Tamil Nadu • India
Chennai Central Station
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|181.06 km² (70 sq mi)|
• 1,180 km² (456 sq mi)
• 6 m (20 ft)
|District(s)|| • Chennai|
|4. Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Indian Standard Time ( IST) is the time observed throughout India and Sri Lanka, with a Time offset of UTC+530. UTC+530 is the Timezone for Indian Standard Time Sri Lanka Time The geography of India is diverse with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts plains rainforests hills and plateaus A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here areas between 1000 km2 and 10000 km2 A district is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory. The Chennai District is a district in the state of Tamil Nadu, in India. Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram is a district is in the northeast of Tamil Nadu, adjacent to the Bay of Bengal Tiruvallur district is an administrative district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central 34 million (5th) (2001)|
• 24,418 /km² (63,242 /sq mi)
• 7. The following is a list of the most populous cities in India. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. 5 million (4th) (2007)
|Corporation Commissioner||Rajesh Lakhoni|
• 600 xxx
• +91 44
• TN-01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 09, 10
Seal of Corporation of Chennai
Coordinates: Chennai (Tamil: சென்னை, formerly known as , is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. This article lists the top hundred metropolitan areas in India by population as of 2008. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government M Subramaniam is the current mayor of Chennai, the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Rajesh B Lakhoni is the current Corporation Commissioner of Chennai, the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. A Postal Index Number or PIN or Pincode is the post office numbering or Post code system used by India Post the Indian Postal For the past decade or so telecommunication activities have gained momentum in India UN/LOCODE, the United Nations Code for Trade and Transport Locations, is a geographic coding scheme developed and maintained by United Nations Economic Commission KA-19-P-8488jpg|thumb|270px|Close up of a licence plate used in Mangalore, Karnataka. Chennai Corporation (also known as the Corporation of Chennai) is the civic body that governs the city of Chennai, India. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. Madra or Madraka is the name of an ancient region and its inhabitants located in the north-west division of the ancient Indian Sub-continent. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country India is a union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. Located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, Chennai has an estimated population of 7. The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula The Bay of Bengal is a bay that forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. 5 million (2007), making it the fourth largest metropolitan city in India. This article lists the top hundred metropolitan areas in India by population as of 2008.
The city was established in the 17th century by the British, who developed it into a major urban centre and naval base. By the 20th century, it had become an important administrative centre, as the capital of the Madras Presidency. Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St
Chennai's economy has a broad industrial base in the automobile, technology, hardware manufacturing, and healthcare industries. The city is home to much of India's automobile industry and is the country's second-largest exporter of Software, information technology (IT) and information-technology-enabled services (ITES), behind Bangalore  . Information technology ( IT) as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA is "the study design development implementation support Business process outsourcing ( BPO) contains the transmission of processes along with the associated operational activities and responsibilities to a third party with at least Bangalore ( officially Bengaluru ( Kannada: ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು) is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
The city is served by an international airport and two major ports; it is connected to the rest of the country by five national highways and two railway terminals. Thirty-five countries have consulates in Chennai. 
Chennai hosts a large cultural event, the annual Madras Music Season, which includes performances by hundreds of artists. Every December the city of Chennai in India has its five week-long Music Season which has been described as the world's largest cultural event. The city has a vibrant theatre scene and is an important centre for the Bharatanatyam, a classical dance form. Bharatanatyam (பரதநாட்டியம்is a classical Dance form originating in Tamil Nadu, The Tamil film industry, known as Kollywood, is based in the city; the soundtracks of the movies dominate its music scene. Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. Tamil cinema or Kollywood ( Tamil: கோலிவுட் kōlivūṭ) is the English name of the popular Tamil Film Industry based in the Chennai is known for its sport venues and hosts an Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) event, the Chennai Open. The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional Tennis players The Chennai Open has been India's largest Tennis event since 1997. The city faces problems of water shortages, traffic congestion and air pollution. The state and local governments have undertaken initiatives such as the Veeranam project, Rainwater harvesting and the construction of mini-flyovers to address some of these problems. Veeranam Lake is located 14 kilometres SSW of Chidambaram in Cuddalore district in the state of Tamil Nadu in South India. Rainwater harvesting is the gathering or accumulating and storing of rainwater An overpass (called a flyover in the UK and most Commonwealth countries is a Bridge, Road, Railway or
The name Chennai is an eponym, etymologically derived from Chennapattinam or Chennapattanam, the name of the town that grew up around Fort St. George, built by the British in 1640. Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time Fort St George (or historically White Town is the name of the first British fortress in India, founded in 1639 at the coastal city of Madras (modern See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands There are different versions about the origin of the name. When the British landed here in 1639 A. D. it was said to be part of the empire of the Raja of Chandragiri. The British named it Chennapatnam after they acquired it from Chennappa Nayaka, a Vijayanagar chieftain. The Vijayanagara Empire ( Kannada: ವಿಜಯನಗರ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ Telugu: విజయనగర సామ్రాజ్యము was a South Gradually, the name was shortened to Chennai. The first instance of the use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed dated August 1639 to Francis Day, an agent for the British where there is a reference to Chennaipattinam.  although some believe Chennapattinam was named after the Chenna Kesava Perumal Temple, as the word Chenni in Tamil means face, and the temple was thought of as the face of the city. Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. 
The former name, Madras, is derived from Madraspattinam, a fishing village that lay to the north of Fort St. George. Fort St George (or historically White Town is the name of the first British fortress in India, founded in 1639 at the coastal city of Madras (modern The origin of the name Madraspattinam is a subject of disagreement. One theory holds that the Portuguese, who arrived in the area in the 16th century, may have named the village Madre de Deus. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west  However, historians believe that the village's name came from the once prominent Madeiros family (variously known as Madera or Madra in succeeding years), who had consecrated the Madre de Deus church in Santhome in 1575 (demolished in 1997). Santhome is a locality in Chennai in India The word Santhome is derived from Saint Thomas, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ. Another theory says that the village was named after an Islamic college (a madrasa) which was located in the area. "Madrasa" and "Medrese" redirect here For the village in Azerbaijan see Mədrəsə. After the British gained possession of the area in the 17th century, the two towns, Madraspattinam and Chennapattinam, eventually merged. The British referred to the united town as Madraspattinam, while the locals preferred to call it Chennapattinam. 
The city was officially renamed Chennai in 1996, about the same time that many Indian cities were undergoing name changes. Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area Madras was seen as a Portuguese name. 
The region around Chennai has served as an important administrative, military, and economic centre since the 1st century. Chennai (சென்னை in Tamil  It has been ruled by various South Indian dynasties, notably the Pallava, the Chola, the Pandya, and Vijaynagar. South India is the area encompassing India 's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union Origins See also Origin of Pallava The exact origin of the Pallavas is shrouded in mystery Origin The origin of the word “Pandya” has been a subject of much speculation Vijayanagara (ವಿಜಯನಗರ is in Bellary District, northern Karnataka.  The town of Mylapore, now part of Chennai, was once a major Pallavan port. Mylapore ( Tamil:மயிலாப்பூர் is the cultural hub, and a bustling neighborhood just south of Chennai (formerly Madras The Portuguese arrived in 1522 and built a port called São Tomé after the Christian apostle, St Thomas, who is believed to have preached in the area between 52 and 70 CE. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west Thomas the Apostle, also called Judas Thomas, Doubting Thomas, or Didymus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. In 1612, the Dutch established themselves near Pulicat, just north of the city. The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian Pulicat (Pazhaverkadu is a town which lies in the Thiruvallur District, in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
On 22 August 1639, Francis Day of the British East India Company bought a small strip of land on the Coromandel Coast from the Vijayanagara King, Peda Venkata Raya in Chandragiri. Events 392 - Arbogast has Eugenius elected Western Roman Emperor. Francis Day (b1605-d1673 was a British administrator associated with the British East India Company. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula The Vijayanagara Empire ( Kannada: ವಿಜಯನಗರ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ Telugu: విజయనగర సామ్రాజ్యము was a South Venkata III (aka Peda Venkata Raya),the grandson of Aliya Rama Raya became the King of Vijayanagara Empire from 1632-1642 WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Chandragiri is a small town near Tirupati in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh The region was ruled by Damerla Venkatapathy, the Nayak of Vandavasi. Nayak Nayaka Nayakar Nayakkar Naiker Naicker Naickan Nayakkan Naidu Nayudu or Naidoo is a common title used by various caste and ethnic groups across India. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Vandavasi or Wandiwash is a city and a Municipality in Tiruvanamalai district in  He granted the British permission to build a factory and warehouse for their trading enterprises. A year later, the British built Fort St George, which became the nucleus of the growing colonial city. Fort St George (or historically White Town is the name of the first British fortress in India, founded in 1639 at the coastal city of Madras (modern See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism  In 1746, Fort St. George and Madras were captured by the French under General La Bourdonnais, the Governor of Mauritius, who plundered the town and its outlying villages. Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais ( comte de La Bourdonnais) ( Saint-Malo, 11 February 1699 &ndash Paris, 10 November Mauritius (pronounced məˈrɪʃəs L’île Maurice /il mɔ'ʁis/ Mauritian Creole: Maurice) officially the Republic of Mauritius, République  The British regained control in 1749 through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and fortified the town's fortress wall to withstand further attacks from the French and another looming threat, Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysore. The second Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ( Aachen) of 1748 ended the War of the Austrian Succession. Hyder Ali or Haidar 'Ali (c 1722 - 1782 was the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings The Kingdom of Mysore/State of Mysore (ಮೈಸೂರು ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ was both a Kingdom (1399-1799 CE and a Princely state (1799-1947 By the late 18th century, the British had conquered most of the region around Tamil Nadu and the northern modern-day states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, establishing the Madras Presidency with Madras as the capital. Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ pronounced) is a state in the southern part of India Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St  Under British rule, the city grew into a major urban centre and naval base.
With the advent of railways in India in the late 19th century, the thriving urban centre was connected to other important cities such as Bombay and Calcutta, promoting increased communication and trade with the hinterland. Victoria Public Hall is a historical building in Chennai. It is one of the finest examples of British architectures in Chennai See also Park Town Oxford, a street in North Oxford. Park Town is a suburb in the north of Chennai, India This article is about the technical workings and operations of railways in India which are run by the Indian Railways. Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial Madras was briefly under Portuguese and French rule during 16th & 18th century.
Madras was the only Indian city to be attacked by the Central Powers during World War I, when an oil depot was shelled by the German light cruiser SMS Emden on September 22, 1914, as it raided shipping lanes in the Indian Ocean, causing disruption to shipping. The Central Powers ( German: "Mittelmächte" Hungarian: "Központi hatalmak" Turkish: "İttifak World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All A light cruiser is a Warship. The term is a shortening of the phrase "light Armoured cruiser " describing a small ship that carried armour in the same way Early service The Emden was launched on 26 May 1908 and commissioned into the Kaiserliche Marine, Germany's Imperial Navy on Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface  After India gained its independence in 1947, the city became the capital of Madras State, renamed the state of Tamil Nadu in 1969. The term " Indian independence movement " is diffuse incorporating various national and regional campaigns agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant Madras State was the former name of the present day state of Tamil Nadu, India. The violent agitations of 1965 against the imposition of Hindi as the national language, marked a major shift in the political dynamics of the city and the whole state. Anti-Hindi agitation is a term used to describe the opposition of people of Tamil Nadu against the Indian Government's attempts to adopt Hindi as the sole Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is Dravidian parties have dominated state politics since 1967One of the earliest regional parties was the South Indian Welfare Association which was founded in 1916 
In 2004, an Indian Ocean tsunami lashed the shores of Chennai, killing many and permanently altering the coastline. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea Earthquake that occurred at 005853 UTC on December 26 2004 with an Epicentre off the west coast of 
Chennai is on the southeast coast of India in the northeast of Tamil Nadu on a flat coastal plain known as the Eastern Coastal Plains. Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. The Eastern Coastal Plains refer to a wide stretch of landmass of India, lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. Its average elevation is around 6. 7 metres (20 ft), and its highest point is 60 m (200 ft).  The Marina Beach runs for 12 km along the shoreline of the city. The Marina Beach is a beach situated along a 12 km shoreline in the city of Chennai, India along the Bay of Bengal, part of the Indian Ocean Two rivers meander through Chennai, the Cooum River (or Koovam) through the centre and the Adyar River to the south. The Cooum River, is the famous river which ends in the city of Chennai (formerly Madras in India on the Bay of Bengal. The Adyar River, originating from the Chembarambakkam Lake in Chengalpattu district is one of the two rivers which winds through Chennai, South India A third river, the Kortalaiyar, flows through the northern fringes of the city before draining into the sea at Ennore. Adyar and Cooum rivers are heavily polluted with effluents and waste from domestic and commercial sources. Effluent is an outflowing of water from a natural body of water or from a man-made structure WASTE is a Peer-to-peer and Friend-to-friend protocol and software application developed by Justin Frankel at Nullsoft in 2003 that features The state government periodically removes silt and pollution from the Adyar, which is much less polluted than the Cooum. Silt is Soil or rock derived Granular material of a Grain size between sand and clay Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Adyar may refer to Adyar (Tamil Nadu &mdash a locality in Chennai (Madras in the state of Tamil Nadu India Adyar River A protected estuary on the Adyar forms a natural habitat for several species of birds and animals. An estuary is a semi-enclosed Coastal body of Water with one or more Rivers or Streams flowing into it and with a free connection to the open A habitat (which is Latin for "it inhabits" is an Ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular Species.  The Buckingham Canal, 4 km (3 miles) inland, runs parallel to the coast, linking the two rivers. The Buckingham Canal is a 420 km long salt water navigation canal running parallel to the Coromandel Coast of South India from the Vijayawada The Otteri Nullah, an east-west stream, runs through north Chennai and meets the Buckingham Canal at Basin Bridge. The Otteri Nullah is an east-west waterway which runs through north Chennai, starting at the village of Mullam proceeding through Purasawalkam and then The Buckingham Canal is a 420 km long salt water navigation canal running parallel to the Coromandel Coast of South India from the Vijayawada Basin Bridge is the confluence of the Otteri Nullah and Buckingham Canal in Chennai, India. Several lakes of varying size are located on the western fringes of the city. Red Hills, Sholavaram and Chembarambakkam Lake supply Chennai with potable water. The Red Hills Lake, located in Ambattur Taluka of Thiruvallur district, Tamilnadu, South India, is one of the rain-fed reservoirs Sholavaram Lake, located in Ponneri Taluka of Thiruvallur district Tamilnadu, South India, is one of the rain-fed reservoirs from where Chembarambakkam Lake is located in Chengalpattu district about 40 km from Chennai, South India. Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used for drinking or not Groundwater sources are becoming brackish. Groundwater is Water located beneath the Ground surface in Soil pore spaces and in the Fractures of lithologic formations 
Chennai's soil is mostly clay, shale and sandstone. The Marina Beach is a beach situated along a 12 km shoreline in the city of Chennai, India along the Bay of Bengal, part of the Indian Ocean Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and Shale (also called mudstone) is a fine-grained Sedimentary rock whose original constituents were Clay minerals or Muds It is characterized by Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock composed mainly of Sand -size Mineral or rock grains.  Sandy areas are found along the river banks and coasts, such as Tiruvanmiyur, Adyar, Kottivakkam, Santhome, George Town, Tondiarpet and the rest of coastal Chennai. Thiruvanmiyur is a south-end place in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Once unknown this area is now an upcoming destination with Tidel Park being located nearby Adyar may refer to Adyar (Tamil Nadu &mdash a locality in Chennai (Madras in the state of Tamil Nadu India Adyar River WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Kottivakkam is a Census town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state Santhome is a locality in Chennai in India The word Santhome is derived from Saint Thomas, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ. Tondiarpet constitutes an important suburban region of Chennai city Here rainwater runoff percolates quickly through the soil. Surface runoff is a term used to describe when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess Water, from Rain, Snowmelt, or other sources flows In Physics, Chemistry and Materials science, percolation concerns also the movement and filtering of fluids through porous materials Clay underlies most of the city including T. Nagar, West Mambalam, Anna Nagar, Perambur and Virugambakkam. Thyagaraya Nagar (also spelled Tyagaraya Nagar, and abbreviated T West Mambalam (பைழய மாம்பலம் or ேமலமாம்பலம் in Tamil is a prime residential location in Chennai city next to commercial shopping area Anna Nagar is one of the expensive Residential localities in the metropolitan City of Chennai, India. Perambur, is a Suburb in North Chennai (the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu) in India and also the fourth largest city in India Virugambakkam is in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It's famous for Tamil filmaking and Teleserial artists Areas of hard rock include Guindy, Velachery, Adambakkam and a part of Saidapet. In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere Guindy ( Tamil: கிண்டி) is one of the important neighbourhoods of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Velachery, also known as Vedashreni, is a fast-developing residential area in South West Chennai, a metropolitan city in Tamil Nadu, India. Adambakkam (ஆதம்பாக்கம் is a Suburb of Chennai, a city situated on the east coast of the southern India. Saidapet is a locality of Chennai, India. Mambalam, TNagar, Guindy, Nandanam, K 
|Climate chart for Chennai|
|temperatures in °C • precipitation totals in mm|
source: Nirvana Tour
Chennai is divided into four parts: North, Central, South and West. North Chennai is primarily an industrial area. Central Chennai is the commercial heart of the city and includes an important business district, Parry's Corner. Parry's Corner is one of the Central business district in Chennai, India. South Chennai and West Chennai, previously mostly residential, are fast becoming commercial, home to a growing number of information technology firms, financial companies and call centres. Information technology ( IT) as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA is "the study design development implementation support A call centre or call center (see spelling differences) is a centralized office used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests by The city is expanding quickly along the Old Mahabalipuram Road and the Grand Southern Trunk Road (GST Road) in the south and towards Ambattur, Koyambedu and Sriperumbdur in the west. Rajiv Gandhi Salai, previously known as Old Mahabalipuram Road (OMR or IT Corridor is an important road in suburban Chennai, India, starting Grand Southern Trunk Road or National Highway 45 is one of the busiest Highways in southern India. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Ambattur is a major Municipality in Thiruvallur district in the state of Tamil Nadu Koyambedu is a vibrant area in the South Indian city of Chennai. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Sriperumpudur is a Panchayat town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian  Chennai is one of the few cities in the world that accommodates a national park, the Guindy National Park, within its limits. A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution Guindy National Park, A 282 km² (1 sq mi Protected area of Tamil Nadu, located in Chennai, South India, is the 8th smallest National Park of 
Chennai lies on the thermal equator and is also coastal, which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature. The thermal equator (also known as "the heat equator" is a belt encircling the Earth, defined by the set of locations having the highest Mean annual For most of the year, the weather is hot and humid. The hottest part of the year is late May and early June, known locally as Agni Nakshatram ("fire star") or as Kathiri Veyyil, with maximum temperatures around 38–42 °C (100–107 °F). The coolest part of the year is January, with minimum temperatures around 19–20 °C (66–68 °F). The lowest temperature recorded is 15. 8 °C (60. 44 °F) and highest 45 °C (113 °F).  The average annual rainfall is about 1,300 mm (51 inches). The city gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the north-east monsoon winds, from mid-September to mid-December. A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal sometimes hit the city. In Meteorology, a cyclone refers to an area of closed circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. Highest annual rainfall recorded is 2,570 mm (101 in) in 2005.  The most prevailing winds in Chennai are the South-westerly between May and September and the North-easterly during the rest of the year.
|City officials, as of September 2007|
|Mayor||Ma. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Subramanian|
|Deputy Mayor||R. Deputy mayor is an elective or appointive office of the second-ranking official in many local governments Sathya Bama|
|Corporation Commissioner||Rajesh Lakhoni|
|Commissioner of Police||R. Administration of Chennai is handled by the Corporation of Chennai, consisting of 155 councilors and headed by the city's Mayor. Police Commissioner (or Commissioner of Police) is the title of the chief officer of many law enforcement agencies. Sekar|
Chennai city is governed by the Corporation of Chennai, consisting of 155 councillors who represent 155 wards and are directly elected by the city's residents. Administration of Chennai is handled by the Corporation of Chennai, consisting of 155 councilors and headed by the city's Mayor. Chennai architecture is a confluence of many architectural styles The subdivisions of India are Indian subnational administrative units they compose a nested hierarchy of Country subdivisions Indian states and territories frequently Chennai Corporation (also known as the Corporation of Chennai) is the civic body that governs the city of Chennai, India. A councillor or councilor ( Cllr, Coun, Clr or Cr for short is a member of a Local government council such as a List of Corporation wards in the city of Chennai, India managed by the Corporation of Chennai See also Chennai Corporation From among themselves, the councillors elect a mayor and a deputy mayor who preside over about six standing committees.  Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu state, houses the state executive and legislative headquarters primarily in the Secretariat Buildings on the Fort St George campus but also in many other buildings scattered around the city. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation Fort St George (or historically White Town is the name of the first British fortress in India, founded in 1639 at the coastal city of Madras (modern The Madras High Court, whose jurisdiction extends across Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, is the highest judicial authority in the state and is also in the city. The Madras High Court, one of the Landmarks of the metropolis of Chennai, India, and believed to be the second largest judicial complex in the world Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. Puducherry (formerly; புதுச்சேரி or பாண்டிச்சேரி పాండిచెర్రి പുതുശ്ശേരി Pondichéry is a In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State Chennai has three parliamentary constituencies—Chennai North, Chennai Central and Chennai South—and elects 18 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) to the state legislature. The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is the federal and supreme Legislative body of India. A Member of Legislative Assembly, or MLA, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to the Legislature of a State in the Indian
The metropolitan region of Chennai covers many suburbs that are part of Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur districts. Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram is a city and a Municipality in Kanchipuram district in the Indian state of WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Tiruvallur is a temple town and a Municipality in Tiruvallur district in the Indian The larger suburbs are governed by town municipalities, and the smaller ones are governed by town councils called panchayats. The Panchayat is a South Asian Political system. ‘Panchayat’ literally means assembly ( yat) of five ( panch) wise and respected elders chosen While the city covers an area of 174 km² (67 mi²), the metropolitan area is spread over 1,189 km² (458 mi²).  The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) has drafted a Second Master Plan that aims to develop satellite townships around the city. The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority ( CMDA) is the nodal planning agency within the Chennai Metropolitan Area. The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority ( CMDA) is the nodal planning agency within the Chennai Metropolitan Area. Contiguous satellite towns include Mahabalipuram to the south, Chengalpattu and Maraimalai Nagar to the southwest, and Kanchipuram town, Sriperumpudur, Tiruvallur and Arakkonam to the west. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Mahabalipuram (மகாபலிபுரம் also known as Mamallapuram (மாமல்லபுரம் WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Chingleput or Chengalpattu is a and a Municipality in Kancheepuram district in the Maraimalai Nagar is a suburb of the southern Indian city of Chennai. Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram is a city and a Municipality in Kanchipuram district in the Indian state of WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Sriperumpudur is a Panchayat town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Tiruvallur is a temple town and a Municipality in Tiruvallur district in the Indian WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Arakkonam (also "Arkonam") (Tamil அரக்கோணம் is a mid-sized town in the
The Greater Chennai Police department, a division of the Tamil Nadu Police, is the law enforcement agency in the city. The Greater Chennai Police, a division of the Tamil Nadu Police, is the law enforcement agency for the city of Chennai in The Tamil Nadu Police Force is the law enforcing agency / department of the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The city police force is headed by a commissioner of police, and administrative control rests with the Tamil Nadu Home Ministry. Police Commissioner (or Commissioner of Police) is the title of the chief officer of many law enforcement agencies. The department consists of 36 subdivisions with a total of 121 police stations, of which 15 are ISO 9001:2000 certified. ISO 9000 is a family of standards for Quality management systems ISO 9000 is maintained by ISO the International Organization for Standardization and is  The city's traffic is managed by the Chennai City Traffic Police (CCTP). Chennai City Traffic Police or CCTP is a division of the Greater Chennai Police, which regulates traffic in the city of Chennai, India. The Metropolitan suburbs are policed by the Chennai Metropolitan Police, and outer district areas are policed by the Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur police departments. The Greater Chennai Police, a division of the Tamil Nadu Police, is the law enforcement agency for the city of Chennai in
The Corporation of Chennai and municipalities of the suburbs provide civic services. Garbage in most zones is handled by JBM Fanalca Environment Management, a private company, and by the Chennai Corporation in the other zones. Chennai Corporation (also known as the Corporation of Chennai) is the civic body that governs the city of Chennai, India. Water supply and sewage treatment are handled by the Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewage Board, popularly referred to as Metro Water. Administration of Chennai is handled by the Corporation of Chennai, consisting of 155 councilors and headed by the city's Mayor. Electricity is supplied by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board. Administration of Chennai is handled by the Corporation of Chennai, consisting of 155 councilors and headed by the city's Mayor.  The city's telephone service is provided by six mobile phone companies and four landline companies, which also provide broadband Internet access, along with Sify and Hathway. Sify Technologies Limited (formerly Sify Limited and Satyam Infoway Limited ( is an, established in 1998, based in Chennai, India. Hathway is a major Cable television service operator in India.
Historically, Chennai has relied on annual monsoon rains to replenish water reservoirs, as no major rivers flow through the area. A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months A reservoir is most broadly a place or hollow vessel where Fluid is kept in Reserve, for later use Steadily growing in population, the city has faced water supply shortages, and its ground water levels have been depleted. Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users Water Crisis is a term that refers to the status of the world’s Water resources relative to human demand An earlier Veeranam Lake project failed to solve the city's water problems, but the New Veeranam project, which became operational in September 2004, has greatly reduced dependency on distant sources. Veeranam Lake is located 14 kilometres SSW of Chidambaram in Cuddalore district in the state of Tamil Nadu in South India.  In recent years, heavy and consistent monsoon rains and rainwater harvesting (RWH) by Chennai Metrowater at its Anna Nagar Rain Centre have significantly reduced water shortages. Rainwater harvesting is the gathering or accumulating and storing of rainwater Anna Nagar is one of the expensive Residential localities in the metropolitan City of Chennai, India.  Moreover, newer projects like the Telugu Ganga project that bring water from water-surplus rivers like the Krishna River in Andhra Pradesh have eased water shortages. The Telugu Ganga project is a water supply scheme implemented in South India, to provide drinking water to Chennai city in Tamil Nadu. This article is about an Indian river For other meanings of this river names see Krishna (disambiguation and Krishnaveni. The city is constructing sea water desalination plants to further increase the water supply. Desalination, desalinization, or desalinisation refers to any of several processes that remove excess salt and other Minerals from Water 
Chennai has a diversified economic base anchored by the automobile, software services, hardware manufacturing, healthcare and financial services industries. Chennai has a diversified economic base anchored by the Automobile, Software services medical tourism Hardware manufacturing and Financial services. The south Indian city of Chennai is fast emerging as a destination for Information technology Outsourcing and has seen a growing number of IT parks being Parry's Corner is one of the Central business district in Chennai, India.  As of 2000, the city's total personal income was Rs. Total personal income is defined by the United States ' Bureau of Economic Analysis as income received by persons from all sources The rupee (रुपया ( code: INR) is the Currency of India. 12,488. 83 crores, making up 10. A crore is a unit in the Indian numbering system and was formerly a unit in the Persian numbering system still widely used in Bangladesh, India, Maldives 9% of the total income of Tamil Nadu.  In 2001, the total workforce in Chennai was about 1. 5 million, which was 31. 79% of its population. According to the 1991 census, most of the city's workforce was involved in trade (25. 65%), manufacturing (23. 52%), transportation (10. 72%), construction (6. 3%) and other services (31. 8%). Chennai metropolitan area accounts for over 75% of the sales tax revenue in the state. 
The city is base to around 30% of India's automobile industry and 35% of its auto components industry.  A large number of automotive companies including Hyundai, Ford, BMW, Mitsubishi, The TVS Group (TVS), Ashok Leyland, Nissan-Renault, TI Cycles of India, TAFE Tractors, Royal Enfield, Caterpillar, Caparo and Madras Rubber Factory (MRF), have manufacturing plants in and around Chennai. The Hyundai Motor Company, a division of the Hyundai Kia Automotive Group, is South Korea ’s largest and the world’s fifth largest automaker in terms of units Ford Motor Company is an American Multinational corporation and the world's fourth largest automaker based on Worldwide vehicle sales, following ( BMW) (Bavarian Motor Works is an independent German automobile manufacturer founded in 1916 is the sixth largest Automaker in Japan and the seventeenth largest in the world by global unit sales Ashok Leyland ( NSE: ASHOKLEY BSE: 500477 is a commercial vehicle manufacturing company based in Chennai, India. This is about the company for other uses see Renault (disambiguation. TI Cycles of India (Tube Investments)is one of the leading Bicycle manufacturers in India. TAFE Tractors is an Indian manufacturer of Tractors and other Farm equipment, managed by Mallika Srinivasan with its corporate headquarters in Chennai See also Royal Enfield Motors Royal Enfield was the brand of the Enfield Cycle Company an English Engineering company. Caterpillars are the Larval form of a member of the order Lepidoptera (the Insect order comprising butterflies and Moths The Caparo T1 is a British mid-engine rear-wheel drive, two-seat Automobile built by Caparo Vehicle Technologies, founded by design director Madras Rubber Factory, or MRF is a major manufacturing company located in Chennai, India. The Heavy Vehicles Factory at Avadi produces military vehicles, including India's main battle tank: Arjun MBT. The Heavy Vehicles Factory (HVF Avadi, is located in proximity to Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Avadi is a town and a Municipality in Thiruvallur district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Arjun ( Sanskrit: अर्जुन) is an Indian Main battle tank being developed by DRDO (Defence Research and Development for the The Integral Coach Factory manufactures railway coaches and other rolling stock for Indian Railways. Started in 1952 the Integral Coach Factory (ICF is located in Perambur, a suburb near Chennai, India. This very industrial expanse has given the name to Chennai as being the "Detroit of Southern Asia".  The Ambattur-Padi industrial zone houses many textile manufacturers, and an SEZ for apparel and footwear manufacture has been set up in the southern suburbs of the city. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Ambattur is a major Municipality in Thiruvallur district in the state of Tamil Nadu  Chennai contributes more than 50% of India's leather exports. 
The city is an electronics manufacturing hub where multinational corporations like Dell, Nokia, Motorola, Samsung, Flextronics and Foxconn have set up electronics and hardware manufacturing plants, mainly in the Sriperumbudur Special Economic Zone (SEZ). The multinational technology company Dell Inc develops manufactures sells and supports Personal computers and other computer-related products Nokia Corporation (pronunciation /'nɔkiɑ/),,) is a Finnish multinational Communications Corporation, headquartered Motorola Inc ( is an American, multinational Fortune 100, Telecommunications company based in Schaumburg Illinois. The Samsung Group ( Korean:, Samsung Guerup) is South Korea 's largest company or Chaebol and the world's largest conglomerate Foxconn (富士康 is the Trade name of the Taiwan based firm Hon Hai Precision Industry Co WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Sriperumpudur is a Panchayat town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian A Special Economic Zone ( SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country's typical economic laws A Special Economic Zone ( SEZ) is a geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country's typical economic laws Many software and software services companies have development centres in Chennai, which contributed 14% of India's total software exports of Rs. 144,214 crores during 2006–07, making it the second-largest exporter of software in the country, behind Bangalore. Bangalore ( officially Bengaluru ( Kannada: ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು) is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.  Prominent financial institutions, including the World Bank, HSBC, Citi bank have back office operations in the city. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e HSBC Holdings plc ( (,,,) is a Public limited company incorporated in England and Wales, headquartered in London. Citibank is a major international Bank, founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York, later First National City Bank of New York. A back office is a part of most Corporations where tasks dedicated to running the company itself take place  Chennai is home to three large national level commercial banks and many state level co-operative banks, finance and insurance companies. Some of India's well-known healthcare institutions such as Apollo Hospitals (the largest private healthcare provider in Asia), Sankara Nethralaya and Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre are based in the city, making it one of the preferred destinations for medical tourists from across the globe. Sankara Nethralaya is a not-for-profit missionary institution for Ophthalmic care (i Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute (SRMC & RI now named as Sri Ramachandra University (SRU is a university situated in Porur, Chennai Medical tourism (also called medical travel, health tourism or global healthcare is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the Mass media  Telecom giants Ericsson and Alcatel-Lucent, pharmaceuticals giant Pfizer and chemicals giant Dow Chemicals have research and development facilities in Chennai. Ericsson ( Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson) () one of the largest Swedish companies is a leading provider of telecommunication and data communication systems Alcatel-Lucent is one of the world's biggest industry players in Telecommunications that provides hardware software and services to Service Providers Enterprises and Pfizer Incorporated ( is a major Pharmaceutical company, which ranks number one in the world in sales The Dow Chemical Company () is an American Multinational corporation headquartered in Midland Michigan. TICEL bio-tech park and Golden Jubilee bio-tech park at Siruseri house biotechnology companies and laboratories. Siruseri is a suburb of Chennai, India in Kancheepuram district Tamil Nadu located a 30 km south of the city along Old Mahabalipuram Road. Chennai has a fully computerised stock exchange called the Madras Stock Exchange. The Madras Stock Exchange is a Stock exchange in Chennai, India (formerly Madras
A resident of Chennai is called a Chennaiite. As of 2001, Chennai city had a population of 4. 34 million, while the total metropolitan population was 7. 04 million.  The estimated metropolitan population in 2006 is 4. 5 million.  In 2001, the population density in the city was 24,682 per km² (9,534 per mi²), while the population density of the metropolitan area was 5,922 per km² (2,287 mi²), making it one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume  The sex ratio is 951 females for every 1,000 males, slightly higher than the national average of 934. In Anthropology and Demography, the human sex ratio is the Sex ratio for Homo sapiens (i  The average literacy rate is 80. 14%, much higher than the national average of 64. 5%. The city has the fourth highest population of slum dwellers among major cities in India, with about 820,000 people (18. 6% of its population) living in slum conditions.  This number represents about 5% of the total slum population of India. In 2005, the crime rate in the city was 313. 3 per 100,000 people, accounting for 6. 2% of all crimes reported in major cities in India.  The number of crimes in the city showed a significant increase of 61. 8% from 2004. 
The majority of the population in Chennai are Tamilians and Tamil is the primary language spoken in Chennai. Tamil people (also called Tamils or Tamilians) ( are an Ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, a state in India, and the north-eastern Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. English is widely spoken especially in business, education and white collar professions. Indian English comprises several Dialects or varieties of English spoken primarily in India, and by first-generation members of the Indian diaspora White-collar worker refers to a salaried professional or an educated Worker who performs semi-professional office administrative and sales coordination tasks as opposed to Sizeable Telugu and Malayalee communities live in the city. Telugu people refer to the group of peoples who natively speak the Telugu language. The Malayali people (also spelled Malayalee; Malayalam: മലയാളി are the inhabitants of Kerala or their descendants  Chennai also has a large migrant population, who come from other parts of Tamil Nadu and the rest of the country. As of 2001, out of the 937,000 migrants (21. 57% of its population) in the city, 74. 5% were from other parts of the state, 23. 8% were from rest of India and 1. 7% were from outside the country.  According to the 2001 census, Hindus constitute about 82. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical 27% of the city's population, and Muslims (8. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion 37%), Christians (7. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth 63%) and Jains (1. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. 05%) are other major religious groups. 
Chennai's culture reflects its diverse population. Bharatanatyam (பரதநாட்டியம்is a classical Dance form originating in Tamil Nadu, Popularly called the "Gateway to the South" Chennai culture is distinctly different from that of any other city in India Tamil Nadu is famous for its hospitality and its deep belief that serving food to others is a service to humanity as is common in many regions of India The city is known for its classical dance shows and Hindu temples. Every December, Chennai holds a five-week long Music Season celebrating the 1927 opening of the Madras Music Academy. Every December the city of Chennai in India has its five week-long Music Season which has been described as the world's largest cultural event. Madras Music Academy, or simply Music Academy, is one of the premier and early Music Academies in the South Indian city of Madras, now Chennai  It features performances (kutcheries) of traditional Carnatic music by hundreds of artists in and around the city. Carnatic music (also spelled Karnatak music or Karnatik music, and originally called Karṇāṭaka sangīta or Karṇāṭaka sangītam in India An arts festival called the Chennai Sangamam, which showcases various arts of Tamil Nadu is held in January every year. Chennai is also known for Bharatanatyam, a classical dance form that originated in Tamil Nadu. Bharatanatyam (பரதநாட்டியம்is a classical Dance form originating in Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. An important cultural centre for Bharatanatyam is Kalakshetra, on the beach in the south of the city. Bharatanatyam (பரதநாட்டியம்is a classical Dance form originating in Tamil Nadu, Kalakshetra is a cultural academy for preservation of traditional values in Indian art, especially in the field of dance and music, founded in January 
Chennai is the base for the large Tamil movie industry, dubbed Kollywood after Kodambakkam, home to most of the movie studios. Tamil cinema or Kollywood ( Tamil: கோலிவுட் kōlivūṭ) is the English name of the popular Tamil Film Industry based in the Kodambakkam ( Tamil:) is a locality in Chennai, India. Traditionally Kodambakkam has been synonymous with the Tamil film industry and is known for  The industry makes more than 150 Tamil movies a year, and its soundtracks dominate the city's music. Chennai's theatres stage many Tamil plays; political satire, slapstick comedy, history, mythology and drama are among the popular genres.  English plays are also staged in the city.
Among Chennai's festivals, Pongal, celebrated over five days in January, is the most important. Thai Pongal (தைப்பொங்கல் is a Harvest festival equivalent to a Thanksgiving event celebrated by Tamils across the world Tamil New Year's Day, signifying the beginning of the Tamil year, usually falls on April 14. }The Tamil Calendar is used in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Puducherry in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Events 43 BC - Battle of Forum Gallorum: Mark Antony, besieging Julius Caesar 's assassin Decimus Junius Brutus in Almost all major religious festivals such as Deepavali, Eid and Christmas are celebrated in Chennai. Diwali, or Deepavali, (also called Tihar and Swanti in Nepal (Markiscarali is a major Indian and Nepalese festival and a significant Eid ul-Fitr or Id-ul-Fitr (عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiṭr) often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim Holiday that marks the end of Tamil cuisine in Chennai includes vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Many of the city's restaurants offer light meals or tiffin, which usually include rice-based dishes like pongal, dosai, idli and vadai, served with steaming hot filter coffee. In South India, especially in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, and in Nepal, the term Tiffin is generally used to mean an in-between-meals snack Pongal is a popular rice based South Indian dish There are two varieties of pongal namely sakarai pongal (sweet pongal kara pongal (spicy pongal Preparation Regular dosa batter is made from Rice and split skinned Urad bean (black lentil blended with water and left to ferment overnight History Although the precise history of the modern idli is unknown it is a very old food in southern Indian cuisine A vadai - Tamil வடை- Malayalam വട - (also vada, wada, vade) pronounced 'vah-daa' 'vah-dey' or 'vah-die' is a savoury snack from South South Indian Coffee also known as Madras Filter Coffee or kaapi (Tamil phonetic rendering of "coffee' is a sweet milky coffee made from dark roasted Coffee
The Chennai International Airport, comprising the Anna International Airport and the Kamaraj Domestic Airport, handles domestic as well as international flights and is the third busiest airport in India. Chennai International Airport ( சென்னை பன்னாட்டு விமான நிலையம்) is located in Meenambakkam, south of  The city is connected to major hubs in South Asia, South East Asia, the Middle East, Europe and North America through more than 30 national and international carriers. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The airport is the second busiest cargo terminus in the country. The existing airport is undergoing further modernisation and expansion, and a new greenfield airport is to be constructed at an estimated cost of Rs 2,000 crore in Sriperumbudur. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Sriperumpudur is a Panchayat town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian 
The city is served by two major ports, Chennai Port, one of the largest artificial ports, and Ennore Port. Chennai Port is the second largest port of India, behind the Mumbai Port. A Mulberry harbour was a type of temporary Harbour developed in World War II to offload cargo on the beaches during the Allied invasion of Normandy. Ennore Port, located about 24 km north of Chennai Port, Chennai, India is the 12th major port of India, and the first port in The Chennai port is India's second busiest container hub, handling automobiles, motorcycles and general industrial cargo. The Ennore Port handles cargo such as coal, ore and other bulk and rock mineral products. Ennore Port, located about 24 km north of Chennai Port, Chennai, India is the 12th major port of India, and the first port in An ore is a volume of rock containing components or Minerals in a mode of occurrence that renders it valuable for mining  A smaller harbour at Royapuram is used by local fishing boats and trawlers. Royapuram, a locality of Chennai, South India, is the place where the first railway station of south India was constructed and from where the laying down
Chennai is well connected to other parts of India by road and rail. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Five major national highways radiate outward towards Mumbai, Kolkata, Trichy, Tiruvallur and Pondicherry. Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Tiruchirappalli ( Tamil: தி௫ச்சிராப்பள்ளி also spelled Tiruchirapalli WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Tiruvallur is a temple town and a Municipality in Tiruvallur district in the Indian Puducherry (formerly; புதுச்சேரி or பாண்டிச்சேரி పాండిచెర్రి പുതുശ്ശേരി Pondichéry is a  The Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus (CMBT), the terminus for all intercity buses from Chennai, is the largest bus station in Asia. The Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus or CMBT is a bus terminal in Chennai, India catering outstation Buses Spread over an area The Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus or CMBT is a bus terminal in Chennai, India catering outstation Buses Spread over an area  Seven government-owned transport corporations operate inter-city and inter-state bus services. Many private inter-city and inter-state bus companies also operate services to and from Chennai.
The city has two main railway terminals. For the proposed metro see Chennai Metro MRTS is an Initialism for Mass Rapid Transit System usually referring Chennai Central station, the city's largest, provides access to trains to major cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram and Coimbatore as well as to smaller towns across India. Chennai Central Railway Station in Chennai is the home to the Southern Railways and the most important rail hub in South India. Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial Bangalore ( officially Bengaluru ( Kannada: ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು) is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Delhi (दिल्ली ਦਿੱਲੀ دلی d̪ɪlːiː sometimes referred to as Dilli) is the second largest metropolis of India, with a population Thiruvananthapuram ( Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം Tiruvanantapuraṁ) also known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the Coimbatore (கோயம்புத்தூர் also known as Kovai (கோவை is a major industrial city in India and the second largest city in the  Chennai Egmore is a terminus for trains traveling primarily within Tamil Nadu; it also handles a few inter-state trains. Chennai Egmore is a railway station in Egmore, Chennai, South India. 
Buses, trains, and auto rickshaws are the most common form of public transport within the city. An auto rickshaw or tuk tuk ( auto autorick or rickshaw in popular parlance is a Motor vehicle that is one of the chief
The Chennai suburban railway network consists of four broad gauge rail sectors terminating at two locations in the city, namely Chennai Central and Chennai Beach. The Metropolitan Transport Corporation (formerly known as Pallavan Transport Corporation Ltd Chennai suburban railway is a Commuter rail system in the Indian city of Chennai operated by the Southern Railway. Broad gauge Railways use a Rail gauge (distance between the rails greater than the Standard gauge of. Chennai Central Railway Station in Chennai is the home to the Southern Railways and the most important rail hub in South India. See also Marina Beach, the beach in Chennai Chennai Beach is a train terminus of the Southern Railway Network in Chennai, India Regular services are offered in the following sectors from these terminii: Chennai Central/Chennai Beach - Arakkonam - Tiruttani, Chennai Central/Chennai Beach – Gummidipoondi - Sullurpeta and Chennai Beach – Tambaram - Chengalpattu - Tirumalpur(Kanchipuram). Chennai Central Railway Station in Chennai is the home to the Southern Railways and the most important rail hub in South India. See also Marina Beach, the beach in Chennai Chennai Beach is a train terminus of the Southern Railway Network in Chennai, India WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Arakkonam (also "Arkonam") (Tamil அரக்கோணம் is a mid-sized town in the Tiruttani Murugan Temple Chennai Central Railway Station in Chennai is the home to the Southern Railways and the most important rail hub in South India. See also Marina Beach, the beach in Chennai Chennai Beach is a train terminus of the Southern Railway Network in Chennai, India WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Gummidipoondi is an industrial town in Thiruvallur district in the Indian state of WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Sullurpeta or Sulurpet is a town in Nellore district in Andhra Pradesh state See also Marina Beach, the beach in Chennai Chennai Beach is a train terminus of the Southern Railway Network in Chennai, India WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Tambaram is a suburb of Chennai situated 27 km south of the city in Tamil Nadu WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Chingleput or Chengalpattu is a and a Municipality in Kancheepuram district in the Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram is a city and a Municipality in Kanchipuram district in the Indian state of The fourth sector is an elevated Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) which links Chennai Beach to Velachery and is interlinked with the remaining rail network. For the proposed metro see Chennai Metro MRTS is an Initialism for Mass Rapid Transit System usually referring For the proposed metro see Chennai Metro MRTS is an Initialism for Mass Rapid Transit System usually referring See also Marina Beach, the beach in Chennai Chennai Beach is a train terminus of the Southern Railway Network in Chennai, India Velachery, also known as Vedashreni, is a fast-developing residential area in South West Chennai, a metropolitan city in Tamil Nadu, India. The city has plans for an underground Metro. See also Chennai MRTS, a first generation metro system in Chennai 
The Metropolitan Transport Corporation (MTC) runs an extensive city bus system consisting of 3,084 buses on 626 routes and transports an estimated 4. The Metropolitan Transport Corporation (formerly known as Pallavan Transport Corporation Ltd The Metropolitan Transport Corporation (formerly known as Pallavan Transport Corporation Ltd 03 million passengers daily.  Vans, popularly known as Maxi Cabs and 'share' auto rickshaws ply many routes in the city and provide an alternative to buses. Metered call taxis, tourist taxis and auto rickshaws are also available on hire. A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of Public transport for a single passenger or small group of passengers typically for a non-shared ride Chennai's transportation infrastructure provides coverage and connectivity, but growing use has caused traffic congestion and pollution. The government has tried to address these problems by constructing flyovers at major intersections, starting with the Gemini flyover, built in 1973 over the most important arterial road, Anna Salai. An overpass (called a flyover in the UK and most Commonwealth countries is a Bridge, Road, Railway or Anna Flyover (also known as Gemini Flyover) lies in the heart of Chennai. Anna Salai, formerly known as Mount Road, is the most important Arterial road in Chennai, India. 
Newspaper publishing started in Chennai with the launch of a weekly, The Madras Courier, in 1785. Chennai has many print television and radio networks that dominate its mass media market See also List of Indian television stations This is a list of television stations in the Tamil language  It was followed by the weeklies The Madras Gazzette and The Government Gazzette in 1795. The Spectator, founded in 1836, was the first English newspaper in Chennai to be owned by an Indian and became the city's first daily newspaper in 1853.  The first Tamil newspaper, Swadesamitran, was launched in 1899. 
The major English dailies published in Chennai are The Hindu, The New Indian Express, The Deccan Chronicle and The Times of India recently joined the list. The Hindu is a single-edition English-language Indian newspaper The New Indian Express is a newspaper with its head office based in Chennai India The Deccan Chronicle is an English language Newspaper simultaneously published in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in The Times of India ( TOI) is a leading English-language Broadsheet Daily newspaper in India. The evening dailies are, The Trinity Mirror and The News Today. The News Today is an English evening daily Newspaper in Chennai, India. As of 2004, The Hindu was the city's most read English newspaper, with a daily circulation of 267,349.  The major business dailies published from the city are The Economic Times, The Hindu Business Line, Business Standard, and The Financial Express. The Economic Times, launched in 1961 is India's largest financial daily and the world's second largest financial daily after The Wall Street Journal, Business Line or The Hindu Business Line is an Indian business Newspaper published by Kasturi and Sons the publishers of the newspaper Business Standard is a financial daily from Business Standard Ltd (BSL The Financial Express is a daily newspaper published by the Indian Express group since 1961 The major Tamil dailies include the Dina Thanthi, Dinakaran, Dina Mani, Dina Malar, Tamil Murasu, Makkal Kural and Malai Malar and major Telugu dailies include Eenandu, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi and Sakshi . Dina Thanthi (or Dina Thandi) or "Daily Thanti" is daily Tamil Newspaper in Chennai, Coimbatore, Dinakaran is daily Tamil Newspaper published from the major cities in Tamil Nadu, India. Dina Mani or "Daily Mani" is daily Tamil Newspaper in Chennai and Coimbatore, India. Dinamalar (literally daily bloom) Tamil daily was launched at Thiruvanthapuram on 6 September 1951 Tamil Murasu (தமிழ் முரசு is a Singapore based Tamil language newspaper Makkal Kural is a Tamil daily Newspaper, started in 1973 by M Malai Malar is daily evening Tamil Newspaper in Chennai and Coimbatore, India.  Neighbourhood newspapers such as The Annanagar Times and The Adyar Times cater to particular localities. Magazines published from Chennai include Ananda Vikatan, Kumudam, Kalki, Kungumam, Swathi (Telugu magazine), Frontline and Sportstar. Ananda Vikatan ஆனந்த விகடன் is the leading Tamil language weekly magazine published from Chennai, India. Kumudam is a Tamil language weekly magazines published in Chennai, India The group also publishes other Tamil magazines including Kumudam Kungumam is a Tamil weekly Magazine published in Chennai, India. Frontline ( is a Fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India. Sportstar is a popular weekly sports magazine published in India by the publishers of The Hindu.
Doordarshan runs two terrestrial television channels and two satellite television channels from its Chennai centre, which was set up in 1974. Doordarshan (दूरदर्शन literally Tele-Vision) is the public television broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati, a public Terrestrial television is a term which refers to modes of television broadcasting which do not involve satellite transmission Satellite television is Television delivered by the means of Communications satellites as compared to conventional Terrestrial television and Cable Private Tamil satellite television networks like Sun TV, Raj TV][Raj Digital Plus, Star Vijay, Jaya TV, Makkal TV and Kalaignar TV broadcast out of Chennai. Sun TV is a regional Tamil language Indian Cable television station Raj Network is one of the major Tamil language Satellite television networks based in Chennai, India. Jaya TV is one of the major Tamil language Satellite television channels based in Chennai, India. Astro is a Subscription -based Direct broadcast satellite (DBS or Direct-to-home Satellite television and radio service Kalaignar TV is one of the Tamil language satellite television channel based in Chennai, India. The Sun Network one of India's largest broadcasting companies is based in the city. Sun TV Network is a Rs 16000-crore (4 Billion $ Indian Cable television network based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India While SCV and Hathway are the major cable TV service providers, Direct-to-home (DTH) is available via DD Direct Plus, Dish TV, Tata Sky and Sun Direct. Direct broadcast satellite (DBS is a term used to refer to Satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception also referred to more broadly as direct-to-home DD Direct Plus is a free Direct to Home (DTH service that provides Satellite television and audio programming to households and businesses in the Not to be confused with the American service Dish Network. Dish TV is India’s first direct to home entertainment service Tata Sky is a DTH satellite television provider in India,using MPEG-2 digital compression technology transmitting using INSAT 4A at 83  Chennai is the first city in India to have implemented the Conditional Access System for cable television. A conditional access system (CAS is a system by which electronic transmission of Digital media, especially Satellite television signals through cable is limited  Radio broadcasting started from the radio station at the Rippon Buildings complex, founded in 1930 and was then shifted to All India Radio in 1938. All India Radio (abbreviated as AIR) officially known as Akashvani ( Devanagari: आकाशवाणी ākāshavānī ( Urdu: اکاشوانی  The city has two AM and ten FM radio stations, operated by Anna University, All India Radio and private broadcasters. Amplitude modulation ( AM) is a technique used in electronic communication most commonly for transmitting information via a Radio Carrier wave Anna University (அண்ணா பல்கலைக்கழகம் is one of India 's premier engineering universities All India Radio (abbreviated as AIR) officially known as Akashvani ( Devanagari: आकाशवाणी ākāshavānī ( Urdu: اکاشوانی .
Schools in Chennai are either run publicly by the Tamil Nadu government or privately, some with financial aid from the government. Chennai is home to many well known educational and research institutions Schools in Chennai are either run publicly by the Tamil Nadu government or run privately some with financial aid from the government Structure There are broadly four stages of school education in India namely primary upper primary secondary and higher secondary (or High school) Anna University (அண்ணா பல்கலைக்கழகம் is one of India 's premier engineering universities  The medium of education is either English or Tamil. Most schools are affiliated with the Tamil Nadu State Board, the Matriculation Board or the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education, established in 1910 is under the purview of the Department of Education Governemnt of Tamil Nadu India.  A few schools are affiliated with the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) board, Anglo-Indian board or the Montessori system. The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education ( ICSE) examination is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations for The Montessori method is an educational method for children based on theories of Child development originated by Italian educator Maria Montessori (1870-1952 Schooling begins at the age of three with two years of kindergarten followed by ten years of primary and secondary education. Students then need to complete two years of higher secondary education in either science or commerce before being eligible for college education in a general or professional field of study.  There are 1,389 schools in the city, out of which 731 are primary, 232 are secondary and 426 are higher secondary schools. 
The Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT Madras) and Anna University are two well known centres for engineering education in the city; most city colleges that offer engineering programs are affiliated with Anna University. The Indian Institute of Technology Madras ( IIT Madras) is an elite engineering and technology school located in Chennai (formerly Madras in southern Anna University (அண்ணா பல்கலைக்கழகம் is one of India 's premier engineering universities Anna University (அண்ணா பல்கலைக்கழகம் is one of India 's premier engineering universities Madras Medical College (MMC), Stanley Medical College (SMC), Kilpauk Medical College and Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute (SRMC) are the notable medical colleges in Chennai. The Madras Medical College is a prominent educational institution located in Chennai, India. Stanley Medical College (SMC is a government medical college with hospitals located in Chennai (Madras in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute (SRMC & RI now named as Sri Ramachandra University (SRU is a university situated in Porur, Chennai
Colleges for science, arts and commerce degrees are typically affiliated with the University of Madras, which has three campuses in the city; some colleges such as Madras Christian College, Loyola College and The New College are autonomous. The University of Madras is one of the three oldest Universities in India (along with the University of Calcutta and the University of Mumbai The Madras Christian College in Chennai, South India, is one of the oldest colleges in Asia and was established in 1837 Loyola College is a Jesuit college in Chennai, India. It is among the elite colleges in India presently ranked at no The New College (புதுக்கல்லூரி is an institute of higher education in Chennai, South India. Research institutions like the Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), the Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI) and the Institute for Financial Management and Research (IFMR) are in the city. Central Leather Research Institute or CLRI is the world's largest leather research institute Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI headquartered at Pilani Rajasthan is a pioneer Research Institute in India and a contituent laboratory of Council The Institute for Financial Management and Research ( IFMR) Chennai is a leading business school with the objective of molding bright and ambitious young managers into effective The Connemara Public Library is one of four National Depository Centres in India that receive a copy of all newspapers and books published in India. Connemara Public Library at Chennai is one of the four National Depository libraries which receive a copy of all books newspapers and periodicals published in A National Depository Centre is a Public library in India which receives a copy of all books newspapers and periodicals published in the country  It has been declared a UNESCO information centre. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 
Cricket is the most popular sport in Chennai. Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries  The M.A. Chidambaram Stadium (MAC) in Chepauk is one of the oldest cricket stadiums in India. The M A Chidambaram Stadium is a cricket stadium in Chennai (formerly Madras India, named after M Chepauk is a locality in Chennai (Madras in India. The name Chepauk is popularly used to refer to the M  The Chemplast Cricket Ground on the IIT Madras campus is another important venue hosting first class matches. The Chemplast Cricket Ground in the IIT Madras campus is an important cricket venue and is described by cricketer Sachin Tendulkar as the most scenic in the country The Indian Institute of Technology Madras ( IIT Madras) is an elite engineering and technology school located in Chennai (formerly Madras in southern Prominent cricketers from the city include former Test-captains S. Venkataraghavan and Kris Srikkanth. Srinivasaraghavan Venkataraghavan, also known by his Nickname of Venkat, (born 21 April 1945 in Madras) was formerly a Cricketer  A cricket fast bowling academy, the MRF Pace Foundation, whose coaches include Dennis Lillee, is based in Chennai. MRF Pace Foundation is a coaching clinic for training fast bowlers from all over the world Dennis Keith Lillee, MBE (born 18 July 1949 in Subiaco, Western Australia) is a former Australian Cricketer rated as the "outstanding fast  Chennai is home to the Indian Premier League cricket team, the Chennai Super Kings. The Indian Premier League (also known as the " DLF Indian Premier League" and often abbreviated as IPL) is a Twenty20 Cricket competition Chennai Super Kings is the Chennai based franchise of the Indian Premier League. Chennai is also home to the Indian Cricket League team, the Chennai Superstars, who won the first ever ICL 20s championship and the ICL Domestic 50s. The Indian Cricket League (ICL is a private Cricket league that runs parallel to the Indian Premier League (IPL managed by BCCI. Chennai Superstars is one of the eight teams playing in the Indian Cricket League (ICL founded in 2007 
Chennai has produced popular tennis players such as Vijay Amritraj and Ramesh Krishnan and is host to an Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) event, the Chennai Open. The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional Tennis players The Chennai Open has been India's largest Tennis event since 1997. Vijay Amritraj ( Tamil: விஜய் அமிர்தராஜ் born December 14, 1953) is a former Indian Tennis player sports commentator Ramesh Krishnan ரமேஷ் கிருஷ்ணன் (born 5 June 1961, in Madras, India) is a Tennis coach and The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional Tennis players The Chennai Open has been India's largest Tennis event since 1997.  The city is home to a Premier Hockey League (PHL) team, the Chennai Veerans, and has hosted many hockey tournaments such as the Asia Cup and the Men's Champions Trophy. The Premier Hockey League (PHL is a professional league competition for Field Hockey clubs in the top division of the Indian hockey system The Chennai Veerans are a Tier-1 level Field hockey team Premiere Hockey League in India. Field hockey is a Team sport in which players attempt to score goals by hitting the Ball across the pitch with a stick The Hockey Champions Trophy is the International Hockey Federation 's most prestigious annual event (since 1980)  The Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium is regarded by the International Hockey Federation as one of the best in the world for its state-of-the-art infrastructure. Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium is a Field hockey stadium at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. The International Hockey Federation ( Fédération Internationale de Hockey sur Gazon, or FIH) is the global governing body for the Sport of Field hockey Football and athletic competitions are held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, which also houses a multi-purpose indoor complex for competition in volleyball, basketball and table tennis. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium is a Chennai stadium and seats 40000 Water sports are played in the Velachery Aquatic Complex. The Velachery Aquatic Complex is a stadium in Chennai, India and seats 4000 Chennai was the venue of the South Asian Games (SAF Games) in 1995. South Asian Games (also known as SAF Games or SAG & formerly known as South Asian Federation Games) are a bi-annual Multi-sport event held among  Auto racing in India has been closely connected with Chennai since its beginnings shortly after independence. Motor racing events are held on a special purpose track in Irungattukottai, Sriperumbudur, which has also been the venue for several international competitions. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Sriperumpudur is a Panchayat town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian  Horse racing is held at the Guindy Race Course, while rowing competitions are hosted at the Madras Boat Club. The Guindy Race Course is a Horse racing course set up in 1777 in Chennai, India. History The Madras Boat Club located in the South of India in the historic city of Chennai is over a hundred and forty one years old The city has two 18-hole golf courses, the Cosmopolitan Club and the Gymkhana Club, both established in the late nineteenth century. The Cosmopolitan Club is one of the three 18-hole Golf courses in Chennai, India. The Gymkhana Club is one of the two 18-hole Golf courses in Chennai, India. Viswanathan Anand, the chess World champion and the world's top ranked chess player as of October 2007, grew up in Chennai. Viswanathan Anand (ʋiɕˈʋəˌnɑˌt̪ʰən ɑnˌənd̪ விசுவநாதன் ஆனந்த் (born December 11, 1969) is an Indian   
Other athletes of repute from Chennai include table tennis players Sharath Kamal and two-time world carrom champion, Maria Irudayam. Achanta Sharath Kamal ( Telugu: అచంత సరత్ కమల్ (born 12 July, 1982) is a professional Table tennis player from Carrom or carroms is a family of Tabletop games sharing a similarity in that their mechanics lie somewhere between Billiards and Table shuffleboard A Maria Irudayam (born 1956 is a two-time World Carrom Champion and nine-time national champion of India.  The city has a rugby union team called the Chennai Cheetahs. Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short 
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