Building in Chicago was built in 1909-1910 in the style of Chicago School. The Heyworth Building is a Chicago Landmark located at 29 E Madison Street, on the southwest corner of Madison Street and Wabash Avenue in Chicago Illinois The First Leiter building (or Leiter I) was a Chicago structure built in 1879 and demolished in 1972. The Second Leiter Building, also known as Leiter II Building and the Sears Building, is located at the northeast corner of South State Street and East Congress The Monadnock Building, also known as Monadnock Block, is a historic proto-skyscraper in the Loop district of downtown Chicago, Illinois The Montauk Building - also often referred to as Montauk Block - was a high-rise building in Chicago Illinois. The Wainwright Building is a 10-story red-brick landmark office building in downtown St Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century both as a reaction against the Rococo Art Deco was a popular international design movement from 1925 until 1939 affecting the decorative arts such as Architecture, Interior design, and Industrial The International style was a major Architectural style of the 1920s and 1930s Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism