Chester shown within Cheshire
|Population||77,040 (2001 Census)|
|OS grid reference|
|- London||196 miles (315 km) SE|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|European Parliament||North West England|
|UK Parliament||City of Chester|
|List of places: UK • England • Cheshire|
Chester is the county town of Cheshire, England. Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a county in North West England. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology A nationwide Census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government For the smaller central city area and principal settlement of this district see Chester. Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of Subdivisions of England used for the purposes of Local government outside Greater London Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a county in North West England. The region, also known as the government office region, is currently the highest tier of local government sub-national entity of England, with only one North West England is one of the nine official Regions of England. Constituent country is a phrase used often by official institutions in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland This list of sovereign states, alphabetically arranged gives an overview of States around the world with information on the extent of their Sovereignty. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A post town is a required part of all postal addresses in the United Kingdom, and a basic unit of the postal delivery system UK Postal codes are known as postcodes. UK postcodes are Alphanumeric. The, also known as the Chester postcode area, is a group of postal districts near the England / Wales border The UK Telephone numbering plan, also known as the National Telephone Numbering Plan, is the system used for assigning Telephone numbers in the United There are a number of law enforcement agencies in the United Kingdom. Cheshire Constabulary is the Home Office Police force responsible for policing the English non-metropolitan county of Cheshire and the unitary The fire service in the United Kingdom operates under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and The Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service is the statuory fire and rescue service for the English non-metropolitan county of Cheshire and the The North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust was formed on 1 July 2006 as part of Health Minister Lord Warner's plans to reduce the number of NHS North West England is a Constituency of the European Parliament. This is a list of the 646 constituencies currently represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, as at the 2005 general election City of Chester is a Constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. A Gazetteer of place names in the United Kingdom showing each place's County, Unitary authority or council area and its geographical coordinates List of places --> List of cities in the United Kingdom List of towns in England Lists of places This is a partial list of places within the ceremonial county boundaries of Cheshire, in North West England. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A county town is the 'capital' of a County in the United Kingdom or Republic of Ireland. Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a county in North West England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Lying on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales, it is home to 80,121 inhabitants, and is the largest and most populous settlement of the wider local government district of the City of Chester, which has a population of 119,700. The River Dee ( Welsh: Afon Dyfrdwy) is a 70-mile-long (110 km River. For the smaller central city area and principal settlement of this district see Chester.
Chester, which was granted city status in 1541, was founded as a Castra or Roman fort in the year 79. The Latin word castra, with its singular castrum, was used by the ancient Romans to mean buildings or plots of land reserved to or constructed for use as a military It has the reputation of being the "English medieval city par excellence", but many of its buildings are Victorian. The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of Architectural styles predominantly employed during the Victorian era.  It has the most complete city walls in Britain and most sections of the walls are listed Grade I. The Chester city walls are system of largely intact Defensive walls surrounding the strategically important English city of Chester. A listed building in the United Kingdom is a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural historical or cultural significance
The patron saint of Chester is Saint Werburgh. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members Werburgh (also known as Werburga) (d February 3 699 at Trentham) is an English Saint and the Patron saint of
The Romans founded Chester as Deva Victrix in AD 70s in the land of the Celtic Cornovii, according to ancient cartographer Ptolemy, as a fortress during the Roman expansion north. The Cornovii (perhaps meaning people of the horn) were a people of Iron Age and Roman Britain, who lived principally in the modern counties of North Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca The Latin word castra, with its singular castrum, was used by the ancient Romans to mean buildings or plots of land reserved to or constructed for use as a military  It was named Deva either after the goddess of the Dee, or directly from the British name for the river.  The 'victrix' part of the name was taken from the title of the Legio XX Valeria Victrix who were based at Deva. Legio XX Valeria Victrix was a Roman legion, probably raised by Augustus some time after 31 BC.  A civilian settlement grew around the settlement, probably starting as a group of traders and their families who were profiting from trade with the fortress.  The fortress was 20% larger than other fortresses in Britannia built around the same time at York (Eboracum) and Caerleon (Isca Augusta); this has led to the suggestion that the fortress may have been intended to become the capital of the province rather than London (Londinium). Britannia was the term originally used by the Romans to refer first to the British Isles, and later to the island of Great Britain. York ( is an historic Walled city sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. Eboracum was a fort and City in Roman Britain. Today it is known as York, located in North Yorkshire, England. Caerleon (Caerllion is a suburban village and community, situated on the River Usk in the northern outskirts of the city of Newport, South Isca Augusta (or Isca Silurum) was a Roman Legionary fortress and settlement, the remains of which lie beneath parts of the present-day London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. This article covers the history of London during the Roman period from around 47 AD when the Roman city of Londinium was founded  The civilian amphitheatre which was built in 1st century could sit between 8,000 and 10,000 people, is the largest known military amphitheatre in Britain, and is also a Scheduled Monument. Chester Amphitheatre is a Roman Amphitheatre in Chester, Cheshire. In the United Kingdom, a Scheduled Monument is a 'nationally important' Archaeological site or historic building given protection against unauthorised change  The Minerva Shrine in the Roman quarry is the only rock cut Roman shrine still in situ in Britain. Minerva's Shrine Chester is a shrine to the Roman goddess, Minerva, in Edgar's Field Handbridge, Chester, England ( In situ (ɪn siːˈtuː is a Latin phrase meaning in the place.  The fortress was garrisoned by the legion until at least the late 4th century. For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription,"  Although the army would have abandoned the fortress by 410 when the Romans retreated from Britannia the civilians settlement continued and its occupants probably continued to use the fortress and its defences as protection from raiders in the Irish Sea. The Roman departure from Britain was completed by 410. The Archaeological records of the final decades of Roman rule show undeniable signs of decay The Irish Sea ( Irish: Muir Éireann or Muir Meann; Scottish Gaelic: Muir Eireann Welsh: Môr Iwerddon, 
Deverdoeu was still one of two Welsh names for Chester in the late 12th century; its other and more enduring Welsh name was Caerlleon, literally "the fortress-city of the legions", a name identical with that of the Roman fortress at the other end of the Marches at Caerleon (Mon. ). The colloquial modern Welsh name is the shortened form, Caer. The early English-speaking settlers used a name which had the same meaning, Legacæstir, which was current until the 11th century, when – in a further parallel with Welsh usage – the first element fell out of use and the simplex name Chester emerged. From the 14th century to the 18th the city's prominent position in north-western England meant that it was commonly also known as Westchester. 
Chester played a significant part in the Industrial Revolution which began in the North-West of England in the latter part of the 18th century. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the The city village of Newtown, located north east of the city and bounded by the Shropshire Union Canal was at the very heart of this industry. The Shropshire Union Canal is a navigable Canal in England; the Llangollen and Montgomery canals are the modern names of branches of the SU system The large Chester Cattle Market and the two Chester railway stations, Chester General and The Northgate Station, meant that Newtown with its cattle market and canal, and Hoole with its railways were responsible for providing the vast majority of workers and in turn, the vast amount of Chester's wealth production during the early and late parts of the Industrial Revolution. Chester railway station is a Railway station in the city of Chester, England. Newtown is a locality in Cheshire, England. History Newtown is located to the north-east of Chester, and can be found just outside Canals are artificial channels for water There are two types of canals water conveyance canals which are used for the conveyance and delivery of water and Waterways Hoole is a suburb in the east of Chester, in Chester District, Cheshire, England.
Between 14 May 2007 and 6 July 2007 excavations were carried out in Grosvenor Park. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The main aim being to find Cholmondeley's lost Mansion, which was demolished in 1867.
A number of finds have come to light including:
Associated with its proximity to Wales, Chester has a history of anti-Welsh sentiment (at least in repute), as discussed in this recent exchange in parliament between the local MP Christine Russell and Welsh MP David Jones:
(The byelaw referred to no longer offers legal protection against prosecution for murder. )
Chester is an unparished area within the District of Chester, though a small area around Chester Castle is the civil parish of Chester Castle. In England, an unparished area is an area that is not covered by a Civil parish. For the smaller central city area and principal settlement of this district see Chester. Chester Castle is in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England. It is sited at the southwest extremity of the area bounded by the city walls. A civil parish in the United Kingdom is a unit of local government. Chester Castle is an area around the castle in Chester. It was historically an Extra-parochial area and today remains a Civil parish, although It is intended that this district will be replaced in April 2009 by a new unitary authority called West Cheshire and Chester which will replace and unify the boroughs of Ellesmere Port and Neston, Vale Royal as well as Chester District. See also Independent city A unitary authority is a type of Local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all Local government functions Cheshire West and Chester is the name for a new Unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of Cheshire. Ellesmere Port and Neston is a local government district, Borough and parliamentary constituency in Cheshire, England Vale Royal is a local government district and Borough in Cheshire, England. For the smaller central city area and principal settlement of this district see Chester. 
Chester is twinned with the French town of Sens, Loerrach in Germany, Lakewood, Colorado in the United States and Senigallia, Italy. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. History Caesar mentions Agedincum in the territory of the Senones several times in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico, and the city retains Lörrach is a city in southwest Germany, in the valley of the Wiese, close to the French and the Swiss border Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The City of Lakewood is a Home Rule Municipality that is the most populous city in Jefferson County, Colorado, United States The State of Colorado ( or chiefly by nonresidents) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Senigallia or Sinigaglia is a Comune and port town on Italy 's Adriatic coast 25 km by rail north of Ancona in the Marche region Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
Chester lies at the southern end of a 2-mile (3. 2 km) Triassic sandstone ridge that rises to a height of 42 m within a natural S-bend in the River Dee (before the course was altered in the 18th century). The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about 251 to 199 Ma (million years ago Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock composed mainly of Sand -size Mineral or rock grains. The bedrock, which is also known as the Chester Pebble Beds, is noticeable because of the many small stones trapped within its strata. Retreating glacial sheet ice also deposited quantities of sand and marl across the area where boulder clay was absent. Marl or Marlstone is a Calcium carbonate or lime -rich mud or Mudstone which contains variable amounts of Clays and Aragonite
The eastern and northern part of Chester consisted of heathland and forest. The western side towards the Dee Estuary was marsh and wetland habitats.
The resident population for Chester District in the 2001 Census was 118,210. Bache (ˈbeɪtʃ and often referred to as "The Bache") is a small Civil parish and Suburb of Chester, Cheshire, England Blacon is a large ex-council owned housing estate near Chester, in Cheshire, England, containing a mixture of private homes and substantial public council-built Boughton is a village and the principal settlement of the civil parish of Great Boughton in Chester District, to the east of Chester, in Cheshire This article refers to a suburb of Chester in Cheshire. For the development in Birmingham, see Curzon Park Birmingham. Great Boughton is a small village to the south west of Boughton Cheshire, it is commonly confused with Boughton itself however is a village in its own right Handbridge ( Treboeth in Welsh) is a small district of Chester, England on the south bank of the River Dee. Hoole is a suburb in the east of Chester, in Chester District, Cheshire, England. Huntington is a small village and Civil parish on the outskirts of Chester in the Chester District of Cheshire, England. For the procedural negligence see laches. Lache (sometimes The Lache or Larché) is a housing estate in the city of This article is about a suburb of Chester. See also Newtown, which lies just outside of Chester city walls. Newtown is a locality in Cheshire, England. History Newtown is located to the north-east of Chester, and can be found just outside Saltney is a small Town in Flintshire, North Wales. It is immediately to the west of the border with Cheshire in England and forms This article is about the village of Saughall See also Saughall Massie for the village on the Wirral Peninsula. Upton (also known as Upton-by-Chester) is a Civil parish and a large suburb on the outskirts of Chester, Cheshire, England. Vicars Cross is a large suburban area situated on the north-west side of Chester. Westminster Park (colloquially known as Wezzie Park) is both a suburb to the west of Chester, and a large park the area takes its name after For the smaller central city area and principal settlement of this district see Chester. A nationwide Census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 This represents 17. 5% of the Cheshire County total (1. 8% of the North West population). 
There are 77,040 living within the Greater Chester urban area (65% of the total of Chester District). This population is forecast to grow by 5% in the period 2005 to 2021. 
The city has a shopping centre that contains its unique 'Rows' or galleries (basically two levels of shops) which date from medieval times. The city is heavily populated by chain stores both in the centre and on retail parks to the west, and also features an indoor market, a department store (Browns of Chester, now absorbed by the Debenhams chain), and two main indoor shopping centres: The Grosvenor Mall and the Forum (a reference to the City's Roman past). Browns is a department store in Chester established in 1780 by Susannah Brown. Debenhams plc ( is a British -based retailer operating under a Department Store format in the UK and franchise stores in other countries The Forum, which houses stores and the Chester Market, will be demolished in the Northgate Development scheme to make way for new shopping streets, a new indoor market, an enlarged library, a car park and bus station, and a performing arts centre.
Chester's main industries are now the service industries, comprising retail, tourism and financial services. Chester's main employer is Bank of America, formerly MBNA Europe. Banc of America Securities Bank of America () is the largest bank by asset and second largest commercial Bank by deposits and Market capitalization in United MBNA Corporation was a bank Holding company and parent company of wholly owned subsidiary MBNA America Bank N There is also a large Shell oil refinery (in Ellesmere Port), several large financial firms including HBOS plc and M&S Money. Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known simply as Shell, is a multinational oil company of Dutch and British origins HBOS plc ( is a Banking and Insurance group in the United Kingdom, the Holding company for Bank of Scotland plc, which Marks & Spencer Group plc (also M&S, Marks and Sparks, and Marks) is a British Retailer with 843 stores in more than 30 Just over the Welsh border to the west near the village of Broughton there is an Airbus UK factory (formerly British Aerospace), where the wings of Airbus aircraft, including the Airbus A380 are manufactured, and there are food processing plants to the north and west. Airbus UK is a wholly owned subsidiary of Airbus SAS which produces wings for the Airbus aircraft family British Aerospace (BAe was a UK aircraft and defence-systems manufacturer that is now part of BAE Systems. Airbus SAS (ˈɛərbʌs in English, Airbus2ogg|/ɛʁbys/]] in French, and /ˈɛːɐbʊs/ in German) is an aircraft manufacturing WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Iceland frozen food company is based in nearby Deeside. Iceland is a Supermarket chain in the United Kingdom, partly owned by the Icelandic retailer conglomerate Baugur.
Chester has its own university, the University of Chester, and a major hospital, the Countess of Chester Hospital, named after Diana, Princess of Wales and Countess of Chester. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects The University of Chester is a University based in the city of Chester in the United Kingdom. The Countess of Chester is the main NHS Hospital for the Chester area with 625 beds
The more unusual landmarks in the city are the city walls, the rows and the black-and-white architecture. Chester is the county town of Cheshire, England. It has a large number of Grade I Listed buildings. The Chester city walls are system of largely intact Defensive walls surrounding the strategically important English city of Chester. The walls encircle the bounds of the medieval city and constitute the most complete city walls in Britain, the full circuit measuring nearly 2 miles (3 km).  The only break in the circuit is in the southwest section in front of County Hall.  A footpath runs along the top of the walls, crossing roads by bridges over Eastgate, Northgate, St Martin's Gate, Watergate, Bridgegate, Newgate, and the Wolf Gate, and passing a series of structures, namely Phoenix Tower (or King Charles' Tower), Morgan's Mount, the Goblin Tower (or Pemberton's Parlour), and Bonewaldesthorne's Tower with a spur leading to the Water Tower, and Thimbleby's Tower. The Northgate is in Chester, Cheshire, England where it carries the city walls footpath over Northgate Street ( The Watergate is in Chester, Cheshire, England and spans the A548 road between Watergate Street and New Crane Street ( The Bridgegate is in Chester, Cheshire, England between Lower Bridge Street and the Old Dee Bridge (  On Eastgate is Eastgate Clock which is said to be the most photographed clock in England after Big Ben. The Eastgate Clock is a Turret clock built above the Eastgate of the ancient walls of Chester, north-west England. The Clock Tower is the world's largest four-faced chiming Clock. 
The rows are unique in Britain.  They consist of buildings with shops or dwellings on the lowest two storeys. The shops or dwellings on the ground floor are often lower than the street and are entered by steps, which sometimes lead to a crypt-like vault. In terms of European architecture a crypt (from the Latin crypta and the Greek κρυπτη, kryptē) is a stone chamber or A Vault (French voute Italian volta German Gewölbe Polish sklepienie, Spanish Those on the first floor are entered behind a continuous walkway, often with a sloping shelf between the walkway and the railings overlooking the street.  Much of the architecture of central Chester looks medieval and some of it is. But by far the greatest part of it, including most of the black-and-white buildings, is Victorian, a result of what Pevsner termed the "black-and-white revival". The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of Architectural styles predominantly employed during the Victorian era. Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner, CBE, ( January 30, 1902 &ndash August 18, 1983) was a German-born British scholar of 
The most prominent buildings in the city centre are the town hall and the cathedral. Chester Town Hall is in Northgate Street in the centre of the city of Chester, Cheshire, England ( Chester Cathedral is the mother church of the Church of England Diocese of Chester, and is located in the city of Chester, Cheshire, The town hall was opened in 1869. It is in Gothic Revival style and has a tower and a short spire. The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement which began  The cathedral was formerly the church of St Werburgh's Abbey. Its architecture dates back to the Norman era, with additions made most centuries since. For other buildings in Normandy see Architecture of Normandy. A series of major restorations took place in the 19th century and in 1975 a separate bell tower was opened. The elaborately carved canopies of the choirstalls are considered to be one of the finest in the country. A canopy is an overhead Roof or structure that is able to provide Shade or Shelter. Also in the cathedral is the shrine of St Werburgh. A shrine, from the Latin scrinium (‘box’ also used as a desk like the French bureau) was originally a container usually made of precious materials used Werburgh (also known as Werburga) (d February 3 699 at Trentham) is an English Saint and the Patron saint of To the north of the cathedral are the former monastic buildings. This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism.  The oldest church in the city is St John's, which is outside the city walls and was at one time the cathedral church. St John the Baptist's Church Chester is in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England ( The church was shortened after the dissolution of the monasteries and ruins of the former east end remain outside the church. The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the formal process between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded Much of the interior is in Norman style and this is considered to be the best example of 11th–12th century church architecture in Cheshire.  At the intersection of the former Roman roads is Chester Cross, to the north of which is the small church of St Peter’s which is in use as an ecumenical centre. St Peter's Church Chester is in Eastgate Street in the centre of the city of Chester, Cheshire, England (  Other churches are now redundant and have other uses; St Michael’s in Bridge Street is a heritage centre, St Mary-on-the-Hill is an educational centre, and Holy Trinity now acts as the Guildhall. St Michael's Church Chester is a Redundant church which stands on the corner of Bridge Street and Pepper Street in the city of Chester, Cheshire, A heritage centre is a Museum facility primarily dedicated to the presentation of historical and Cultural information about a place and its people including The Church of St Mary-on-the-Hill Chester stands at the top of St Mary's Hill Chester, Cheshire, England near Chester Castle ( Holy Trinity Church Chester is a Redundant church in Watergate in the city of Chester, England (  Other notable buildings include the preserved shot tower, the highest structure in Chester. Chester Shot Tower is a grade-II*-listed Shot tower located at in the Boughton district of Chester, England. 
Roman remains can still be found in the city, particularly in the basements of some of the buildings and in the lower parts of the northern section of the city walls.  The most important Roman feature is the amphitheatre just outside the walls which is undergoing archaeological investigation. Chester Amphitheatre is a Roman Amphitheatre in Chester, Cheshire.  Roman artifacts are on display in the Roman Gardens which run parallel to the city walls from Newgate to the River Dee.  Of the medieval city the most important surviving structure is Chester Castle, particularly the Agricola Tower. Chester Castle is in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England. It is sited at the southwest extremity of the area bounded by the city walls. Much of the rest of the castle has been replaced by the neoclassical county court and its entrance, the Propyleum. Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century both as a reaction against the Rococo  To the south of the city runs the River Dee, with its 11th century weir. The River Dee ( Welsh: Afon Dyfrdwy) is a 70-mile-long (110 km River. Chester Weir is a Weir which crosses the River Dee at Chester, Cheshire, England, slightly upstream from the Old Dee Bridge The river is crossed by the Old Dee Bridge, dating from the 13th century, the Grosvenor Bridge of 1832, and Queen's Park suspension bridge (for pedestrians). The Old Dee Bridge, in Chester, Cheshire, England is the oldest bridge in the city The Grosvenor Bridge is a single-span arch Road bridge constructed from stone  To the southwest of the city the River Dee curves towards the north. The area between the river and the city walls here is known as the Roodee, and contains Chester Racecourse which holds a series of horse races and other events. Chester Racecourse, known as the Roodee, is according to official records the oldest Racecourse still in use in England.  The Shropshire Union Canal runs to the north of the city and a branch leads from it to the River Dee. The Shropshire Union Canal is a navigable Canal in England; the Llangollen and Montgomery canals are the modern names of branches of the SU system 
The major museum in Chester is the Grosvenor Museum which includes a collection of Roman tombstones and an art gallery. Grosvenor Museum is in Grosvenor Street Chester, Cheshire, England ( An art gallery or art museum is a space for the exhibition of art, usually Visual art. Associated with the museum is 20 Castle Street in which rooms are furnished in different historical styles.  One of the blocks in the forecourt of the castle houses the Cheshire Military Museum.  The major public park in Chester is Grosvenor Park. Grosvenor Park is a public park in the city of Chester, Cheshire, England (  On the south side of the River Dee, in Handbridge, is Edgar's Field, another public park, which contains Minerva's Shrine, a Roman shrine to the goddess Minerva. Handbridge ( Treboeth in Welsh) is a small district of Chester, England on the south bank of the River Dee. Minerva's Shrine Chester is a shrine to the Roman goddess, Minerva, in Edgar's Field Handbridge, Chester, England ( The MInisterial NEtwoRk for Valorising Activities in digitisation, or MINERVA, is a European Union organization concerned with the digitisation of cultural and  A war memorial to those who died in the world wars is in the town hall and it contains the names of all Chester servicemen who died in the First World War. A war memorial is a building monument statue or other edifice to celebrate a War or victory or (predominating in modern times to commemorate those who died or were injured World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All 
Chester Visitor Centre, opposite the Roman Amphitheatre, issues a leaflet giving details of tourist attractions. Those not covered above include cruises on the River Dee and on the Shropshire Union Canal, and guided tours on an open-air bus.  The river cruises start from a riverside area known as the Groves, which contains seating and a bandstand. A bandstand is a circular or semicircular structure set in a Park, Garden, or Pier, designed to accommodate Musical bands performing outdoor  A series of festivals is organised in the city, including mystery plays, a summer music festival and a literature festival. Mystery plays and Miracle plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in Medieval Europe.  Chester City Council has produced a series of leaflets for self-guided walks. Administration The Chester City Council is run by a Conservative Government with the Liberal Democrats and Labour as minor parties each holding fewer than 25% of the seats  Tourist Information Centres are at the town hall and at Chester Visitor Centre. A visitor center, centre (see Spelling differences) or visitor information centre may be A visitor center at a specific attraction 
A considerable amount of land in Chester is owned by the Duke of Westminster who owns an estate – Eaton Hall – near the village of Eccleston. Major-General Gerald Cavendish Grosvenor 6th Duke of Westminster, KG, CB, OBE, TD, DL (born 22 December 1951 Eaton Hall is a Country house set within a large Park in the village of Eccleston near Chester in England. Eccleston is a Civil parish and Village in Chester District, Cheshire, and close to Chester. He also has vast London properties in Mayfair. Mayfair is an area of central London, England, within the City of Westminster. Indeed, the clock tower which houses Big Ben was copied on the Duke's estate home of Eaton Hall and can be seen from the road from Aldford to Chester today. The Clock Tower is the world's largest four-faced chiming Clock. Aldford is a Village and Civil parish in the County of Cheshire, England, south of Chester (
Grosvenor is the Duke's family name, which explains such features in the City such as the Grosvenor Bridge, the Grosvenor Hotel, and Grosvenor Park. The title Duke of Westminster was created by Queen Victoria in 1874 and bestowed upon Richard Grosvenor the 3rd Marquess of Westminster The Grosvenor Bridge is a single-span arch Road bridge constructed from stone Much of Chester's architecture dates from the Victorian era, many of the buildings being modelled on the Jacobean half-timbered style and designed by John Douglas, who was employed by the Duke as his principal architect. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities The Jacobean style is the name given to the second phase of Renaissance Architecture in England, following the Elizabethan style. John Douglas ( 11 April 1830 – 23 May 1911) was an English Architect who was trained in Lancaster and who set up his practice He had a trademark of twisted chimney stacks, many of which can be seen on the buildings in the city centre.
Douglas designed amongst other buildings the Grosvenor Hotel and the City Baths. In 1911, Douglas' protégé and city architect James Strong designed the then active fire station on the west side of Northgate Street. James Strong is the name of James Strong (businessman, Australian businessman former chairman of Qantas former head of the mine and port at Nhulunbuy Northern Another feature of all buildings belonging to the estate of Westminster is the 'Grey Diamonds' – a weaving pattern of grey bricks in the red brickwork laid out in a diamond formation.
Towards the end of WWII, a lack of affordable housing meant many problems for Chester. As a result, vast open fields on the edge of the city were transformed into residential areas. Large areas of open fields on the outskirts of the city were turned into residential areas in the 1950s and early 1960s producing, for instance, the suburb of Blacon. Blacon is a large ex-council owned housing estate near Chester, in Cheshire, England, containing a mixture of private homes and substantial public council-built In 1964, a bypass was built through and around the town centre to combat traffic congestion.
These new developments caused local concern as the physicality and therefore the feel of the city was being dramatically altered. In 1968, a report by Donald Insall in collaboration with authorities and government recommended that historic buildings be preserved in Chester. Consequently, the buildings were used in new and different ways instead of being flattened. 
In 1969 the City Conservation Area was designated. Over the next 20 years the emphasis was placed on saving historic buildings, such as The Falcon Inn, Dutch Houses and Kings Buildings.
On January 13, 2002, Chester was granted Fairtrade City status. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Fairtrade Town is a marketing tool in which this status is awarded by a recognized Fairtrade certification body (i This status was renewed by the Fairtrade Foundation on August 20, 2003. The Fairtrade Foundation is the British member of FLO International, which unites 23 Fairtrade producer and labelling initiatives across Europe Events 636 - Battle of Yarmouk: Arab forces led by Khalid ibn al-Walid take control of Syria and Palestine Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar.
In 2007 Chester Council announced a 10-year plan to see Chester become a "must see European destination". At a cost of £1. 3 billion it has been nicknamed Chester Renaissance. 
There are four major developments in Chester.
The Northgate Development project began in 2007. At a cost of £400 million, Chester City Council and developers ING hope to create a new quarter for Chester. The development will see the demolition of the market hall, bus station, theatre and NCP car park, and the local Northgate Arena leisure centre. In its place will be a new multi-storey car park, bus exchange, performing arts centre, homes, retail space, a flagship department store and a hotel. 
In 2007, Chester's cultural sector was going through a major transformation. The Gateway Theatre had closed as part of the Northgate Development and so too had the Odeon cinema. The Gateway Theatre was a small producing and receiving Theatre in the city of Chester, England. The site was earmarked for redevelopment, with the closed Odeon cinema being the subject of a proposal to re-open it as part of an arts complex with a cinema at its heart; or its owners, Brook Leisure, may pursue planning permission to turn it into a nightclub.  Numerous public houses and wine bars, some of which date from medieval times, populate the city. Chester also has some nightclubs, which are soon going to be added to by the development of two new clubs in the next eighteen months. Also to the east side of the city are the UK's largest zoological gardens, Chester Zoo. A zoological garden, shortened to zoo, is an institution in which living animals are exhibited in captivity Chester Zoo is a Zoological garden located in Cheshire in north west England. Chester has its own film society.
Chester City football club play in the Coca-Cola League 2, the fourth tier of English football and the lowest fully professional division. Chester City Football Club is an English football club from Chester. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered They were elected to the Football League in 1931, and have played at their Deva Stadium, straddling the England–Wales border, since 1992. The Football League, also known as the Coca-Cola Football League for sponsorship reasons is a league competition featuring professional football clubs Notable former players include Ian Rush (who also managed the club), Cyrille Regis, Arthur Albiston, Earl Barrett, Lee Dixon, Steve Harkness, Roberto Martinez and Stan Pearson. Ian James Rush, MBE (born 20 October 1961) is a Welsh former footballer who played as a Striker and is best known for playing Cyrille Regis, MBE (born 9 February 1958) is a French Guianan born English former footballer. Arthur Richard Albiston (born 14 July 1957 in Edinburgh) is a Scottish former football player Earl Delisser Barrett (born April 28, 1967 in Rochdale, Lancashire) is a former English footballer, most famous for his Lee Michael Dixon (born 17 March 1964 in Manchester, England) is a former English professional footballer who formed part of the highly-respected Steve Harkness (born Carlisle, August 27 1971) is a former footballer who played for several clubs most notably Liverpool. Roberto Martinez is the name of Roberto Martínez y Gutiérrez a Mexican Bishop Roberto Martínez Vera Tudela a former Peruvian
The city also has a national basketball team, the newly named, BiG Storage Cheshire Jets Champions, who play in the city's Northgate Arena leisure centre; and a wheelchair basketball team, Celtic Warriors, formerly known as the Chester Wheelchair Jets. The Cheshire Jets, officially BiG Storage Cheshire Jets by sponsorship is a British professional Basketball team based in the city of Chester Northgate Arena is an Arena and Leisure centre complex in Chester, England.  Chester also has a successful hockey club, Chester HC, who play at the County Officers' Club on Plas Newton Lane, and also an American Football team, the Chester Romans, who are part of the British American Football League.
Chester Racecourse hosts several flat race meetings from the spring to the autumn. Chester Racecourse, known as the Roodee, is according to official records the oldest Racecourse still in use in England. The races take place within view of the City walls and attract tens of thousands of visitors. The May meeting includes several nationally significant races such as the Chester Vase, which is recognised as a trial for the Epsom Derby. The Chester Vase is a Group 3 flat horse race in the United Kingdom for three-year-old Thoroughbred colts and Geldings
Chester Rugby Club is also not without its local fame, winning the Cheshire Cup several times.
The River Dee is also home to several rowing clubs, notably Grosvenor Rowing Club and Royal Chester Rowing Club, as well as two school clubs, The King's School Chester Rowing Club and Queen's Park High Rowing Club. The King's School Chester is a Coeducational Independent school in Chester, England. The weir is regularly used by a number of local canoe and kayak clubs. Each July a charity raft race is held on the River Dee. Chester Golf Club can also be found near the banks of the Dee. Chester is one of the oldest established golf clubs in the county of Cheshire.
Chester has a brass band that was formed in 1853. It was known as the Blue Coat Band and today as The City of Chester Band.  It is a thriving 3rd section brass band with an active training band and its members still wear a blue-jacketed uniform with an image of the Eastgate clock on the breast pocket.
Pop Band Mansun are probably the most famous Britpop band to come from Chester. Mansun were an English indie band formed in Chester in 1995 The band comprised vocalist/rhythm guitarist Paul Draper, bassist Stove Britpop is a subgenre of Alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom.
Chester's newspapers are the daily Chester Evening Leader, and the weekly Chester Chronicle. The Chester Evening Leader was launched in 1973 as Chester, England 's first daily newspaper The Chester Chronicle is a UK local weekly newspaper for the Chester and Cheshire area first established in the 18th century It also has various free publications: the free newspapers Chester Mail and Chester Standard. The Midweek Chronicle is a free weekly newspaper distributed around Chester, England, by Trinity Mirror. The Chester Standard is a weekly free newspaper It is distributed within the Chester area and has a readership of 102000 Dee 106.3 is the city's own radio station, with Wrexham's Marcher Sound and BBC Radio Merseyside also broadcasting locally. Dee 1063 is an Independent Local Radio station broadcasting to the city of Chester. Wrexham (Wrecsam is a town and principal area in Wales. It is the largest town in North Wales and lies to the east of the region Marcher Sound (formerly MFM 1034) is a radio station broadcasting to north east Wales and north west England from its Mold Road studios in Gwersyllt BBC Radio Merseyside is the BBC Local Radio service for the English metropolitan county of Merseyside and north Cheshire. Chester is the city where Channel 4's soap-opera Hollyoaks is set (although most filming takes place around Liverpool). Channel 4 is a public-service Television and Radio broadcaster in the United Kingdom centred around a television channel of the same name which began Hollyoaks is a British television Soap opera which was first broadcast on 23 October 1995 on Channel 4.
From about 1794, when canal building in England finished, through to the late 1950s, when the canal-side flour mills were closed, narrowboats carried produce and supplies to and from North Wales (coal, slate, gypsum or lead ore), finished lead (for roofing, water pipes and sewerage) from the leadworks in Edgerton Street (Newtown). The British Canal system of Water transport played a vital role in the United Kingdom 's Industrial Revolution at a time when Roads A narrowboat or narrow boat is a Boat of a distinctive design made to fit the narrow Canals of England and Wales. North Wales (Gogledd Cymru is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales, bordered to the south by Mid Wales and to the east by England. Grain from Cheshire was stored in granaries on the banks of the canal at Newtown and Boughton, and salt for preserving food arrived from Northwich. Northwich is a town in Cheshire, England. It lies in the heart of the Cheshire Plain, at the confluence of the rivers
The Chester Canal flowed into the river Dee, providing access to the sea and other ports such as Liverpool, and along with the railways and the port facilities at Crane Wharf, by the Chester racecourse, Chester made an important contribution to the commercial development of the north-west region. The Chester Canal was a Canal linking the south Cheshire town of Nantwich with the River Dee at Chester, providing a route for produce
The original Chester Canal was constructed to run from the River Dee near Sealand Road, to Nantwich in south Cheshire, and opened in 1774. Sealand (Gwlad y Mor is a community in Flintshire, north-east Wales. Nantwich is a market town in south Cheshire, England, in the Borough and parliamentary constituency of Crewe and Nantwich. In 1805 the Wirral section of the Ellesmere Canal was opened, which ran from Netherpool (now known as Ellesmere Port) to meet the Chester Canal at Chester canal basin. The Ellesmere Canal was a canal in England and Wales, originally planned to link the Rivers Mersey, Dee, and Severn, by running from Ellesmere Port is a large industrial town and cargo port in the district of Ellesmere Port and Neston, Cheshire, England, situated in the south of the Later those two canal branches became part of the Shropshire Union Canal network. The Shropshire Union Canal is a navigable Canal in England; the Llangollen and Montgomery canals are the modern names of branches of the SU system This canal, which runs alongside the walls of Chester, is navigable and remains in use today.
The City Of Chester once had two major railway stations within a few hundred yards of each other. One, The main Chester General railway station is located to the North East of the city centre, and has an impressive Italianate frontage. Chester railway station is a Railway station in the city of Chester, England. Built in 1848, the interior is dilapidated, having lost a roof in the 1972 Chester General rail crash. The Chester General rail crash occurred on 8 May 1972 at Chester General station, Chester, England. Extensive renovations took place in September 2007 to improve pedestrian access, and parking. The town was the scene of an early disaster when a new bridge over the Dee collapsed under a local train. It had been built by Robert Stephenson for the Chester and Holyhead Railway in late 1847, and was made of cast iron beams trussed together. Robert Stephenson FRS (16 October 1803 &ndash 12 October 1859 was an English Civil engineer. The Chester and Holyhead Railway was incorporated out of a proposal to link Holyhead, the traditional port for the Irish Mail with London by way of the Five people were killed when the train fell into the river, and there was a national scandal about the design of the bridge. The Dee bridge disaster led to demolition of many new bridges of similar design. The Dee bridge disaster was an English Rail accident that occurred on 24 May 1847 with five fatalities
Trains go from here along the North Wales Coast Line, as well as to London Euston, Liverpool, Crewe, Manchester Piccadilly, Wrexham General and Shrewsbury. Euston station (official name London Euston) is a major Railway station to the north of central London in the London Borough of Camden Liverpool Lime Street railway station on Lime Street is a mainline and underground Railway station serving the city centre of Liverpool, England Crewe railway station is one of the most historic Railway stations in the world Manchester Piccadilly station, known locally as just Piccadilly, is the principal railway station of Manchester in England. Wrexham General railway station (Wrecsam Cyffredinol is the main Railway station serving Wrexham, north-east Wales. Shrewsbury railway station (formerly known as Shrewsbury General) is a railway station serving the county town of Shrewsbury, Shropshire,
The other station, Chester Northgate ended its days in 1969 and was closed because of the Beeching Axe of railway economic 'modernisation' in the mid-1960s. OpenStreetMap ( OSM) is a collaborative project to create a free editable Map of the world Chester Northgate railway station was opened on as the Chester terminus of the Cheshire Lines Committee line from Northwich. The Beeching Axe is an informal name for the British Government 's attempt in the 1960s to reduce the cost of running British Railways, the nationalised railway system  As a consequence, the station was demolished and is now the site of the Northgate Arena leisure centre.
Chester had an extensive tram network during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It covered an area as far west as Saltney, on the Welsh border, to Chester General station, Tarvin Road and Great Boughton in the northwest. The network featured the narrowest gauge trams (3' 6") in mainland Britain, due to an act of Parliament which deemed that they must be the least obstructive possible.
The tramway was established in 1871 by Chester Tramways Corporation. It was horse-drawn until its electrification by overhead cables in 1903. The tramway was closed, like most others in the UK, in February 1930. The only remains are small areas of uncovered track inside the bus depot, and a few tram-wire supports attached to buildings on Eastgate/Foregate Street.
The city is a hub for major roads, including the M53 motorway towards the Wirral Peninsula and Liverpool and the M56 motorway towards Manchester. The M53 is a 20 Mile (32 Km) Motorway in the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral and Cheshire on the Wirral Peninsula in Wirral or the Wirral (ˈwɪrəl is a Peninsula in the north west of England. Liverpool ( is a City and Metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary The M56 is a Motorway, also known as the North Cheshire motorway, in Cheshire and Greater Manchester, England. The A55 road runs along the North Wales coast to Holyhead and the A483 links the city to Wrexham. The A55, also known as the North Wales Expressway, is a major road in Britain. Holyhead ( IPA /ˈhɒlihɛd/ Welsh: Caergybi, "the fort of Saint Cybi " is the largest town in the county of Wrexham (Wrecsam is a town and principal area in Wales. It is the largest town in North Wales and lies to the east of the region
Bus transport in the city is provided by First Group and Arriva, the council owned and operated ChesterBus (formerly Chester City Transport) having been sold to First Group in mid-2007. FirstGroup plc ( is a Scottish Transport company operating in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, Canada, USA Arriva plc ( is a British -based international public transport operator headquartered in Sunderland. First Chester & The Wirral is a division of Bus operator First PMT Ltd, running local bus services in and around Chester and the Wirral, FirstGroup plc ( is a Scottish Transport company operating in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, Canada, USA There are plans to build a new bus exchange in the city as well as a new coach station.
Randolph Caldecott (1846–86), artist and book illustrator, was born in Bridge Street, Chester, David Roberts (1859–1928) the engineer who invented the caterpillar track, grew up in Great Boughton, the conductor Sir Adrian Boult (1889–1983), was born in Liverpool Road, and the grammarian and lexicographer A. S. Hornby (1898–1978) was also born in the city. Randolph Caldecott (22 March 1846 &ndash 12 February 1886 was a British Artist and Illustrator, born in Chester. David Roberts (born 1859 Chester - April 1928 Grantham was the Chief Engineer and managing director of Richard Hornsby & Sons in the early 1900s Continuous tracks are large (modular tracks used on the so-called caterpillar Tanks construction equipment and certain other off-road vehicles Great Boughton is a small village to the south west of Boughton Cheshire, it is commonly confused with Boughton itself however is a village in its own right WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Sir Adrian Cedric Boult CH ( 8 April 1889 Grammar is the field of Linguistics that covers the Rules governing the use of any given natural language. A lexicographer is a person devoted to the study of Lexicography, especially an author of a Dictionary. Albert Sidney (or Sydney) Hornby, usually just A S Hornby, 1898-1978 was an English Grammarian, Lexicographer, and pioneer 
Actors born in Chester include Basil Radford (1897–1952), Hugh Lloyd (born 1923), Ronald Pickup (born 1940), and  Daniel Craig (born 1968). Basil Radford ( 25 June 1897 Chester – 20 October 1952 London) Hugh Lewis Lloyd, MBE ( 22 April 1923 &ndash 14 July 2008) was an English actor who made his name in television Ronald Pickup (born 7 June 1940) is a well-established English Actor. Daniel Wroughton Craig (born 2 March 1968 is an English Actor.  L. T. C. Rolt (1910–74), engineering historian was born in Chester, as was Anthony Thwaite (born 1930), poet and writer. Lionel Thomas Caswall Rolt (usually abbreviated to Tom Rolt or L Anthony Simon Thwaite, OBE, (born 1930 in Chester) is an English poet and writer  Beatrice Tinsley (née Hill) (1941–1981), astronomer and cosmologist, professor of astronomy at Yale University was also born in the city but was brought up in New Zealand. Beatrice Muriel Hill Tinsley ( January 27, 1941 - March 23, 1981) was a New Zealand Astronomer and Cosmologist Historically Astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky while Astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena Physical cosmology, as a branch of Astronomy, is the study of the large-scale structure of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its 
Others born in Chester include Russ Abbot (born 1947) (birth name Russell A. Russ Abbot (born Russell A Roberts on 16 September 1947 in Chester) is an English Musician, Comedian, and Actor. Roberts), musician, comedian and actor, Jeff Green (born 1964), comedian, Helen Willetts (born 1972), former badminton international and weather forecaster, and Emily Booth (born 1976), actress and writer. Jeff Green (born February 23 1964 in Chester) is an English Comedian and Writer. Helen Sarah Willetts (born February 10, 1972) is a Weather presenter on the BBC. Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles or two opposing pairs (doubles who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location Emily Katherine Booth (born April 26, 1976) also known by her stage name Emily "Bouff" Bouffante is an English Actress and television 
The international rugby union footballers and brothers Pat Sanderson (born 1977), and Alex Sanderson (born 1979), were born in the city. Patrick Harold Sanderson (born in 6 September 1977 in Chester) is an english international Rugby union player who Alexander Sanderson (born in 7 October 1979 in Chester) is a former English Rugby union footballer who played in the back row for Saracens Soccer players born in Chester include the English internationals Danny Murphy (born 1977), Michael Owen (born 1979), and other professional footballers include Andy Dorman (born 1982), and Tom Heaton (born 1986). Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Daniel Benjamin "Danny" Murphy (born 18 March 1977 in Chester) is an English football player Michael James Owen (born 14 December 1979 in Chester, Cheshire) is an English football player who currently plays for and captains Newcastle United Andy Dorman (born May 1, 1982 in Chester, England) is a English professional Association football player who Thomas David "Tom" Heaton (born 15 April 1986 in Chester) is an English footballer who currently plays as a goalkeeper