|City of Chicago|
|Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, The White City, Chi-Town, Hog Butcher for the World, City of the Big Shoulders, The Chi, The City That Works|
|Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), Make No Small Plans, I Will|
Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois
|Incorporated||March 4, 1837|
|- Mayor||Richard M. Daley (D)|
|- City||237. The municipal flag of Chicago consists of two blue horizontal stripes on a field of white each stripe one-sixth the height of the full flag and placed slightly less than A nickname is a Name of an entity or thing that is not its Proper name. This article lists nicknames for the city of Chicago, Illinois. "Chicago" is a poem by Carl Sandburg, about the US city of Chicago. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Chicago metropolitan area is the Metropolitan area associated with the city of Chicago in the United States and its suburbs Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. The links in the column FIPS County Code are to the Census Bureau Info page for that county Cook County is a county in the US state of Illinois. It is the second most populous county in the United States after Los Angeles DuPage County is a county located in the US state of Illinois. A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to cities, counties, Towns Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1837 ( MDCCCXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The Mayor of Chicago is the Chief executive of Chicago, Illinois, the third largest City in the United Richard Michael Daley (born April 24 1942 is a United States Politician, member of the national and local Democratic Party and current mayor The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. 0 sq mi (606. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. 2 km²)|
|- Land||227. To help compare different Orders of magnitude and geographical regions we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km² 2 sq mi (588. 3 km²)|
|- Water||6. 9 sq mi (17. 9 km²) 3. 0%|
|- Urban||2,122. 8 sq mi (5,498. 1 km²)|
|- Metro||10,874 sq mi (28,163 km²)|
|Elevation||586 ft (179 m)|
|- City||2,833,321 (US: 3rd)|
|- Density||12,470/sq mi (4,816/km²)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|- Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
Chicago (IPA: /ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ/) is the largest city in the state of Illinois, the largest in the Midwest, and, with a population of nearly 3 million people located almost entirely in Cook County (a portion of the city's O'Hare International Airport overlaps into DuPage County), is the third-most populous city in the United States. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International The Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place The Central Time Zone observes Standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time ( UTC−6) and five hours during Daylight saving Areas using UTC−6 Single zone countries Belize Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Daylight saving time ( DST The Central Time Zone observes Standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time ( UTC−6) and five hours during Daylight saving UTC−5 is the Time offset used in the North American Eastern Time Zone during Standard time and in the North American Central Time Zone during A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. Cook County is a county in the US state of Illinois. It is the second most populous county in the United States after Los Angeles DuPage County is a county located in the US state of Illinois. The The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Chicago metropolitan area (commonly referred to as Chicagoland) has a population of over 9. The Chicago metropolitan area is the Metropolitan area associated with the city of Chicago in the United States and its suburbs The Chicago metropolitan area is the Metropolitan area associated with the city of Chicago in the United States and its suburbs 7 million people in Illinois, Wisconsin and Indiana, making it also the third largest metropolitan area in the U. Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union See also Metropolitan Statistical Area, Core Based Statistical Area Table of United States Core Based Statistical AreasThe United States Census Bureau has defined S.  Adjacent to Lake Michigan, it is the largest city located on the Great Lakes and among the world's twenty-five largest urban areas by population. Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. This is a list of contiguous Urban areas of the world ordered according to population as of 2008 Chicago has been classified as an alpha world city for its worldwide economic and cultural influence. 
Incorporated as a city in 1837 after being founded in 1833 at the site of a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed, it soon became a major transportation hub in North America and quickly became the business and financial capital of the American Midwest. The Chicago Portage connects the watersheds ( BrE: drainage basin and the Navigable Waterways of the Mississippi River and The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to Since the Chicago World's Fair of 1893, it has been regarded as one of the ten most influential cities in the world. The World's Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago World's Fair) a World's Fair, was held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary  Among the fields in which its influence has been seen are physics where Chicago Pile-1 served as the world's first artificial nuclear reactor, and architecture where it has contributed Chicago school architecture. Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Chicago Pile-1 ( CP-1) was the world's first artificial Nuclear reactor. This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Chicago's architecture is famous throughout the world and one style is referred to as the Chicago School. It also boasts some of the world's tallest buildings (Sears Tower, Aon Center, and Hancock Center), and some of the tallest skyscrapers under construction (Chicago Spire and Trump International Hotel and Tower). These are lists of Skyscrapers, ranked by structural height (vertical elevation from the base to the highest architectural or integral structural element of the The Sears Tower, a Skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois, has been the tallest building in North America since 1973 The John Hancock Center at 875 N Michigan Ave. in Chicago, Illinois, is a 100- story, 1127-foot (344 m tall Skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable Building. There is no official definition or a precise cutoff height above which a building may clearly be classified as a skyscraper The Chicago Spire is a Skyscraper under construction in Chicago, Illinois. The Trump International Hotel and Tower, also known as Trump Tower Chicago and locally as the Trump Tower, is a Skyscraper Condo-hotel under The University of Chicago is a leader in many fields and has contributed its own Chicago schools such as Chicago school economics. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago.
Today, Chicago boasts a rich diversity of cultural offerings: teams from each of the major league sports (Bears, Blackhawks, Bulls, Cubs, and White Sox), a financial district anchored by the Chicago Mercantile Exchange located at the foot of LaSalle Street in the Chicago Board of Trade Building, the shopping of the Magnificent Mile, and a blossoming Theatre district. The Chicago Bears are a professional American football team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Chicago Bulls are an American professional Basketball team based in Chicago, Illinois, playing in the Central Division of the Eastern The Chicago Cubs are a Professional Baseball franchise based in Chicago, Illinois. The Chicago White Sox are a professional Baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. LaSalle Street is a major north-south street in Chicago named for Sieur de La Salle, an early explorer of Illinois. Noted among Chicago Landmarks are Wrigley Field, and Buckingham Fountain. Wrigley Field is a Baseball Stadium in Chicago, Illinois, United States that has served as the home ballpark of the Chicago Buckingham Fountain is a Chicago landmark located at Columbus Drive and Congress Parkway in Grant Park. The Magnificent Mile is a fitting tribute for a city that has revolutionized retail merchandising with Aaron Montgomery Ward perfecting mail order catalogs and Marshall Field inventing the money-back guarantee, bridal registry and being the first to use posted prices on goods. Aaron Montgomery Ward ( February 17, 1844 - December 7, 1913) was an American Businessman notable for the invention Mail order is a term which describes the Buying of goods or services by Mail delivery Marshall Field ( August 18, 1834 - January 16, 1906) was founder of Marshall Field and Company, the Chicago -based Department A money back guarantee is essentially a simple Guarantee that if a buyer is not satisfied with a product or service a refund will be made A bridal registry is a service provided by retail stores to assist engaged couples in the communication of gift preferences to wedding guests
Chicago is served by two major international airports, Chicago Midway International Airport and O'Hare International Airport (the world's second busiest in terms of passengers) as well as the internationally recognized Chicago 'L' system of rapid transit. Chicago Midway International Airport, also known simply as Midway Airport or Midway, is an Airport in Chicago Illinois, United States The 'L' (variously and sometimes, styled "L" El EL or L) is a Rapid transit system that serves the city of A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway Chicago was once the capital of the railroad industry and the nation's meatpacking was hubbed at the Union Stock Yards. Chicago has seen the illegal corruption of Al Capone and has a history of Chicago-style politics which goes back to getting Abraham Lincoln nominated for to be United States President at the Wigwam and continued through the Cook County Democratic Organization run by Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley. Alphonse Gabriel "Al" Capone (January 17 1899 &ndash January 25 1947 commonly nicknamed Scarface, was an Italian American Gangster who Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by The Wigwam was a convention center and meeting hall that served as the site of the 1860 Republican National Convention. Chicago machine redirects here For the Major League Lacrosse team see Chicago Machine. The Mayor of Chicago is the Chief executive of Chicago, Illinois, the third largest City in the United Richard Joseph Daley ( May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) served for 21 years as the undisputed Democratic boss of Chicago More recent Democrats from Cook County include the first African-American female United States Senator, Carol Mosley-Braun, and the first leading African-American United States Presidential contender, Senator Barack Obama. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Cook County is a county in the US state of Illinois. It is the second most populous county in the United States after Los Angeles African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Carol Elizabeth Moseley Braun (born August 16, 1947) is an American Politician and Lawyer who represented Illinois in the The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by
The name "Chicago" is the French rendering of the Miami-Illinois name shikaakwa, meaning “wild leek”. This article is about the history of Chicago Illinois. Early days At the beginning of recorded history the Chicago area was inhabited by a number of Algonquian The Politics of Chicago have been dominated by controversy corruption, turn-of-the- 19th century Businessmen, Irish Catholics The City of Chicago has been known by many nicknames, but it is most widely recognized as The Windy City. Mayors of Chicago, Illinois, current or previous The mayoral term in Chicago was two years from 1837 through 1907 at which time it was lengthened to four French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The Miami-Illinois language is a Native American language formerly spoken in the United States primarily in Illinois, Missouri, Indiana The name Wild leek can also refer to Allium ampeloprasum, a native of Europe  Etymologically, the sound /shikaakwa/ in Miami-Illinois literally means 'striped skunk', and was a reference to wild leek, or the smell of onions.  The name was initially applied to the river, but later came to denote what is presently the site of city. The sound Chicago is said to be the result of a French mis-transcription of the original sound by Louis Hennepin, a Catholic priest, missionary and explorer, who in 1683 first placed the place name 'Chicago' on a map. Father Louis Hennepin, OFM baptized Antoine, ( 12 May, 1626 &ndash c
During the mid-18th century the area was inhabited primarily by Potawatomis, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples. The Potawatomi (also spelled Pottawatomie and Pottawatomi, among many variations) are a Native American people of the upper Mississippi The Miami are a Native American tribe originally found in Indiana, southwest Michigan and Ohio, and now living also in Oklahoma Sac and Fox Nation is the modern political entity encompassing the historical Sac and Fox nations of Native Americans. The first permanent settler in Chicago, Haitian Jean Baptiste Pointe du Sable, arrived in the 1770s, married a Potawatomi woman, and founded the area’s first trading post. Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: Jean Baptiste Pointe du Sable (1745(? - August 28, 1818) popularly known as "The Father of Chicago" was the first known settler in the area which is now A trading post is a place where the trading of goods takes place In 1803 the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in the 1812 Fort Dearborn massacre. Fort Dearborn, named in honor of Henry Dearborn, was a United States Fort built on the Chicago River in 1803 by troops under Captain The Fort Dearborn massacre occurred on August 15, 1812, near Fort Dearborn, Illinois Territory (in what is now Chicago, The Ottawa, Ojibwa, and Potawatomi later ceded the land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Ojibwa or Chippewa (also Ojibwe, Ojibway, Chippeway) is the largest group of Native Americans - First Nations The Treaty of St Louis is one of many treaties signed between the United States and various Native American tribes On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of 350. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Year 1833 ( MDCCCXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Within seven years it grew to a population of over 4,000. The City of Chicago was incorporated on March 4, 1837. Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1837 ( MDCCCXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common
The city began its step toward regional primacy as an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Begun in 1836, Chicago’s first railway, Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, opened in 1848, a year which also marked the opening of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. The Galena and Chicago Union Railroad ( G&CU) was a Railroad running west from Chicago to Clinton Iowa and Freeport Illinois, never The Illinois and Michigan Canal ran 96 miles (155 km from the Bridgeport neighborhood in Chicago on the Chicago River to LaSalle Illinois, The canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to A flourishing economy brought many new residents from rural communities as well as immigrants from abroad. American immigration ( emigration to the United States of America) refers to the movement of non-residents to the United States. The city’s manufacturing and retail sectors became dominant among Midwestern cities and subsequently influenced the American economy, particularly in meatpacking, with the advent of the refrigerated rail car and the regional centrality of the city's Union Stock Yards. A refrigerator car (or "reefer") is a refrigerated Boxcar, a piece of Railroad Rolling stock designed to carry perishable 
During its first century as a city, Chicago grew at a rate that ranked among the fastest growing in the world. Within the span of forty years, the city's population grew from slightly under 30,000 to over 1 million by 1890. By the close of the 19th century, Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world, and the largest of the cities that didn't exist at the dawn of the century. Within fifty years of the Chicago Fire, the population had tripled to over 3 million. 
In February of 1856, the Chesbrough plan for the building of Chicago’s (and indeed the United States’) first comprehensive sewerage system was approved by the Common Council; a project that necessitated the physical raising of much of central Chicago to a new grade. During the 1850s and 1860s engineers carried out a piecemeal raising of the level of central Chicago. Untreated sewage and industrial waste now flowed into the Chicago River, thence into Lake Michigan, polluting the primary source of fresh water for the city. The Chicago River is 156 miles (251 km long and flows through downtown Chicago. Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in The city responded by tunneling two miles (3 km) out into Lake Michigan to newly built water cribs. Water cribs are offshore structures that collect water from close to the bottom of a lake to supply a pumping station onshore Nonetheless, spring rains continued to carry polluted water as far out as the water intakes. In 1900, the problem of sewage was largely resolved when Chicago undertook an innovative engineering feat. The city actually reversed the flow of the river, a process that started with the construction and improvement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal and completed with the finishing of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal) leading to the Illinois River which joins the Mississippi River. The Illinois and Michigan Canal ran 96 miles (155 km from the Bridgeport neighborhood in Chicago on the Chicago River to LaSalle Illinois, The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, historically known as the Chicago Drainage Canal, is the only shipping link between the Great Lakes (specifically Lake The Illinois River is a principal tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 273 miles (439 km long in the U The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to
After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed a third of the city, including the entire central business district, Chicago experienced rapid rebuilding and growth. The Great Chicago Fire was a Conflagration that burned from Sunday October 8 to early Tuesday October 10 1871 killing hundreds and destroying about four square miles in A central business district ( CBD) is the commercial and often geographic heart of a city  During Chicago's rebuilding period, the world's first skyscraper was constructed in 1885 using steel-skeleton construction. The Home Insurance Building was built in 1885 in Chicago, Illinois and demolished in 1931 to make way for the Field Building (now the Steel frame usually refers to a building technique with a " Skeleton frame" of vertical Steel Columns and horizontal I-beams constructed
In 1893, Chicago hosted the World's Columbian Exposition on former marshland at the present location of Jackson Park. The World's Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago World's Fair) a World's Fair, was held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary Jackson Park is a 500 acre (2 km² park on Chicago 's South Side officially located at 6401 S The Exposition drew 27. 5 million visitors, and is considered among the most influential world's fairs in history.  The University of Chicago had been founded one year earlier in 1892 on the same South Side location. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. The term "midway" for a fair or carnival referred originally to the Midway Plaisance, a strip of park land that still runs through the University of Chicago campus and connects Washington and Jackson Parks. The Midway Plaisance, also known locally as the Midway, is a mile-long linear Park on the South Side of the city of Chicago, Illinois See also Washington Park Chicago Washington Park is a 372 acre (1
The city was the site of labor conflicts and unrest during this period, which included the Haymarket affair on May 4, 1886. Labor history of the United States involves the history of Organized labor, as well as the more general history of working people in the United States of America. Events 1256 - The Augustinian monastic order is constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV Year 1886 ( MDCCCLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Concern for social problems among Chicago’s lower classes led Jane Addams to be a co-founder of Hull House in 1889, the first of what were called settlement houses. Laura Jane Addams (September 6 1860 &ndash May 21 1935 was a founder of the U Programs developed there became a model for the new field of social work. The city also invested in many large, well-landscaped municipal parks, which also included public sanitation facilities. The Chicago Park District is the oldest and (financially largest Park district in the U
The 1920s brought notoriety to Chicago as gangsters, including the notorious Al Capone, battled each other and law enforcement on the city streets during the Prohibition era. Most American gangsters during the 1920s controlled Liquor sales gambling Prostitution, and other illegal activities Alphonse Gabriel "Al" Capone (January 17 1899 &ndash January 25 1947 commonly nicknamed Scarface, was an Italian American Gangster who In the United States, the term Prohibition refers to the period from 1920 to 1933 during which the sale manufacture and transportation of alcohol for consumption The 1920s also saw a major expansion in industry. The availability of jobs attracted African Americans from the South. Arriving in the tens of thousands during the Great Migration, the cultural impact of the newcomers was immense. See also Second Great Migration (African American The Great Migration was the movement of approximately seven million African-Americans out of the It was during this wave that Chicago became a center for jazz, with King Oliver leading the way. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Joe "King" Oliver, ( December 19, 1885 &ndash April 10, 1938) was a Jazz Cornet player and Bandleader 
In 1933, Mayor Anton Cermak was assassinated while in Miami with President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Anton (Tony Joseph Cermak, in Czech Antonín Josef Čermák, (ˈantɔɲiːn ˈjɔzɛf ˈtʃ͡ɛrmaːk ( May 9, 1873 &ndash March AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media.
On December 2, 1942, physicist Enrico Fermi conducted the world’s first controlled nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In Nuclear physics, a nuclear reaction is the process in which two nuclei or nuclear particles collide to produce products different from the initial particles The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. The World War II Manhattan Project developed the first Nuclear weapon (atomic bomb
Mayor Richard J. Daley was elected in 1955, in the era of machine politics. Richard Joseph Daley ( May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) served for 21 years as the undisputed Democratic boss of Chicago A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on Patronage, the Spoils system, "behind-the-scenes" control and longstanding Starting in the 1960s, many upper- and middle-class citizens started leaving the city for the suburbs, as was the case in many cities across the country. South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California. It took the heart out of many residential neighborhoods, leaving impoverished and disadvantaged citizens behind. Structural changes in industry caused heavy losses of jobs for lower skilled workers.
The city hosted the tumultuous 1968 Democratic National Convention, which featured physical confrontations both inside and outside the convention hall, including full-scale police riots in city streets. Chicago Convention redirects here for the Convention on International Civil Aviation for the event also referred to by this name A police riot is a term used for the wrongful disproportionate unlawful, and illegitimate use of force by a group of Police against a group of Civilians Major construction projects, including the Sears Tower (which in 1974 became the world’s tallest building), McCormick Place, and O'Hare Airport, were undertaken during Richard J. The Sears Tower, a Skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois, has been the tallest building in North America since 1973 While determining the world's tallest structure has generally been straightforward the definition of the world's tallest building or the History As early as 1927 Robert R McCormick and the newspaper he controlled the Chicago Tribune, championed a purpose-built lakeside Daley's tenure. When he died, Michael Anthony Bilandic was mayor for three years. Michael Anthony Bilandic ( February 13, 1923 – January 16, 2002) was an Illinois Politician who served as the His loss in a primary election has been attributed to the city’s inability to properly plow city streets during a heavy snowstorm. In 1979, Jane Byrne, the city’s first female mayor, was elected. Jane Margaret Byrne (born May 24, 1934) was the first and to date only female Mayor of Chicago. She popularized the city as a movie location and tourist destination. A filming location is a place where some or all of a Film or television series is produced in addition to or instead of using sets constructed on a studio Backlot Tourism in the United States is a large industry that serves millions of international and domestic tourists yearly
In 1983 Harold Washington became the first African American to be elected to the office of mayor, in one of the closest mayoral elections in Chicago. Harold Washington ( April 15 1922 – November 25 1987) was an American Lawyer and Politician who became the African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa After Washington won the Democratic primary, racial motivations caused a few Democratic alderman and ward committeemen to back the Republican candidate Bernard Epton, who ran on the slogan Before it’s too late, a thinly veiled appeal to fear. Bernard Epton ( August 25 1921 – December 13 1987) was an American politician who served in the Illinois House of Representatives  Washington’s term in office saw new attention given to poor and minority neighborhoods. His administration reduced the longtime dominance of city contracts and employment by ethnic whites.
Current mayor Richard M. Daley, son of the late Richard J. Richard Michael Daley (born April 24 1942 is a United States Politician, member of the national and local Democratic Party and current mayor Daley, was first elected in 1989. He has led many progressive changes to the city, including improving parks; creating incentives for sustainable development, including green roofs; and major new developments. Since the 1990s, the city has undergone a revitalization in which some lower class neighborhoods have been transformed into pricey neighborhoods as new middle class residents have settled in the city.
Chicago is located in northeastern Illinois at the southwestern tip of Lake Michigan. Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. Chicago's official geographic coordinates are . It sits on the continental divide at the site of the Chicago Portage, connecting the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes watersheds. A continental divide is a line of elevated Terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that Water falling on one side of the line eventually The Chicago Portage connects the watersheds ( BrE: drainage basin and the Navigable Waterways of the Mississippi River and The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River, The city lies beside Lake Michigan, and two rivers — the Chicago River in downtown and the Calumet River in the industrial far South Side — flow entirely or partially through Chicago. The Chicago River is 156 miles (251 km long and flows through downtown Chicago. The Calumet River refers to a system of heavily industrialized Rivers and canals in the region between the neighborhood of South Chicago in Chicago Illinois The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal connects the Chicago River with the Des Plaines River, which runs to the west of the city. The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, historically known as the Chicago Drainage Canal, is the only shipping link between the Great Lakes (specifically Lake The Des Plaines River flows southward for 150 miles (241 km through southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois in the U
When Chicago was founded in the 1830s, most of the early building began around the mouth of the Chicago River, as can be seen on a map of the city's original 58 blocks.  According to the U.S. Census Bureau Chicago has a total area of 234. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census 0 square miles (606. 1 km²), of which 227. 1 square miles (588. 3 km²) is land and 6. 9 square miles (17. 8 km²) (2. 94%) is water.
The overall grade of the city's central, built-up areas, is relatively consistent with the natural flatness of its overall natural geography, generally exhibiting only slight differentiation otherwise. Grading in civil engineering and construction is the work of ensuring a level (or possibly sloped to specific degree base for a construction work such as a foundation or the The average land elevation land is 579 feet (176 m) above sea level. Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface The lowest points are along the lake shore at 577 feet (176 m), while the highest point at 735 feet (224 m) is a landfill located in the Hegewisch community area on the city's far south side ( ). For other uses see Water treatment and Land reclamation. A landfill, also known as a dump (and historically as Parks Mann Park Wolf Lake Wildlife Refuge William W Powers State Recreation Area Schools
Main Article: Lake Michigan
Chicago's history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to Lake Michigan. Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. The Chicago Harbor Lighthouse is an automated active Lighthouse, and stands at the end of the northern Breakwater protecting the Chicago Harbor to the east of While the Chicago River historically handled much of the region's maritime cargo, today's huge lake freighters use the city's far south Lake Calumet Harbor. Lake freighters, or Lakers, are Cargo vessels that ply the Great Lakes. Facilities Iroquois Landing Lakefront Terminal at the mouth of the Calumet River it includes of warehouses and facilities on Lake Michigan with over 780000 square The Lake also moderates Chicago's climate, making it warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer.
Lake Shore Drive runs adjacent to a large portion of Chicago's lakefront. Lake Shore Drive (colloquially referred to as LSD or simply Lake Shore or The Drive) is a mostly Freeway -standard Expressway running Parks along the lakeshore include Lincoln Park, Grant Park, Burnham Park and Jackson Park; 29 public beaches are found all along the shore. Lincoln Park is a 1200 acre (49 km² 1875 mi² park along Chicago Illinois ' lakefront facing Lake Michigan. Grant Park (originally named Lake Park is a large Park (319 acres or 1 Jackson Park is a 500 acre (2 km² park on Chicago 's South Side officially located at 6401 S Near downtown, landfills extend into the Lake, providing space for the Jardine Water Purification Plant, Navy Pier, the Museum Campus, Soldier Field, and large portions of the McCormick Place Convention Center. The Jardine Water Purification Plant, formerly the Central District Filtration Plant, is the largest capacity Water filtration plant in the world located at 1000 Navy Pier is a long Pier on the Chicago shoreline of Lake Michigan. Museum Campus Chicago is a 57 acre (230850 m² lakefront park in Chicago that surrounds three of the city's most notable Museums all dedicated to the Natural Soldier Field (formerly Municipal Grant Park Stadium) is located on Lake Shore Drive in Chicago Illinois, and is currently home to the NFL History As early as 1927 Robert R McCormick and the newspaper he controlled the Chicago Tribune, championed a purpose-built lakeside Most of the city's high-rise commercial and residential buildings can be found within a few blocks of the Lake.
The city lies within the humid continental climate zone (Koppen Dfa), and experiences four distinct seasons. On a typical Chicago mid-summer day humidity is usually moderately high and temperatures ordinarily reach anywhere between 78°F and 92°F (26°C to 33°C The humid continental climate is a Climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between A season is one of the major divisions of the Year, generally based on yearly periodic changes in Weather. In July, typically the warmest month, high temperatures average 84. 9 °F (29. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 4 °C) and low temperatures 65. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 8 °F (18. 8 °C). In January, typically the coldest month, high temperatures average 31. 5 °F (−0. 3 °C) with low temperatures averaging 17. 1 °F (−8. 3 °C). According to the National Weather Service, Chicago’s highest official temperature reading of 105 °F (41 °C) was recorded on July 17, 1995. The National Weather Service ( NWS) once known as the Weather Bureau is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Events 180 - Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 The lowest temperature of −27 °F (−33 °C) was recorded on January 20, 1985. Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar)
Chicago’s yearly precipitation averages about 34 inches. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. Summer is typically the rainiest season, with short-lived rainfall and thunderstorms more common than prolonged rainy periods.  Winter precipitation tends to be more snow than rain. "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation. Chicago's snowiest winter on record was that of 1929–30, with 114. 2 inches (290 cm) of snow in total. Chicago’s highest one-day rainfall total was 6. 49 inches (164 mm), on August 14, 1987. Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar)
|Weather averages for Chicago, IL|
|Average high °F (°C)||32 (0)||35 (2)||46 (8)||59 (15)||70 (21)||81 (27)||85 (29)||83 (28)||76 (24)||64 (18)||48 (9)||36 (2)||60 (15)|
|Average low °F (°C)||17 (-8)||21 (-6)||29 (-1)||40 (5)||50 (10)||60 (16)||66 (19)||65 (18)||56 (14)||45 (7)||33 (1)||22 (-5)||42 (6)|
|Precipitation inches (cm)||1. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric 8 (4. 9)||1. 6 (4. 0)||2. 6 (7. 0)||3. 4 (8. 9)||3. 6 (9. 2)||3. 8 (10. 2)||3. 6 (9. 5)||3. 3 (8. 8)||3. 1 (8. 0)||2. 7 (7. 0)||2. 6 (6. 9)||2. 2 (5. 7)||34. 3 (90. 2)|
|Source: Illinois State Climatologist Data July 2007|
The outcome of the Great Chicago Fire led to the largest building boom in the history of the nation. Perhaps the most outstanding of these events was the relocation of many of the nation's most prominent architects to the city from New England for construction of the 1893 World Columbian Exposition. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the Many architects including Burnham, Root, Adler and Sullivan went on to design other well known Chicago landmarks because of the Exposition.
In 1885, the first steel-framed high-rise building rose in Chicago ushering in the skyscraper era. A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable Building. There is no official definition or a precise cutoff height above which a building may clearly be classified as a skyscraper  Today, Chicago's skyline is among the world's tallest.  Downtown's historic buildings include the Chicago Board of Trade Building in the Loop, with others along the lakefront and the Chicago River. Population According to the 2000 Census, 16388 people live in the Loop Once first on the list of largest buildings in the world and still listed thirteenth, the Merchandise Mart stands near the junction of the north and south river branches. This list of largest buildings in the world ranks Buildings from around the world by usable space ( Volume) and floor space ( Area) When opened in 1930 the Merchandise Mart or the Mart, located in Chicago Illinois, was the largest building in the world with of floor space Presently the three tallest in the city are the Sears Tower, the Aon Center (previously the Standard Oil Building), and the John Hancock Center. The Sears Tower, a Skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois, has been the tallest building in North America since 1973 The John Hancock Center at 875 N Michigan Ave. in Chicago, Illinois, is a 100- story, 1127-foot (344 m tall Skyscraper The city's architecture includes lakefront high-rise residential towers, low-rise structures, and single-family homes. Industrialized areas such as the Indiana border, south of Midway Airport, and the banks of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal are clustered. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union Chicago Midway International Airport, also known simply as Midway Airport or Midway, is an Airport in Chicago Illinois, United States The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, historically known as the Chicago Drainage Canal, is the only shipping link between the Great Lakes (specifically Lake
Future skyline plans entail the supertall Waterview Tower, Chicago Spire, and Trump International Hotel and Tower. While determining the world's tallest structure has generally been straightforward the definition of the world's tallest building or the Waterview Tower is a mixed used development under construction in downtown Chicago, Illinois. The Chicago Spire is a Skyscraper under construction in Chicago, Illinois. The Trump International Hotel and Tower, also known as Trump Tower Chicago and locally as the Trump Tower, is a Skyscraper Condo-hotel under The 60602 zip code was named by Forbes as the hottest zip code in the country with upscale buildings such as The Heritage at Millennium Park (130 N. The ZIP code is the system of Postal codes used by the United States Postal Service (USPS Forbes is an American Publishing and media company Its flagship publication Forbes magazine is published bi-weekly The Heritage at Millennium Park located at 130 N Garland Court is a relatively new mixed use tower in Chicago. Garland) leading the way for other buildings such at Waterview Tower, The Legacy and Momo. Other new skyscraper construction may be found directly south (South Loop) and north (River North) of the Loop. Population According to the 2000 Census, 16388 people live in the Loop Neighborhoods Cabrini-Green See also Cabrini-Green Cabrini-Green was a notorious Public housing project
Every kind and scale of houses, townhouses, condominiums and apartment buildings can be found in Chicago. Large swaths of Chicago's residential areas away from the lake are characterized by bungalows built either during the early 20th century or after World War II. A bungalow (બંગલો baṅglo, बंगला baṅglā) is a type of single-storey House that originated in India. Chicago is a center of the Polish Cathedral style of church architecture. The Polish Cathedral style of North-American Catholic church is a genre of Church architecture found throughout the Great Lakes and Middle Atlantic
Chicago is partitioned into four main sections: Downtown (which contains the Loop), the North Side, the South Side, and the West Side. The neighborhoods of Chicago are less well-defined than Chicago 's 77 Community Areas. In the late 1920s sociologists at the University of Chicago subdivided the city into 77 distinct community areas. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. The City of Chicago is divided into seventy-seven community areas. The boundaries of these areas are more clearly defined than those of the over 210 neighborhoods throughout the city, allowing for better year-by-year comparisons. The neighborhoods of Chicago are less well-defined than Chicago 's 77 Community Areas.
The downtown area, lying somewhat roughly between Division Street on the north, Lake Michigan on the east, Roosevelt Road on the south and DesPlaines Avenue on the west, serves as the city's commercial hub. Population According to the 2000 Census, 16388 people live in the Loop Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. The area known as The Loop, is a portion of downtown named for it once having been located within a circuit of cable cars. A cable car is any of a variety of transportation systems relying on cables to pull vehicles along or lower them at a steady rate or a vehicle on these systems Today the name reflects the elevated train Loop. The Loop (historically Union Loop from multiple entities owned by transit baron Charles Tyson Yerkes, including two that began with the word Union is the name given Many of downtown's commercial, cultural, and financial institutions are located in the Loop.
The city's North Side (extending north of downtown along the lakefront) is the most densely populated residential section of the city. It contains public parkland and beaches stretching for miles along Lake Michigan to the city's northern border. Much of the North Side has benefited from an economic boom which began in the 1990s. For example, the River North area, located just north of the Chicago River and the Loop, has undergone a transition from a warehouse district to an active commercial, residential, and entertainment hub, featuring the nation's largest concentration of contemporary art galleries outside of Manhattan. The River North Gallery District in Chicago is in the Near North Side Chicago. Just north of River North's galleries and bistros, demolition of the CHA's Cabrini-Green housing project began in 2003, being replaced by upscale townhomes. The Chicago Housing Authority (CHA is a municipal corporation established by the State of Illinois in 1937 with jurisdiction for the administrative oversight of public housing within Cabrini-Green is a Chicago Housing Authority (CHA Public housing development on Chicago 's North Side, bordered by Evergreen Avenue 
The South Side (extending south of downtown along Lake Michigan) is the largest section of the city, encompassing roughly 60% of the city's land area. The section along the lake is marked with public parkland and beaches. The South Side has a higher ratio of single-family homes and also contains most of the city's industry.
Along with being the largest section of the city in terms of geography, the South Side is also home to two of the city's largest parades: the annual Bud Billiken Day parade, which is held during the second weekend of August and celebrates children returning to school, and the South Side Irish Parade, which is always held the Sunday prior to Saint Patrick's Day, unless the holiday falls on a Sunday in which case the parade is held that day. The Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic is an annual Parade in Chicago, Illinois, and the largest African American parade in the United States South Side Irish is the term that refers to the large Irish-American community on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois. Saint Patrick's Day (Lá ’le Pádraig or Lá Fhéile Pádraig) colloquially St
The South Side has two of Chicago's largest public parks. Jackson Park, which hosted the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, is currently the site of the Museum of Science and Industry. Jackson Park is a 500 acre (2 km² park on Chicago 's South Side officially located at 6401 S The World's Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago World's Fair) a World's Fair, was held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary The Museum of Science and Industry (MSI is located in Chicago, Illinois in Jackson Park, in the Hyde Park neighborhood adjacent to The park stretches along the lakefront, linking the neighborhoods of Hyde Park and South Shore. History (Hyde Park Paul Cornell a successful businessman real-estate speculator and Abolitionist, purchased of land between 51st and 55th Streets along the Lake Neighborhoods Jackson Park Jackson Park is a 500 acre (2 km² park on Chicago's South Side bordering Lake Michigan and the neighborhoods of Hyde Park Washington Park, which is connected to Jackson Park by the Midway Plaisance, is currently being considered as the primary site of the Olympic Stadium for the 2016 Summer Olympics if Chicago wins the bid. See also Washington Park Chicago Washington Park is a 372 acre (1 The Midway Plaisance, also known locally as the Midway, is a mile-long linear Park on the South Side of the city of Chicago, Illinois
The West Side (extending west of downtown) is made up of neighborhoods such as Austin, Lawndale, Garfield Park, West Town, and Humboldt Park among others. History On December 1, 1958, the Our Lady of the Angels School fire killed children and nuns at the Our Lady of the Angels School, K-Town K-Town is a nickname for an area in North Lawndale in which many names of north-south avenues (Karlov Ave Points of interest Nearly 20% of the neighborhood is managed by the Chicago Park District, with Garfield Park occupying the northwest corner of the neighborhood Neighborhoods Wicker Park RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company --> Wicker Park is a Chicago neighborhood northwest of the Education Chicago Public Schools serves the area Orr High School and Roberto Clemente High School serve predominantly Hispanic and African-American student bodies Some neighborhoods, particularly Garfield Park and Lawndale, have socio-economic problems including urban decay and crime. Urban decay is a process by which a City, or a part of a city falls into a state of disrepair Other West Side neighborhoods, especially those closer to downtown, have been undergoing gentrification.
Major parks on the West Side include Douglas Park, Garfield Park, and Humboldt Park. Garfield Park Conservatory houses one of the largest collections of tropical plants of any U. The Garfield Park Conservatory in Chicago, Illinois is one of the largest and most impressive conservatories in the United States. S. city. Cultural attractions on the West Side include Humboldt Park's Puerto Rican Day festival, and the National Museum of Mexican Art in Pilsen. The Puerto Rican Day Parade (also known as the National Puerto Rican Day Parade) is a locally televised parade that takes place yearly on Fifth Avenue in New York City The The National Museum of Mexican Art (Formerly known as the Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum) is a museum which features Mexican, Latino, and Chicano Neighborhoods Heart of Chicago Heart of Chicago is a neighborhood located in the southwest corner of the Lower West Side community area and has an Italian
When Chicago incorporated in 1837 it chose the motto "Urbs in Horto" a Latin phrase which translates into English as "City in a Garden", and today the Chicago Park District consists of 552 parks with over 7,300 acres (30 km²) of municipal parkland as well as 33 beaches, nine museums, two world-class conservatories, 16 historic lagoons and 10 bird and wildlife gardens. The City of Chicago holds the distinction of having more parkland than any other city in the United States. Portage Park is a 36 acre park in the Portage Park community area of Chicago Illinois on the National Register of Historic Places. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The Chicago Park District is the oldest and (financially largest Park district in the U Lincoln Park, the largest of these parks has over 20 million visitors each year, making it second only to Central Park in New York City. Lincoln Park is a 1200 acre (49 km² 1875 mi² park along Chicago Illinois ' lakefront facing Lake Michigan. Central Park is a large public Urban park in New York City, with about twenty-five million visitors annually The City of New York  Nine lakefront harbors located within a number of parks along the lakefront render the Chicago Park District the nation's largest municipal harbor system. The Chicago Park District is the oldest and (financially largest Park district in the U In addition to ongoing beautification and renewal projects for existing parks, a number of new parks have been added in recent years such as Ping Tom Memorial Park, DuSable Park and most notably Millennium Park. Ping Tom Memorial Park is a 12 acre public Urban park in Chicago, Illinois near Chinatown Chicago, located at 19th Street and the South Millennium Park is a public Park located in the Chicago Loop community area of Chicago within, United States. The wealth of greenspace afforded by Chicago's parks is further augmented by the Cook County Forest Preserves, a network of open spaces containing forest, prairie, wetland, streams, and lakes, that are set aside as natural areas which lie along the city's periphery which are also home to both the Chicago Botanic Garden and Brookfield Zoo. The Cook County Forest Preserves are a network of open spaces containing Forest, Prairie, Wetland, Streams and Lakes that are set A forest is an area with a high density of Trees There are many definitions of a forest based on various criteria Prairie, from the French prairie ("meadow" "grassland" "pasture" refers to an area of land of low topographic relief that historically A wetland is an area of Land consisting of Soil that is Saturated with Moisture, such as a Swamp, Marsh, or Bog A stream is a body of Water with a current, confined within a bed and stream-banks A lake (from Latin lacus) is a Terrain feature (or Physical feature) a body of Liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the Located at 1000 Lake Cook Road, Glencoe Illinois, USA, the Chicago Botanic Garden is a living plant museum situated on nine islands featuring 23 The Brookfield Zoo is a Zoo located in the Chicago Suburb of Brookfield Illinois.
The city's waterfront allure and nightlife has attracted residents and tourists alike. The culture of Chicago Illinois, is known for various forms of performing arts such as Improvisational comedy, and music such as Chicago blues and Over one-third of the city population is concentrated in the lakefront neighborhoods (from Rogers Park in the north to Hyde Park in the south). Rogers Park is the northernmost of Chicago community areas in the far North Side of Chicago, Illinois. History (Hyde Park Paul Cornell a successful businessman real-estate speculator and Abolitionist, purchased of land between 51st and 55th Streets along the Lake The North Side has a large gay and lesbian community. Gay community or LGBT community is a term used to describe the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender subculture Two North Side neighborhoods in particular, Lakeview and the Andersonville area of the Edgewater neighborhood, are home to many LGBT businesses and organizations. LGBT (also GLBT) is an initialism referring collectively to Lesbian, Gay, bisexual, and Transgender / transsexual The area adjacent to the North Side intersection of Halsted and Belmont is a gay neighborhood known to Chicagoans as "Boys Town". Halsted Street is a major north-south street in the American city of Chicago, Illinois. Belmont Avenue (3200 N is a major east-west street on the North Side of Chicago. Boystown is the popular name of a locally recognized neighborhood enclave within Chicago, Illinois. The city has many upscale dining establishments as well as many ethnic restaurant districts. These include the Mexican village "La Villita" on 26th street, "Greektown" on South Halsted, "Little Italy" on Taylor Street, just west of Halsted, "Chinatown" on the near South Side, "Little Seoul" on and around Lawrence Avenue, a cluster of Vietnamese restaurants on Argyle Street and South Asian (Indian/Pakistani) on Devon Avenue.
Chicago’s theatre community spawned modern improvisational theatre. Note on spelling While most Americans use "er" (as per American spelling conventions the majority of venues performers and trade groups for live theatre use "re Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one Improvisational theatre (also known as improv or impro) is a form of Theatre in which the Actors use Improvisational acting techniques  Two renowned comedy troupes emerged — The Second City and I.O. (formerly known as ImprovOlympic). iO, or iO Chicago, (formerly known as "ImprovOlympic" is a theater located at 3541 N Renowned Chicago theater companies include the Steppenwolf Theatre Company (on the city's north side), the Goodman Theatre, and the Victory Gardens Theater. Steppenwolf Theatre Company is a Tony Award -winning Chicago theatre company founded in 1974 by Gary Sinise, Terry Kinney and Jeff Perry The Goodman Theatre is a Theater in Chicago 's Loop, and part of Chicago theatre. Victory Gardens Theater is a theater in Chicago, Illinois dedicated to the development and production of new plays and playwrights Chicago offers Broadway-style entertainment at theatres such as Ford Center for the Performing Arts Oriental Theatre, LaSalle Bank Theatre, Cadillac Palace Theatre, Auditorium Building of Roosevelt University, and Drury Lane Theatre Water Tower Place. The Ford Center for the Performing Arts Oriental Theatre is a Chicago theatre now owned by the Nederlander Organization and is operated by Broadway In Chicago. The Cadillac Palace Theatre (formerly the The New Palace Theatre) is a Chicago theatre owned by the Nederlander Organization and operated by Broadway The Auditorium Building of Roosevelt University in Chicago Illinois is one of the best-known designs of Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan. The Drury Lane Theatre is a live Theater located at the intersection of Kingery Highway, Butterfield Road, and Illinois Route 38 ( Roosevelt Polish language productions for Chicago's large Polish speaking population can be seen at the historic Gateway Theatre in Jefferson Park. Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Gateway Theatre, now part of the Copernicus Cultural and Civic Center in the Jefferson Park community area of Chicago in Cook County History Settlement in the vicinity of Jefferson Park began in the 1830s with John Kinzie Clark and Elijah Wentworth whose claim was near what is now the Jefferson Since 1968, the Joseph Jefferson Awards are given annually to acknowledge excellence in theatre in the Chicago area. The Joseph Jefferson Awards (The Jeff Awards are given annually by a volunteer non-profit committee to acknowledge excellence in theatre in the Chicago
Classical music offerings include the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, recognized as one of the finest orchestras in the world, which performs at Symphony Center. The Chicago Symphony Orchestra ( CSO) is an American orchestra based in Chicago Illinois. Symphony Center is a music complex in Chicago Illinois and is home to the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the Chicago Sinfonietta. In the summer, many outdoor concerts are given in Grant Park and Millennium Park. Grant Park (originally named Lake Park is a large Park (319 acres or 1 Millennium Park is a public Park located in the Chicago Loop community area of Chicago within, United States. Ravinia Park, located 25 miles (40 km) north of Chicago, is also a favorite destination for many Chicagoans, with performances occasionally given in Chicago locations such as the Harris Theater. Ravinia Park is a private park in Highland Park, Illinois with a variety of outdoor and indoor performing arts facilities and it is best known as the site of the Joan W and Irving B Harris Theater for Music and Dance, Harris & Harris Theater or most commonly Harris Theater is a 1525-seat theater for the Performing The Civic Opera House is home to the Lyric Opera of Chicago. HenryHeringChicago2jpg|thumb|175px|right|Sculpture by Henry Hering]] The Civic Opera House is an opera house located at 20 North Wacker Drive in Chicago Lyric Opera of Chicago is one of the leading Opera companies in the United States.
The Joffrey Ballet and Chicago Festival Ballet perform in various venues, including the Harris Theater in Millennium Park. The Joffrey Ballet is a dance company founded in 1956 From 1995 to 2004 the company was known as The Joffrey Ballet of Chicago. Chicago Festival Ballet is a professional Ballet company performing a repertoire of classical romantic and neoclassical works in venues around the United States Joan W and Irving B Harris Theater for Music and Dance, Harris & Harris Theater or most commonly Harris Theater is a 1525-seat theater for the Performing Millennium Park is a public Park located in the Chicago Loop community area of Chicago within, United States. Chicago is home to several other modern and jazz dance troupes, such as the Hubbard Street Dance Chicago. Hubbard Street Dance Chicago is a dance company based in Chicago.
Other live music genre which are part of the city's cultural heritage include Chicago blues, Chicago soul, jazz, and gospel. The Chicago blues is a form of Blues music that developed in Chicago Illinois by taking the basic acoustic guitar and Harmonica -based Delta blues Chicago soul is a style of Soul music that arose during the 1960s in Chicago. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Gospel music is Music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life as well as (in terms of the varying music styles to The city is the birthplace of house music and is the site of an influential hip-hop scene. House music is a style of Electronic dance music initially popularized in mid-1980s Discothèques catering to the African-American, Latino The Hip hop scene in Chicago Illinois has produced a distinct group of artists and styles In the 1980s, the city was a center for industrial, punk and new wave. This influence continued into the alternative rock of the 1990s. Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative; known primarily in the UK as indie) is a genre of The city has been an epicenter for rave culture since the 1980s. A rave (or rave party) is a term in use since the 1980s to describe Dance Parties (often all-night events A flourishing independent rock music culture brought forth Chicago indie. In Popular music, independent music, often abbreviated as indie, is a term used to describe independence from major commercial record labels and an autonomous Annual festivals feature various acts such as Lollapalooza, the Intonation Music Festival and Pitchfork Music Festival. Lollapalooza is an American music festival featuring Alternative rock, hip hop, and Punk rock bands Dance and Comedy performances The Intonation Music Festival was a yearly summer Music festival held at Union Park in Chicago, Illinois. Pitchfork Media, usually known simply as Pitchfork, is a Chicago -based daily Internet publication devoted to music criticism and commentary
Many notable celebrities and entertainment figures are associated with Chicago. (For listing see List of people from Chicago). The following list includes notable people who were born or have lived in Chicago Illinois or from the surrounding suburbs
Chicago attracted a combined 44. 17 million people in 2006 from around the nation and abroad.  Upscale shopping along the Magnificent Mile, thousands of restaurants, as well as Chicago's eminent architecture, continue to draw tourists. The city is the United States' third-largest convention destination.  Most conventions are held at McCormick Place, just south of Soldier Field. History As early as 1927 Robert R McCormick and the newspaper he controlled the Chicago Tribune, championed a purpose-built lakeside Soldier Field (formerly Municipal Grant Park Stadium) is located on Lake Shore Drive in Chicago Illinois, and is currently home to the NFL
Navy Pier, 3,000 feet (900 m) long, houses retail, restaurants, museums, exhibition halls, and auditoriums. Navy Pier is a long Pier on the Chicago shoreline of Lake Michigan. Its 150-foot (46 m) tall Ferris wheel is north of Grant Park on the lakefront and is one of the most visited landmarks in the Midwest, attracting about 8 million people annually. A Ferris wheel (also known as an observation wheel or big wheel) is a Nonbuilding structure consisting of an upright wheel with passenger gondolas attached Grant Park (originally named Lake Park is a large Park (319 acres or 1 
The historic Chicago Cultural Center (1897), originally serving as the Chicago Public Library, now houses the city's Visitor Information Center, galleries, and exhibit halls. The Chicago Cultural Center, is a Chicago Landmark building that houses the city's official reception venue where the Mayor has welcomed Presidents and royalty diplomats The ceiling of Preston Bradley Hall includes a 38-foot (11 m) Tiffany glass dome. Louis Comfort Tiffany ( February 18, 1848 &ndash January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts
Millennium Park, initially slated to be unveiled at the turn of the 21st century, and delayed for several years, sits on a deck built over a portion of the former Illinois Central rail yard. Millennium Park is a public Park located in the Chicago Loop community area of Chicago within, United States. The park includes the reflective Cloud Gate sculpture (known locally as "The Bean"). Cloud Gate is a public sculpture by British artist Anish Kapoor. A Millennium Park restaurant outdoor transforms into an ice rink in the winter. An Ice rink is a frozen body of Water where people can Ice skate or play winter sports Two tall glass sculptures make up the Crown Fountain. The fountain's two towers display visual effects from LED images of Chicagoans' faces, with water spouting from their lips. Frank Gehry's detailed stainless steel band shell, Pritzker Pavilion, hosts the classical Grant Park Music Festival concert series. Frank Owen Gehry CC (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize -winning Architect Behind the pavilion's stage is the Harris Theater for Music and Dance, an indoor venue for mid-sized performing arts companies, including Chicago Opera Theater and Music of the Baroque. Joan W and Irving B Harris Theater for Music and Dance, Harris & Harris Theater or most commonly Harris Theater is a 1525-seat theater for the Performing
In 1998, the city officially opened the Museum Campus, a 10-acre (4-ha) lakefront park surrounding three of the city's main museums: the Adler Planetarium, the Field Museum of Natural History, and the Shedd Aquarium. Museum Campus Chicago is a 57 acre (230850 m² lakefront park in Chicago that surrounds three of the city's most notable Museums all dedicated to the Natural The acre is a unit of Area in a number of different systems including the imperial and U Explanation The hectare is commonly used in most countries around the world especially in domains concerned with land planning and management such as Agriculture, The Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum in Chicago, Illinois was the first Planetarium built in the Western Hemisphere and is the oldest in existence The Field Museum of Natural History is located in Chicago, Illinois, USA. The John G Shedd Aquarium is an indoor Public aquarium in Chicago, Illinois in the United States that opened on May 30 The Museum Campus joins the southern section of Grant Park which includes the renowned Art Institute of Chicago. Grant Park (originally named Lake Park is a large Park (319 acres or 1 The Art Institute of Chicago is one of America's premier Fine art museums Buckingham Fountain anchors the downtown park along the lakefront. Buckingham Fountain is a Chicago landmark located at Columbus Drive and Congress Parkway in Grant Park.
The Oriental Institute, part of the University of Chicago, has an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian and Near Eastern archaeological artifacts. The Oriental Institute ( OI) established in 1919, is the University of Chicago 's Archeology Museum and research center for ancient The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now B Syria - Belka Woman from Damascus Arab from Baghdadjpg|thumb|Inhabitants of the Near East late nineteenth century Other museums and galleries in Chicago are the Chicago History Museum, DuSable Museum of African-American History, Museum of Contemporary Art, the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum, the Polish Museum of America, and the Museum of Science and Industry. Chicago History Museum (formerly known as the Chicago Historical Society) was founded in 1856 The DuSable Museum of African American History is the first and oldest museum dedicated to the study and conservation of African American history culture and art The Chicago Academy of Sciences was founded in 1857 as Chicago’s firstmuseum dedicated to educating Chicagoans about nature and science through the preservation and display of native specimens The Polish Museum of America is located in West Town, in what had been the historical Polish Downtown neighborhood of Chicago. The Museum of Science and Industry (MSI is located in Chicago, Illinois in Jackson Park, in the Hyde Park neighborhood adjacent to
Numerous Forest Preserves scattered around the Chicago area, along with the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in neighboring Northwest Indiana, provide additional recreational opportunities. Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore is a US National lakeshore located in northwest Indiana that was authorized by Congress in 1966 Overview The five counties of Lake, Porter, Jasper, Newton, and LaPorte are included in the Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City
Chicago can lay claim to a number of regional specialties, all of which reflect the city's ethnic and working class roots. Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types Included among these are its nationally renowned deep-dish pizza, although locally the Chicago thin crust is also equally popular; the Chicago-style hot dog, typically a Vienna Beef dog loaded with an array of fixings that often includes Chicago's own neon green pickle relish, yellow mustard, pickled sport peppers, tomato wedges, dill pickle spear and topped off with celery salt (ketchup on a Chicago hot dog is typically frowned upon). Chicago-style pizza is a deep-dish Pizza style developed in Chicago. A Chicago-style hot dog is a steamed or boiled all-beef Hot dog on a Poppy seed bun which originated in the U Vienna Beef is a manufacturer of the classic Chicago style hot dog, as well as Polish sausage and Italian beef, delicacies of independent Chicago-style A relish is a cooked or pickled, chopped Vegetable or Fruit food item which is typically used as a Condiment. The chili pepper, chilli pepper, or chili, is the fruit of the plants from the Genus Capsicum, which are members of the nightshade  There are two other distinctly Chicago sandwiches that can be found at eateries throughout the area: The Italian beef sandwich, which is thinly sliced beef slowly simmered in an au jus served on an Italian roll with sweet peppers or spicy giardiniera; and the Maxwell Street Polish, which is a kielbasa — typically from either the Vienna Beef Company or the Bobak Sausage Company — on a hot dog roll, topped with grilled onions, yellow mustard and the optional sport peppers. An Italian beef is a Sandwich of thin slices of seasoned roast beef dripping with meat juices on a dense long Italian-style roll, believed to have originated Au jus is French for "with own juice" jus is the juice itself Giardiniera is an Italian or Italian-American Relish of Pickled Vegetables in Vinegar or oil. A Maxwell Street Polish consists of a grilled all-beef Polish sausage topped with grilled Onions and yellow mustard and the optional sport Kielbasa comes from the Polish word kiełbasa for traditional Polish sausage.
Chicago's standing in the culinary world is not limited to 'street food', however. Featuring a number of celebrity chefs — a list which includes Charlie Trotter, Rick Tramonto, Jean Joho, Grant Achatz, and Rick Bayless, Chicago has in recent decades developed into one of the world's premiere restaurant cities. Charlie Trotter (born) is a Chicago Chef and restaurateur. Biography A graduate of New Trier High School, Trotter started Rick Tramonto is a Chicago Chef and Cookbook author He is executive chef and partner in Cenitare Restaurants which include Osteria di Tramonto Jean Joho is a renowned Chef and Restaurateur. He currently heads the restaurant Everest in Chicago. Grant Achatz (born 1974 is an American chef and restaurateur who is considered to be on the cutting edge of the movement of menu item construction often referred to as Molecular Rick Bayless (born November 23 1953 is an American Chef who specializes in traditional Mexican cuisine with modern interpretations
The grand tour of Chicago cuisine culminates annually in Grant Park at the Taste of Chicago, a festival that runs from the final week of June through Fourth of July weekend. Grant Park (originally named Lake Park is a large Park (319 acres or 1 The Taste of Chicago is the world's largest Food festival, held annually for 10 days in Chicago starting Friday before the 4th of July and ending the Sunday after In the United States, Independence Day, commonly known as the Fourth of July (or the Fourth) is a Federal holiday commemorating the adoption 'The Taste', as it is abbreviated by locals, showcases Chicago's ethnic dining diversity as well as all the locally favorite stalwarts (see above). Booths representing myriad local eateries form the centerpiece of the city's largest festival, which draws millions each summer to sample the cuisine, while enjoying free concerts and fireworks.
The city is home to two Major League Baseball teams: the Chicago Cubs of the National League play on the city's North Side, in Wrigley Field, while the Chicago White Sox of the American League play in U.S. Cellular Field on the city's South Side. The Chicago Cubs are a Professional Baseball franchise based in Chicago, Illinois. The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or simply the National League ( NL) is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball Wrigley Field is a Baseball Stadium in Chicago, Illinois, United States that has served as the home ballpark of the Chicago The Chicago White Sox are a professional Baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The American League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or simply the American League ( AL) is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball in US Cellular Field (formerly Comiskey Park is a Baseball Stadium in Chicago Illinois. The White Sox recently won the Major League Baseball World Series in 2005. For other events named "World Series" see World Series (disambiguation. The Chicago Bears, one of the two remaining charter members of the NFL, have won nine NFL Championships. The Chicago Bears are a professional American football team based in Chicago, Illinois. The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists#Proposed change to all featured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below The Bears play their home games at Soldier Field on Chicago's lakefront. Soldier Field (formerly Municipal Grant Park Stadium) is located on Lake Shore Drive in Chicago Illinois, and is currently home to the NFL
Due in large part to Michael Jordan, the Chicago Bulls of the NBA are one of the most recognized basketball teams in the world. Michael Jeffrey Jordan (born February 17 1963 is a retired American professional Basketball player and active businessman The Chicago Bulls are an American professional Basketball team based in Chicago, Illinois, playing in the Central Division of the Eastern Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m With Jordan leading them, the Bulls took six NBA championships in eight seasons during the 1990s. The Chicago Blackhawks of the NHL, who began play in 1926 have won three Stanley Cups. The National Hockey League ( NHL) is a professional Ice hockey league composed of 30 teams in North America The Stanley Cup (La Coupe Stanley is an Ice hockey club championship Trophy, awarded annually to the National Hockey League (NHL playoffs champion Both the Bulls and Blackhawks play at the United Center on the Near West Side. The United Center is an indoor sports arena located in the Near West Side community area of Chicago Illinois. The Chicago Sky of the WNBA, began play in 2006. The Chicago Sky are a Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA team based in Chicago Illinois. The Sky's home arena is the UIC Pavilion. The UIC (University of Illinois at Chicago Pavilion is a 6958-seat multi-purpose Arena, located at 525 S
The Chicago Fire soccer club are members of the MLS. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Major League Soccer ( MLS) is the top-flight professional Soccer league in the United States and Canada with 14 teams 13 in the U The Fire have won one league and four US Open Cups since their inaugural season in 1998. The Lamar Hunt US Open Cup is an American soccer competition open to all United States Soccer Federation (USSF affiliated teams from amateur adult club teams all the In 2006, the club moved to its current home, Toyota Park, in suburban Bridgeview after playing its first eight seasons downtown at Soldier Field and at Cardinal Stadium in Naperville. Toyota Park is the home stadium for the Chicago Fire, members of Major League Soccer (MLS Bridgeview is a village in Cook County, Illinois in the United States. Benedetti-Wehrli Stadium is a stadium in Naperville Illinois. Naperville ( is an affluent city in the Chicago metropolitan area in Illinois in the United States, voted the second and third best place to live The club is now the third professional soccer team to call Chicago home, the first two being the Chicago Sting of the NASL (and later the indoor team of the MISL); and the Chicago Power of the NPSL-AISA. The Chicago Sting ( 1975 - 1994) was an American professional soccer team based in Chicago Illinois. North American Soccer League (NASL was a professional soccer League with teams in the United States of America (U The Major Indoor Soccer League was the top professional Indoor soccer league in the USA. The Chicago Power were an Indoor soccer club based in Chicago Illinois that competed in the American Indoor Soccer Association and National Professional The National Professional Soccer League was a professional Indoor soccer league in the USA. The Chicago Rush, of the Arena Football League, also plays in Chicago.
The Chicago Marathon has been held every October since 1977. The Bank of America 's Chicago Marathon (formerly the LaSalle Bank Chicago Marathon) is a major Marathon held yearly in Chicago This event is one of five World Marathon Majors. The World Marathon Majors is a championship-style competition that started in 2006 
Chicago was selected on April 14, 2007 to represent the United States internationally in the bidding for the 2016 Summer Olympics. Events 43 BC - Battle of Forum Gallorum: Mark Antony, besieging Julius Caesar 's assassin Decimus Junius Brutus in Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  Chicago also hosted the 1959 Pan American Games, and Gay Games VII in 2006. The 3rd Pan American Games opened on August 27, 1959 in sunny 90°F (32°C heat before 40000 people in Chicago, Illinois, United States Gay Games VII, colloquially called the Chicago Gaymes, is part of a family of international Sports and cultural festivals called Gay Games, sanctioned by Chicago was selected to host the 1904 Olympics, but they were transferred to St. Louis to coincide with the World's Fair.  On June 4, 2008 The International Olympic Committee selected Chicago as one of four canidate cities for the 2016 games. Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
Chicago is also the starting point for the Chicago Yacht Club Race to Mackinac, a 330-mile (530 km) offshore sailboat race held each July that is the longest annual freshwater sailboat race in the world. 2008 marks the 100th running of the "Mac. "
Chicago is the third-largest media market in North America (after New York City and Los Angeles). Chicagoland (the Chicago area commands the third-largest Media market in the United States and the largest inland market The City of New York Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West  Each of the big four (CBS, ABC, NBC, and FOX) United States television networks directly owns and operates a station in Chicago. In the United States, for most of the history of broadcasting there were only three or four major national broadcasting networks WGN-TV, which is owned by the Tribune Company, is carried (with some programming differences) as "Superstation WGN" on cable nationwide. WGN-TV, channel 9 is a Television station in Chicago Illinois. The Tribune Company is a large American Multimedia Corporation based in Chicago Illinois. WGN America (formerly known as "Superstation WGN" or "WGN Superstation" is a Chicago -based American Superstation for WGN-TV, owned The city is also the home of The Oprah Winfrey Show and Jerry Springer, while Chicago Public Radio produces programs such as PRI's This American Life and NPR's Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me!. The Oprah Winfrey Show is a United States syndicated Talk show, hosted and produced by its namesake Oprah Winfrey, and is the highest-rated Gerald Norman "Jerry" Springer (born February 13, 1944) is an English -born American Television personality, a former Chicago Public Radio is a noncommercial Public radio station broadcasting from Chicago, Illinois. Public Radio International ( PRI) is a Minneapolis -based American Public radio organization with locations in Boston, New York This American Life ( TAL) is a weekly hour-long Radio program produced by Chicago Public Radio and hosted by Ira Glass. Wait Wait… Don't Tell Me! is an hour-long weekly radio News quiz Game show produced by Chicago Public Radio and National Public Radio
There are two major daily newspapers published in Chicago: the Chicago Tribune and the Chicago Sun-Times, with the former having the larger circulation. A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. The Chicago Tribune is a major daily Newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, and owned by the Tribune Company The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily Newspaper published in Chicago, Illinois. There are also several regional and special-interest newspapers such as the Chicago Reader, the Daily Southtown, the Chicago Defender, the Chicago Sports Weekly, the Daily Herald, StreetWise, The Chicago Free Press and the Windy City Times. The Chicago Reader is an Alternative newsweekly in Chicago, Illinois, USA The Chicago Defender was the United States ’ largest and most influential black weekly newspaper by the beginning of World War I. The Daily Herald is a daily Newspaper printed in Arlington Heights Illinois; a suburb of Chicago. StreetWise is a Newspaper sold by people without homes or those at-risk for homelessness in Chicago. Windy City Times is Chicago 's oldest LGBT newspaper and the only Chicago Gay publication with an independent circulation audit
Chicago has the third largest gross metropolitan product in the nation — approximately $442 billion according to 2007 estimates. ---- Gross metropolitan product (GMP is one of several measures of the size of the Economy of a Metropolitan area. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been  The city has also been rated as having the most balanced economy in the United States, due to its high level of diversification.  Chicago was named the fourth most important business center in the world in the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index.  Additionally, the Chicago metropolitan area recorded the greatest number of new or expanded corporate facilities in the United States for six of the past seven years.  In 2006, Chicago placed 10th on the UBS list of the world's richest cities. UBS AG ( SWX: UBSN) is a diversified global financial services company with its main headquarters in Basel & Zürich, Switzerland 
Chicago is a major financial center with the second largest central business district in the U. Population According to the 2000 Census, 16388 people live in the Loop S. The city is the headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (the Seventh District of the Federal Reserve). The Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago is one of twelve regional Reserve Banks that along with the Board of Governors in Washington D The city is also home to three major financial and futures exchanges, including the Chicago Stock Exchange, the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (the "Merc"), which includes the former Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT). A futures exchange is a central financial exchange where people can trade standardized Futures contracts; that is a contract to buy specific quantities of a Commodity The Chicago Stock Exchange ( CHX) is a Chicago -based Stock exchange. The Chicago Board Options Exchange ( CBOE) located at 400 South LaSalle Street in Chicago, is largest U The Chicago Board of Trade ( CBOT) established in 1848 is the world's oldest futures and options exchange. Perhaps due to the influence of the Chicago school of economics, the city also has markets trading unusual contracts such as emissions (on the Chicago Climate Exchange) and equity style indices (on the US Futures Exchange). Emissions trading (or emission trading) is an administrative approach used to control Pollution by providing economic Incentives for Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX is North America ’s only voluntary legally binding Greenhouse gas (GHG reduction and trading system for emission sources Eugene F "Gene" Fama (born February 14, 1939) is an American economist known for his work on Portfolio theory and Asset pricing US Futures Exchange (USFE is a Chicago-based electronic Futures exchange.
In addition to the exchanges, Chicago and the surrounding areas house many major brokerage firms and insurance companies, such as Allstate and Zurich North America. The Allstate Corporation is the largest publicly held personal lines insurer in the United States and the second-largest of all personal lines insurers in the The city and its surrounding metropolitan area are home to the second largest labor pool in the United States with approximately 4. 25 million workers.  Chicago has the largest high-technology and information-technology industry employment in the United States. 
Manufacturing, printing, publishing, and food processing also play major roles in the city's economy. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image typically with ink on Paper using a printing press Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of Literature or Information &ndash the activity of making information available for public view Several medical products and services companies are headquartered in the Chicago area, including Baxter International, Abbott Laboratories, and the Healthcare Financial Services division of General Electric. Baxter International Inc ( is a global healthcare company with 48000 employees and 2006 sales of US$10 Abbott Laboratories ( is a diversified pharmaceuticals Health care company Moreover, the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, which helped move goods from the Great Lakes south on the Mississippi River, and of the railroads in the 19th century made the city a major transportation center in the United States. The Illinois and Michigan Canal ran 96 miles (155 km from the Bridgeport neighborhood in Chicago on the Chicago River to LaSalle Illinois, The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. In the 1840s, Chicago became a major grain port, and in the 1850s and 1860s Chicago's pork and beef industry expanded. As the major meat companies grew in Chicago many, such as Armour and Company, created global enterprises. Armour and Company was an American Slaughterhouse and meatpacking company founded in Chicago Illinois, in 1867 by the Armour brothers led by Though the meatpacking industry currently plays a lesser role in the city's economy,Chicago continues to be a major transportation and distribution center. Early in the 20th Century, Chicago was part of the automobile revolution, hosting the brass era car builder Bugmobile, which was founded there in 1907. The automotive Brass Era is the first period of automotive manufacturing named for the prominent Brass Fittings used during this time for such things as lights and 
Chicago is also a major convention destination. The city's main convention center is McCormick Place. History As early as 1927 Robert R McCormick and the newspaper he controlled the Chicago Tribune, championed a purpose-built lakeside With its four interconnected buildings, it is the third largest convention center in the world. Chicago also ranks third in the U. S. (behind Las Vegas and Orlando) in number of conventions hosted annually. Las Vegas ( Spanish: "The Meadows" is the most populous City in the state of Nevada, the seat of Clark County, and an internationally Orlando is a major City in central Florida, USA and is the County seat of Orange County Florida.  In addition, Chicago is home to eleven Fortune 500 companies, while the metropolitan area hosts an additional 21 Fortune 500 companies. Please do not add the complete list of fortune 500 companies The list is copyrighted by Fortune which makes money by selling the content  The state of Illinois is home to 66 Fortune 1000 companies. Please do not add the complete list of fortune 1000 companies  Chicago also hosts 12 Fortune Global 500 companies and 17 Financial Times 500 companies. The city claims one Dow 30 company as well: aerospace giant Boeing, which moved its headquarters from Seattle to the Chicago Loop in 2001. The Dow Jones Industrial Average ( also called the DJIA, Dow 30, INDP, or informally the Dow Jones or The Dow) is one of several This article is about the field of research and industry for the corporation see The Aerospace Corporation Aerospace comprises the The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E Population According to the 2000 Census, 16388 people live in the Loop
|City of Chicago|
Population by year
A 2006 estimate puts the city's population at 2,873,790. As of the Census of 2000 there were 2896016 people 1061928 households and 632909 families residing in the City of Chicago proper  As of the 2000 census, there were 2,896,016 people, 1,061,928 households, and 632,909 families residing within Chicago. More than half the population of the state of Illinois lives in the Chicago metropolitan area. The population density of the city itself was 12,750. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 3 people per square mile (4,923. 0/km²), making it one of the nation's most densely populated cities. There were 1,152,868 housing units at an average density of 5,075. 8 per square mile (1,959. 8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was(U. S. Census)|White]] (31. 32% White Non-Hispanic), 36. 77% African American, 4. 35% Asian, 0. 06% Pacific Islander, 0. 36% Native American, 13. 58% from other races, and 2. 92% from two or more races. 26. 02% of the population were Hispanic of any race. 21. 72% of the population was foreign born; of this, 56. 29% came from Latin America, 23. 13% from Europe, 17. 96% from Asia and 2. 62% from other parts of the world. 
Of the 1,061,928 households, 28. 9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 35. 1% were married couples living together, 18. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** 9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40. 4% were non-families. Of all households, 32. 6% are made up of individuals and 8. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2. 67 and the average family size was 3. 50.
Of the city population, 26. 2% are under the age of 18, 11. 2% are from 18 to 24, 33. 4% are from 25 to 44, 18. 9% are from 45 to 64, and 10. 3% are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 32 years. In Probability theory and Statistics, a median is described as the number separating the higher half of a sample a population or a Probability distribution For every 100 females there were 94. 2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91. 1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $38,625, and the median income for a family was $46,748. Males had a median income of $35,907 versus $30,536 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,175. Per capita income means how much each individual receives in monetary terms of the yearly income generated in the country Below the poverty line are 19. The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of Income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate Standard of living in a given country 6% of the population and 16. 6% of the families. Of the total population, 28. 1% of those under the age of 18 and 15. 5% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
Chicago's largest white ethnic community are of German origin. German Americans ( German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of Ethnic German ancestry When the Great Plains opened up for settlement in the 1830s and '40s, many German immigrants stopped in Chicago to earn some money before moving on to claim a homestead. Those with skills in demand in the city could — and often did — stay. From 1850, when Germans constituted one-sixth of Chicago's population, until the turn of the century, people of German descent constituted the largest ethnic group in the city, followed by Irish, Poles, and Swedes. In 1900, 470,000 Chicagoans — one out of every four residents — had either been born in Germany or had a parent born there. By 1920 their numbers had dropped because of reduced emigration from Germany but also because it had become unpopular to acknowledge a German heritage, although 22 percent of Chicago's population still did so. 
Chicago also has a large Irish American population on its South Side. Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánach are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in Ireland. Many of the city’s politicians have come from this population, including current mayor Richard M. Daley. Richard Michael Daley (born April 24 1942 is a United States Politician, member of the national and local Democratic Party and current mayor Historically, and to this day, there has been particularly substantial Irish American presence in Chicago's Fire and Police Departments. Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánach are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in Ireland.
Chicago has one of the largest concentrations of Italian Americans in the US, with more than 500,000 living in the metropolitan area. An Italian American is an American of Italian descent and/or dual citizenship  Chicago has the third largest Italian American population in the United States, behind only New York and Philadelphia. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Chicago's Italian community has historically been based along the Taylor Street and Grand Avenue corridors on the West Side of the city, there are significant Italian populations scattered throughout the city and surrounding suburbs. Grand Avenue is a major east-west arterial surface street in the city of Chicago and nearby DuPage County, although it deviates somewhat from Chicago's grid While the best-known Chicagoan of Italian descent is probably still Al Capone, Italian Americans have contributed tremendously in many ways to Chicago's cultural, political, civic and economic scene. Alphonse Gabriel "Al" Capone (January 17 1899 &ndash January 25 1947 commonly nicknamed Scarface, was an Italian American Gangster who
Other prevalent European ethnic groups include the Poles, Germans, Czechs, and Ukrainians. The European peoples are the various Nations and Ethnic groups of Europe. A Polish American is an American citizen of Polish descent There are an estimated 10 million Americans of Polish descent German Americans ( German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of Ethnic German ancestry Czechs (Češi ˈt͡ʃɛʃɪ archaic Čechové) are a western Slavic people of Central Europe, living predominantly in the Czech Republic Ukrainian Americans (Українці Америки Українці у США are Citizens of the United States who are of Ukrainian ancestry There is a large African American population located mostly on Chicago’s South and West Sides. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa The Chicago metropolitan area has the second largest African American population, behind only New York City. The City of New York  Chicago has the largest population of Swedish Americans of any city in the U. Swedish Americans are Americans of Swedish descent most often related to the large groups of immigrants from Sweden in the late nineteenth century and early S. with approximately 123,000. After the Great Chicago Fire, many Swedish carpenters helped to rebuild the city, which led to the saying "the Swedes built Chicago. The Great Chicago Fire was a Conflagration that burned from Sunday October 8 to early Tuesday October 10 1871 killing hundreds and destroying about four square miles in " Swedish influence is particularly evident in Andersonville on the far north side. History Early settlers Developers began cutting down the dense woods in the area in the late 1880s to make way for future development
Poles in Chicago make up the largest ethnically Polish population of any city outside of Poland (second only to Warsaw) making it one of the most important centers of Polonia, a fact that the city celebrates every Labor Day weekend at the Taste of Polonia Festival in Jefferson Park. Poles in Chicago, also known as Chicago Polonia, refers to both immigrant Poles and Americans of Polish heritage living in Chicago, Illinois The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Warsaw (Warszawa; also known by other names) is the Capital and Largest city of Poland. Polonia, the name for Poland in Latin and many Romance and other languages refers in modern Polish to the Polish Diaspora Labor Day is a United States Federal holiday observed on the first Monday in September The Taste of Polonia is a Chicago festival held at the Copernicus Cultural and Civic Center in the Jefferson Park community area of Chicago History Settlement in the vicinity of Jefferson Park began in the 1830s with John Kinzie Clark and Elijah Wentworth whose claim was near what is now the Jefferson  The Southwest Side is home to the largest concentration of Gorals (Carpathian highlanders) outside of Europe. The Gorale (Górale Gorali Cieszyn Silesian: Gorole; literally "highlanders" are a group of Indigenous people found along southern The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians (Carpaţi Czech, Polish and Slovak: Karpaty; Ukrainian: Карпати The southwest side is also the location of the Polish Highlanders Alliance of North America. The Polish Highlanders Alliance of America ( pl Związek Podhalan w Ameryce Północnej) was founded in 1929 in Chicago as an organization that unites all
The city has a large population of Bulgarians (about 150,000), Lithuanians, the second largest Serbian, and the third largest Greek population of any city in the world. The Bulgarians (българи balgari) are a South Slavic people generally associated with the Republic of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian language Lithuanians are the Baltic Ethnic group native to Lithuania, where they number a little over 3 million Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions  Chicago has a large Romanian American community with more than 100,000, as well as a large Assyrian population with about 80,000. See also List of Romanian Americans A Romanian American is a Citizen of the United States who has significant Romanian heritage The Assyrians are an Ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria. The city is the seat of the head of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Dinkha IV, the Evangelical Covenant Church, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America headquarters. The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ‘Ittā Qaddishtā wa-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi Mar Dinkha IV ( Syriac: ܡܪܝ ܕܢܚܐ ܪܒܝܥܝܐ is the current Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East The Evangelical Covenant Church ( ECC) is an evangelical Christian denomination of more than 750 congregations in the United States and Canada with ministries The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America ( ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago Illinois. 
Chicago has the third-largest South Asian population in the United States, especially many Indians and Pakistanis who live in the city. Indian Americans are Americans who are of Indian ancestry The U A Pakistani American is someone who trace their roots to Pakistan The Devon Avenue corridor on the north side is one of the largest South Asian neighborhoods/markets in North America. Devon Avenue (dɨˈvɒn is a major east-west thoroughfare in the Chicago metropolitan area. Chicago has the second-largest Puerto Rican population in the continental United States, after New York City, and the second largest Mexican population in the United States after Los Angeles. Puerto Ricans in the United States (also referred to as the "Puerto Rican Diaspora," " Nuyorican " "Stateside Puerto Ricans" "mainland Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West  There are about 185,000 Arabs in Cook County with another 75,000 in the five surrounding counties. Chicago is the center of the Palestinian and Jordanian immigrant communities in the United States. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern 
Chicago is the county seat of Cook County. A critical mass is the smallest amount of Fissile material needed for a sustained Nuclear chain reaction. Chicago City Hall is the official seat of government of the City of Chicago in Illinois. The Chicago Picasso (often just The Picasso) is an untitled monumental sculpture by Pablo Picasso in Chicago Illinois. The government of the City of Chicago Illinois, is divided into executive and Legislative branches This is a List of Chicago city departments Office of the Mayor Chicago Office of Tourism Administrative Hearings Aging The Politics of Chicago have been dominated by controversy corruption, turn-of-the- 19th century Businessmen, Irish Catholics A county seat is a term for an Administrative center for a County, primarily used in the United States. Cook County is a county in the US state of Illinois. It is the second most populous county in the United States after Los Angeles The government of the City of Chicago is divided into executive and legislative branches. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation The Mayor of Chicago is the chief executive, elected by general election for a term of four years. The Mayor of Chicago is the Chief executive of Chicago, Illinois, the third largest City in the United A chief executive officer ( CEO) or chief executive is typically the highest-ranking corporate officer ( executive) or administrator The mayor appoints commissioners and other officials who oversee the various departments. In addition to the mayor, Chicago's two other citywide elected officials are the clerk and the treasurer.
The City Council is the legislative branch and is made up of 50 aldermen, one elected from each ward in the city. The Chicago City Council is the Legislative branch of the Government of the City of Chicago in Illinois. In the United States a ward is an optional division of a City or Town, especially an electoral district for administrative and representative purposes The council enacts local ordinances and approves the city budget. Government priorities and activities are established in a budget ordinance usually adopted each November. The council takes official action through the passage of ordinances and resolutions.
During much of the last half of the 19th century, Chicago's politics were dominated by a growing Democratic Party organization dominated by ethnic ward-heelers. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. During the 1880s and 1890s, Chicago had a powerful radical tradition with large and highly organized socialist, anarchist and labor organizations. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i  For much of the 20th century, Chicago has been among the largest and most reliable Democratic strongholds in the United States, with Chicago's Democratic vote totals leading the state of Illinois to be "solid blue" in presidential elections since 1992. See also Electoral geography of the United States Red States and Blue States refer to those states of the United States of America Elections for President and Vice President of the United States are The citizens of Chicago have not elected a Republican mayor since 1927, when William Thompson was voted into office. William Hale Thompson ( May 14, 1869 – March 18, 1944) was mayor of Chicago from 1915 to 1923 and again from 1927 to 1931 The strength of the party in the city is partly a consequence of Illinois state politics, where the Republicans have come to represent the rural and farm concerns while the Democrats support urban issues such as Chicago's public school funding. Although Chicago includes less than 25% of the state's population, eight of Illinois' nineteen U.S. Representatives have part of the city in their districts. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Illinois has nineteen congressional districts It once had as many as twenty-six
Former Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley's mastery of machine politics preserved the Cook County Democratic Organization long after the demise of similar machines in other large U. Richard Joseph Daley ( May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) served for 21 years as the undisputed Democratic boss of Chicago A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on Patronage, the Spoils system, "behind-the-scenes" control and longstanding Chicago machine redirects here For the Major League Lacrosse team see Chicago Machine. S. cities.  During much of that time, the city administration found opposition mainly from a liberal "independent" faction of the Democratic Party. The independents finally gained control of city government in 1983 with the election of Harold Washington. Harold Washington ( April 15 1922 – November 25 1987) was an American Lawyer and Politician who became the Since Washington's death, Chicago has since been under the leadership of Richard M. Daley, the son of Richard J. Richard Michael Daley (born April 24 1942 is a United States Politician, member of the national and local Democratic Party and current mayor Daley. Because of the dominance of the Democratic Party in Chicago, the Democratic primary vote held in the spring is generally more significant than the general elections in November. A primary election ( nominating primary) also referred to simply as a primary, is an election in which voters in a Jurisdiction select candidates
Chicago has experienced a decline in overall crime since the 1990s.  Murders in the city peaked first in 1974, with 970 murders when the city's population was over three million people (resulting in a murder rate of around 29 per 100,000), and again in 1992 with 943 murders, resulting in a murder rate of 34 per 100,000.  After adopting crime-fighting techniques recommended by Los Angeles and New York City Police Departments in 2004, Chicago recorded 448 homicides, the lowest total since 1965 (15. List of countries by homicide rate Homicide ( Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut kill refers to the act of killing another 65 per 100,000. ) Chicago's homicide tally remained steady throughout 2005, 2006, and 2007 with 449, 452, and 435 respectively, and the overall crime rate in 2006 continued the downward trend that has taken place since the early 1990s. 
There are 680 public schools, 394 private schools, 83 colleges, and 88 libraries in Chicago proper. 
Chicago Public Schools (CPS), is the governing body of a district that contains over 600 public elementary and high schools citywide, including several selective-admission magnet schools. Chicago Public Schools, commonly abbreviated as CPS by local residents and politicians is a School district that controls over 600 public elementary and high School districts are a form of Special-purpose district which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools The school district, with an enrollment exceeding 400,000 students (2005 stat. ), ranks as third largest in the U. S.  CPS is currently overseen by CEO Arne Duncan. A chief executive officer ( CEO) or chief executive is typically the highest-ranking corporate officer ( executive) or administrator Arne Duncan (born November 6 1964 is an American education administrator and Basketball player who is the current Chief Executive Officer of the
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago operates the city's Roman Catholic schools. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago is a Particular church of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. Among the more well-known private schools in Chicago are the Latin School and Francis W. Parker School in the Lincoln Park neighborhood, Chicago City Day School in Lake View, as well as the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools in Hyde Park and the Ida Crown Jewish Academy in West Rogers Park. The Latin School of Chicago is a private elementary middle and High school in the Old Town neighborhood in Chicago. Francis W Parker School is an independent Day school serving students from junior kindergarten through grade twelve of high school The University of Chicago Laboratory Schools (also Lab School and abbreviated UCLS; the upper classes are nicknamed U-High) is a private co-educational The Ida Crown Jewish Academy is an Orthodox Jewish high school in West Rogers Park Chicago, Illinois overseen by the Associated Talmud Torahs West Ridge or West Rogers Park is one of 77 well-defined Chicago Illinois community areas.
Since the 1890s, Chicago has been a world center in higher education and research. Chicago holds a distinguished place in the history of American education The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. Three universities in or immediately adjoining the city, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago, and the University of Chicago, are among the top echelon ("RU/VH") of doctorate-granting research universities according to the Carnegie Classification system. The University of Illinois at Chicago, or UIC, is a state-funded public research university located in Chicago. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. The Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education is a framework for classifying or grouping Colleges and universities in the United States
Northwestern University, an elite private university of national prominence, is located in the adjacent northern suburb of Evanston. South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California. Evanston Illinois is an affluent suburban Chicago Municipality on Lake Michigan on the North Shore in Cook County, Illinois directly Northwestern also maintains a downtown campus, with the Feinberg School of Medicine and School of Law, both being located in the city's Streeterville neighborhood. The Feinberg School of Medicine is one of Northwestern University 's 11 schools and colleges The Northwestern University School of Law is a private American Law school in Chicago Illinois. Neighborhoods Cabrini-Green See also Cabrini-Green Cabrini-Green was a notorious Public housing project
The University of Chicago, one of the world's most distinguished universities, is located in Hyde Park on the city's South Side. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. History (Hyde Park Paul Cornell a successful businessman real-estate speculator and Abolitionist, purchased of land between 51st and 55th Streets along the Lake The university is associated with 81 Nobel Prize laureates, one of the highest of any university in the world. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature Academic programs at the University of Chicago have initiated entire schools of thought named after Chicago, most notably the Chicago School of Economics.
The University of Illinois at Chicago, a nationally ranked public research institution, is the city's largest university. The University of Illinois at Chicago, or UIC, is a state-funded public research university located in Chicago.  UIC boasts the nation's largest medical school. The University of Illinois College of Medicine, part of the University of Illinois system, is the largest Medical school in the United States with over 2600 students 
Lake Forest College http://lakeforest.edu is Chicago's national liberal arts college. Located 30 miles north of the city on the shores of Lake Michigan, Lake Forest is home to more than 1400 undergraduate students from nearly every state in the country and 65 nations around the world.
The Illinois Institute of Technology main campus in Bronzeville has renowned engineering and architecture programs and was host to world-famous modern architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for many years, and the IIT Stuart School of Business and Chicago-Kent College of Law are located downtown in the financial district. Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT is a private PhD-granting university located in the greater Chicago Illinois area with programs in Engineering, Science, Neighborhoods Bronzeville Chicago --> Bronzeville is a neighborhood located in the Douglas and Grand Boulevard Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (ˈlʊdvɪç miːs faːn dɛʀ ˈʀoːɐ born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies ( March 27, 1886 &ndash August 17, 1969 The IIT Stuart School of Business (often just Stuart) is an academic unit of the Illinois Institute of Technology, a private Ph Chicago-Kent College of Law, the law school affiliated with the Illinois Institute of Technology, is nationally recognized for the scholarship and accomplishments of its
Prominent Catholic universities in Chicago include Loyola University and DePaul University. Loyola University Chicago is a private co-educational Jesuit university established in Chicago in 1870 as Saint Ignatius College DePaul University is a private institution of Higher education and Research in Chicago, Illinois, U Loyola, which has campuses both on the North Side as well as downtown, and a Medical Center in the west suburban Maywood, is the largest Jesuit university in the country while DePaul is the largest Catholic university in the U. Maywood is a village in Proviso Township, Cook County, Illinois, United States. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order S.
The Chicago area has the largest concentration of seminaries and theological schools outside the Vatican. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory The city is home to the Catholic Theological Union, Chicago Theological Seminary, Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, McCormick Theological Seminary, Meadville Lombard Theological School, North Park Theological Seminary, the Divinity School of the University of Chicago, and the Moody Bible Institute. The Catholic Theological Union of Chicago is one of the largest schools of Theology in the world and trains men and women for lay and clerical ministry within The Chicago Theological Seminary is an ecumenical Seminary of the United Church of Christ. The Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago (LSTC is a Seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. McCormick Theological Seminary is one of eleven schools of Theology of the Presbyterian Church (USA. The Meadville Lombard Theological School is a result of a merger in the 1930s between a Unitarian and a Universalist institution North Park Theological Seminary is a Seminary located in the North Park neighborhood of City of Chicago, Illinois. The University of Chicago Divinity School is a graduate institution at the University of Chicago dedicated to the training The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. Moody Bible Institute ( MBI) was founded by evangelist and businessman Dwight Lyman Moody in 1886
State funded universities in Chicago (besides UIC) include Chicago State University and Northeastern Illinois University. Chicago State University (CSU is a State university in Chicago, Illinois. Northeastern Illinois University ( NEIU) is a public State university located in the North Park community area of Chicago The city also has a large community college system known as the City Colleges of Chicago. A community college is a type of Educational institution. The term has different meanings in different countries The City Colleges of Chicago is a system of seven Community colleges which provide learning opportunities for Chicago residents at the schools or online and also members
Founded on the principles of social justice, Roosevelt University was named in honor of president Franklin D. Roosevelt University is a private Institution of Higher education with full service Campuses in Chicago's Loop and northwest Roosevelt, two weeks after his death. It houses the Theatre and Music Conservatories under the Chicago College of Performing Arts. Chicago College of Performing Arts is a Performing arts College that is housed at Roosevelt University in Chicago, Illinois.
Rush Medical College, now part of Rush University, was the first institution of higher learning chartered in Illinois and one of the first medical schools to open west of the Alleghenies. Rush Medical College (often referred to simply as "Rush" is the Medical school of Rush University, a private university in Chicago, Rush University is a private University on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois. The school received its charter on March 2, 1837, two days before the city of Chicago was incorporated. Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good
Fine and performing arts programs in Chicago may be pursued at numerous accredited institutions, which include The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, The American Academy of Art and Columbia College Chicago. Fine art is any Art form developed primarily for Aesthetics rather than Utility. The performing arts are those forms of Art which differ from the Plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own Body, Face and presence The School of the Art Institute of Chicago is one of America's premiere fine arts colleges located in Chicago, Illinois. The American Academy of Art is a professional accredited fine arts school located in downtown Chicago Illinois. Columbia College Chicago is the largest arts and communications college in the United States.
The Cooking and Hospitality Institute of Chicago, became affiliated with Le Cordon Bleu of Paris in June 2000. The Cooking and Hospitality Institute of Chicago (CHIC an affiliate of Le Cordon Bleu, was founded in 1983 Le Cordon Bleu ( French for " Blue ribbon " is the world's largest hospitality education institution with over 22000 students and a presence in 20 countries Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city
Chicago is home to the Illinois Medical District on the Near West Side. The Illinois Medical District (IMD is a special-use Zoning district on the Near West Side of Chicago. It includes Rush University Medical Center, the University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, and John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, the largest trauma-center in the city. Rush University Medical Center in Chicago is an academic medical center that encompasses a 613-bed hospital serving adults and children the 61-bed Johnston R The University of Illinois College of Medicine, part of the University of Illinois system, is the largest Medical school in the United States with over 2600 students The John H Stroger Jr Hospital of Cook County (formerly Cook County Hospital and also known as the New Cook County Hospital) is a public urban teaching hospital
The University of Chicago operates the University of Chicago Medical Center, which was ranked the fourteenth best hospital in the country by U.S. News & World Report. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. The University of Chicago Medical Center forms a major center for medical care and research in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago Illinois. A hospital is an institution for Health care providing treatment by specialised staff and equipment and often but not always providing for USNews & World Report is an influential weekly American Newsmagazine published in Washington D  It is the only hospital in Illinois ever to be included in the magazine's "Honor Roll" of the best hospitals in the United States. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
The University of Illinois College of Medicine at UIC is the largest medical school in the United States (1300 students, including those at campuses in Peoria, Rockford and Urbana-Champaign). The University of Illinois College of Medicine, part of the University of Illinois system, is the largest Medical school in the United States with over 2600 students The University of Illinois at Chicago, or UIC, is a state-funded public research university located in Chicago. Peoria Illinois (named after the Peoria tribe is the largest city on the Illinois River and the County seat of Peoria County, Illinois Rockford is a mid-sized city located on both banks of the Rock River in far northern Illinois This article is about the flagship campus For other uses and locations of University of Illinois, see University of Illinois (disambiguation The University of  Chicago is also home to other nationally recognized medical schools including Rush Medical College, the Pritzker School of Medicine of the University of Chicago, and the Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University. Rush Medical College (often referred to simply as "Rush" is the Medical school of Rush University, a private university in Chicago, The Pritzker School of Medicine is the MD granting unit of the Biological Sciences Division of the University of Chicago. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. The Feinberg School of Medicine is one of Northwestern University 's 11 schools and colleges In addition, the Chicago Medical School and Loyola University Chicago's Stritch School of Medicine are located in the suburbs of North Chicago and Maywood, respectively. The Chicago Medical School is the Medical school of the Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science. Loyola University Chicago is a private co-educational Jesuit university established in Chicago in 1870 as Saint Ignatius College North Chicago is an outer suburb/exurb of the Greater Chicago area and is an incorporated city in Lake County, Illinois, United States. Maywood is a village in Proviso Township, Cook County, Illinois, United States. The Midwestern University Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine is in Downers Grove. Midwestern University (MWU is a Non-profit, private, Graduate school of Medicine with two campuses Midwestern University Chicago College of Downers Grove is a Suburb located west of Chicago in DuPage County, Illinois.
The American Medical Association, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education, American Osteopathic Association, American Dental Association, Academy of General Dentistry, American Dietetic Association, American College of Surgeons, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American College of Healthcare Executives and the American Hospital Association are all based in Chicago. The American Medical Association (AMA founded in 1847 and incorporated 1897 is the largest association of Physicians and Medical students in the United States The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education ( ACGME) is the body responsible for the accreditation for postgraduate medical training programs (i The Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME sets and enforces standards in physician education within the United States The American Osteopathic Association (AOA is the representative organization for osteopathic medical physicians (D The American Dental Association (ADA is an American Professional association established in 1859 and has more than 152000 members The Academy of General Dentistry (AGD is a Professional association of more than 35000 general Dentists from the United States and Canada. The American Dietetic Association ( ADA) is the United States ' largest organization of Food and Nutrition professionals with nearly 67000 members The American College of Surgeons is an educational association of Surgeons created in 1913 The American Society for Clinical Pathology is a professional association based in Chicago encompassing 130000 pathologists and laboratory professionals. The American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE is an international professional association of Healthcare executives (high-level Hospital administrators Founded in 1898 the American Hospital Association ( AHA) located in Chicago Illinois, is the national organization that represents and serves all types of
Chicago is a major transportation hub in the United States. Street layout Chicago 's Streets primarily follow the grid system established by the Chicago Board of Aldermen in 1908 and implemented on Mass Transit in much of the Chicago metropolitan area is managed through the Regional Transportation Authority (" RTA " which was installed The 'L' (variously and sometimes, styled "L" El EL or L) is a Rapid transit system that serves the city of In the 20th century Chicago Illinois, held on to its status as a transportation hub with the building of two major Airports Chicago is now working to maintain its status as It is an important component in global distribution, as it is the third largest inter-modal port in the world after Hong Kong and Singapore. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Singapore  Additionally, it is the only city in North America in which six Class I railroads meet. A Class I railroad in the United States and Mexico, or a Class I rail carrier in Canada, is a large freight Railroad, as classified 
Chicago is one of the largest hubs of passenger rail service in the nation. Many Amtrak long distance services originate from Union Station. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 Union Station is a Chicago Train station that opened in 1925 replacing an earlier 1881 station and is now the only Intercity rail terminal in Chicago Such services provide connections to New York, Seattle, New Orleans, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. Amtrak also provides a number of short-haul services throughout Illinois and toward nearby Milwaukee, Indiana and Detroit. New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D
Nine interstate highways run through Chicago and its suburbs. The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System) Segments that link to the city center are named after influential politicians, with four of them named after former U. S. Presidents. Traffic reports tend to use the names rather than interstate numbers.
The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) coordinates the operation of the three service boards: CTA, Metra, and Pace. The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA is the Financial and Oversight body for the three Transit agencies in northeastern Illinois --the The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) handles public transportation in Chicago and a few adjacent suburbs. Chicago Transit Authority, also known as CTA, is the operator of mass transit within the City of Chicago, Illinois. The CTA operates an extensive network of buses and a rapid transit system known locally as the "L" (for "elevated"), with several lines designated by colors, and that also includes service to both Midway Airport and O'Hare Airport. A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway The 'L' (variously and sometimes, styled "L" El EL or L) is a Rapid transit system that serves the city of Chicago Midway International Airport, also known simply as Midway Airport or Midway, is an Airport in Chicago Illinois, United States The CTA's heavy rail transit lines consist of the Red, Blue, Green, Orange, Brown, Purple, Pink, and Yellow lines. Both the Red and Blue lines offer 24 hour service which makes Chicago one of the few cities in the world to offer 24 hour rail service. A new Circle Line is also in the planning stages by the CTA. Pace provides bus and paratransit service in over 200 surrounding suburbs with some extensions into the city as well. Pace is the suburban bus division of the Regional Transportation Authority in the Chicago area Paratransit is an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules Bicycles are permitted on all CTA and Metra trains during non-rush hours and on all buses 24 hours. Metra operates commuter rail service in Chicago and its suburbs. Metra (officially known as the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation) is a Regional rail system that serves the city of Chicago Illinois The Metra Electric Line shares the railway with the South Shore Line's NICTD Northern Indiana Commuter Rail Service, providing commuter service between South Bend and Chicago. The Metra Electric Line ( ME) is an electrified Commuter rail line owned and operated by Metra, connecting Millennium Station (formerly History Chicago and Indiana Air Line Railway The oldest predecessor of the line was the Chicago and Indiana Air Line Railway, chartered on December 2 South Bend is a city on the St Joseph river and a twin city of Mishawaka Indiana.
Chicago offers a wide array of bicycle transportation facilities, such as miles of on-street bike lanes, 10,000 bike racks, and a state-of-the-art central bicycle commuter station in Millennium Park. The city has a 100-mile (160 km) on-street bicycle lane network that is maintained by the Chicago Department of Transportation Bike Program and the Chicagoland Bicycle Federation. The Chicagoland Bicycle Federation (CBF is a Non-profit organization dedicated to improving the Bicycling environment in Chicagoland.  In addition, trails dedicated to bikes only are built throughout the city.
Chicago is served by Midway International Airport on the south side and O'Hare International Airport, one of the world's busiest airports, on the far northwest side. Chicago Midway International Airport, also known simply as Midway Airport or Midway, is an Airport in Chicago Illinois, United States In 2005, O'Hare was the world's busiest airport by aircraft movements and the second busiest by total passenger traffic (due to government enforced flight caps).  Both O'Hare and Midway are owned and operated by the City of Chicago. Gary/Chicago International Airport, located in nearby Gary, Indiana, serves as the third Chicago area airport. Gary/Chicago International Airport is a public Airport located three miles (5 km) northwest of the Central business district of Gary, a Chicago Rockford International Airport, formerly Greater Rockford Airport, serves as a regional base for United Parcel Service cargo flights, some passenger flights, and occasionally as a reliever to O'Hare, usually in times of bad weather. Chicago Rockford International Airport or Greater Rockford Airport, is a General aviation and commercial airport in Winnebago County, Illinois Chicago is the world headquarters for United Airlines, the world's second-largest airline by revenue-passenger-kilometers while is the second largest hub for American Airlines. United Air Lines Inc, trading as United Airlines ( is a major airline of the United States. American Airlines Inc (AA is a US -based airline and the world's Largest airline in total passenger miles transported and passenger fleet size Midway airport serves as a 'focus city' for Southwest Airlines, the world's largest low-cost airline. Southwest Airlines Co ( is an American low-cost Airline based in Dallas Texas, with its largest focus city at Las Vegas ' McCarran
A small airport, Meigs Field, was located on the Lake Michigan waterfront adjacent to Grant Park and downtown. Merrill C Meigs Field Airport, was a single strip Airport built on Northerly Island, the man-made peninsula that also sited the 1933-1934 Century of Progress There were long-term scheduled flights to Springfield as well as some service to other cities. At 1:30 a. m. on March 31, 2003, the airport runways were unexpectedly destroyed by order of the Mayor, who had sought closure of the airport and development of a nature preserve & bandshell. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar.  This resulted in a fine to the city by the Federal Aviation Administration for closure of the airport without sufficient notice, but the airport was eventually demolished.
Electricity for most of northern Illinois is provided by Commonwealth Edison, also known as ComEd. Commonwealth Edison (or "ComEd" is the largest electric utility in Illinois, serving the Chicago and Northern Illinois area Their service territory borders Iroquois County to the south, the Wisconsin border to the north, the Iowa border to the west and the Indiana border to the east. Iroquois County is a County located in the US state of Illinois. Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States The State of Iowa ( is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States of America. The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union In northern Illinois, ComEd (a division of Exelon) operates the greatest number of nuclear generating plants in any US state. Exelon Corporation ( is an electricity generating and distributing company headquartered in Chicago. Because of this, ComEd reports indicate that Chicago receives about 75% of its electricity from nuclear power. Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions Recently, the city started the installation of wind turbines on government buildings with the aim to promote the use of renewable energy. 
Domestic and industrial waste was once incinerated but it is now landfilled, mainly in the Calumet area. For other uses see Water treatment and Land reclamation. A landfill, also known as a dump (and historically as Lake Calumet is the largest body of water within the city of Chicago. Since 1995, the city has had a blue bag program to divert certain refuse from landfills. A blue bag is a blue colored semi- transparent bag for waste mandated for use in some localities for refuse or for certain specific types of refuse the distinguishing color 
Chicago has twenty-seven sister cities: Many of them, like Chicago, are the second city of their country, or are the main city of a country that has sent many immigrants to Chicago over the years. The second city of a country is the City that is (or was the second-most important usually after the Capital or first city
Wikitravel is a Web -based project "to create a free, complete up-to-date and reliable worldwide travel guide. Wikitravel is a Web -based project "to create a free, complete up-to-date and reliable worldwide travel guide. The Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce is a non-profit organization dedicated to making the Chicago region the most business friendly region of the United States The Chicago Convention and Tourism Bureau, or CCTB, exists to promote Chicago to the global leisure travel and Convention industries A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system.