This article uses algebraic notation to describe chess moves. Algebraic chess notation is used to record and describe the moves in a game of Chess.
The black king has been checkmated; the game is over.

Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in chess (and in other boardgames of the chaturanga family) in which one player's king is threatened with capture (in check) and there is no way to meet that threat. Chess is a recreational and competitive Game played between two players. A board game is a Game in which counters or pieces that are placed on removed from or moved across a "board" (a premarked surface usually specific to that game This article is about two-handed ancient game Chaturanga For the four-handed version played with dice see Chaturaji. In Chess, the King (♔ ♚ is the most important piece. The object of the game is to trap the opponent's king so that it would not be able to avoid capture In games such as Chess, Shogi, and Xiangqi, a check is an immediate threat to capture the king (or general in xiangqi Delivering checkmate is the ultimate goal in chess: a player who is checkmated loses the game (the king is never actually captured – the game ends as soon as the king is checkmated). In practice, most players resign an inevitably lost game before being checkmated. This page explains commonly used terms in Chess in alphabetical order

If a king is under attack but the threat can be met, then the king is said to be in check, but is not in checkmate. If a player is not in check but has no legal move (that is, no valid move that would not put the king in check), the result of the game is stalemate, and the game ends in a draw. Stalemate is a situation in Chess where the player whose turn it is to move is not in check but has no legal moves In Chess, a draw is one of the possible outcomes of a game the others being a win for white and a win for black (See Rules of chess. The rules of chess (also known as the laws of chess) are rules governing the play of the game of Chess. )

## Origin of the word

The term checkmate is an alteration or Hobson-Jobson of the Persian phrase "Shah Mat" which means, literally, "the King is ambushed" (or "helpless" or "defeated"). Hobson-Jobson is the short (and better-known title of Hobson-Jobson A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases and of Kindred Terms Etymological Historical It does not literally mean "the King is dead", although that is a common misconception. [1]

Moghadam traced the etymology of the word mate. Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time It comes from a Persian word mandan, meaning "to remain", which is cognate with the Latin word manco. It means "remained" in the sense of "abandoned" and the formal translation is "surprised", in the military sense of "ambushed" (not in the sense of "astonished"). So the king is in mate when he is ambushed, at a loss, or abandoned to his fate. (Davidson 1981:70-71)

The term checkmate has come to mean in modern parlance an irrefutable, strategic victory. Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's

## Examples

Fool's mate
White is in checkmate.
Byrne-Fischer, 1956
After 41. . . Rc2, checkmate.
Checkmate with rook.
Black has been checkmated.

A checkmate may occur in only two moves with all of the pieces still on the board (as in Fool's mate, in the opening phase of the game), in a middlegame position (as in the Game of the Century between Donald Byrne and Bobby Fischer), or after many moves with as few as three pieces in an endgame position. Chess pieces vary in both value and abilities A standard chess match consists of each player having the following equipment 1 king A chessboard is the type of Checkerboard used in the Game of Chess, and consists of 64 squares (eight rows and eight columns arranged in two alternating For the Peter Hammill album of the same name see Fool's Mate (album Fool's mate, also known as the "two-move checkmate" In Chess the word " opening " has two common meanings both of which are discussed in this article The middlegame in Chess refers to the portion of the game that happens immediately after the opening (usually the first move after the procession of moves that The Game of the Century usually refers to a Chess game played between Donald Byrne and 13-year old Bobby Fischer in the Rosenwald Memorial Tournament Donald Byrne ( June 12, 1930 – April 8, 1976) was one of the USA 's strongest Chess players during the 1950s and 1960s Robert James "Bobby" Fischer ( March 9 1943 – January 17 2008) was an American -born Chess Grandmaster In Chess, the endgame (or end game or ending) refers to the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board

## Two major pieces

White checkmates easily.
Checkmate with queen and rook.

Two major pieces (queens or rooks) can easily force checkmate on the edge of the board, even without the help of their king. This page explains commonly used terms in Chess in alphabetical order The process is to put the two pieces on adjacent ranks or files and gradually force the king to the side of the board, where one piece keeps the king on the edge of the board while the other delivers checkmate (Pandolfini 1988:18-20). This page explains commonly used terms in Chess in alphabetical order This page explains commonly used terms in Chess in alphabetical order Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's

In the first diagram, White checkmates easily by forcing the black king to the edge a rank at the time or a file at the time:

• 1. This page explains commonly used terms in Chess in alphabetical order Qg5+ Kd4
• 2. Rf4+ Ke3
• 3. Qg3+ Ke2
• 4. Rf2+ Ke1
• 5. Qg1# (second diagram) (Silman 2007:7-8). Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's

The checkmate with two queens or with two rooks is similar.

Mid-board checkmate with queen, rook, and king.
Mid-board checkmate with two queens.
A second mid-board checkmate with two queens.

Checkmate can be forced in the center of the board with two rooks and a king, or with a queen, rook, and king, while two queens are able to force checkmate in the center without the help of the king.

## Basic checkmates

Here are the common fundamental checkmates when one side has only his king and the other side has only the minimum material needed to force checkmate, i. In Chess and related games a bare king is a situation in which one player has only the king left on the board while the fifteen other pieces and pawns have been This page explains commonly used terms in Chess in alphabetical order e. (1) one queen, (2) one rook, (3) two bishops on opposite colors, or (4) a bishop and a knight. The queen (♕♛ is the most powerful piece in the game of Chess. A rook, (♖ ♜ borrowed from Persian رخ rokh, Sanskrit rath, "chariot" also known as a castle is a piece in the A bishop (♗♝ is a piece in the Board game of Chess. Each player begins the game with two bishops The knight (♘ ♞ sometimes referred to by players as a 'horse' is a piece in the Game of Chess, representing a Knight (armoured cavalry The king must help in accomplishing all of these checkmates. If the superior side has more material, checkmates are easier.

The checkmate with the queen is the most important, but it is also very easy to achieve. It often occurs after a pawn has queened. Promotion to various pieces Promotion to a queen is the most common in practical play since the queen is the most powerful piece The next most important one is the checkmate with the rook, and it is also very easy to achieve. The checkmates with the two bishops and with a bishop and knight are not nearly as important, since they only occur infrequently. The two bishop checkmate is fairly easy to accomplish, but the bishop and knight checkmate is difficult and requires precision. Technique Since checkmate can only be forced in the corner of the same colour as the squares on which the bishop moves an opponent who is aware of this will try to stay first in

### King and queen

Checkmate with the queen.
A second checkmate with the queen.
A third type of checkmate.
A fourth type of checkmate.

The first two diagrams show representatives of the basic checkmate positions with a queen, which can occur on any edge of the board. The queen (♕♛ is the most powerful piece in the game of Chess. Naturally, the exact position can vary from the diagram. In the first of the checkmate positions, the queen is directly in front of the opposing king and the white king is protecting its queen. In the second checkmate position, the kings are in opposition and the queen mates on the rank (or file) of the king. Direct opposition Direct opposition is when the two kings face each other along a rank or file with only one square in between This page explains commonly used terms in Chess in alphabetical order This page explains commonly used terms in Chess in alphabetical order See Wikibooks - Chess/The Endgame for a demonstration of how the king and queen versus king mate is achieved.

White checkmates easily.

With the side with the queen to move, checkmate can be forced in at most ten moves from any starting position, with optimal play by both sides, but usually fewer moves are required (Fine & Benko 2003:1-2). Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's (Müller & Lamprecht 2001:16). Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's In positions in which a pawn has just promoted to a queen, at most nine moves are required (Levy & Newborn 1991:144). Promotion to various pieces Promotion to a queen is the most common in practical play since the queen is the most powerful piece Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's In this position, White checkmates by confining the black king to a rectangle and shrinking the rectangle to force the king to the edge of the board:

• 1. Qf6 Kd5
• 2. Qe7 Kd4
• 3. Kc2 Kd5
• 4. Kc3 Kc6
• 5. Kc4 Kb6
• 6. Qd7 Ka6
• 7. Qb5+ Ka7
• 8. Kc5 Ka8
• 9. Kc6 Ka7
• 10. Qb7# (Seirawan 2003:4-5). Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's
Stalemate if Black is to move. The white king can be anywhere.
Stalemate if Black is to move.

The winning side must be careful to not stalemate the opposing king. There are two general types of stalemate positions that can occur, which the winning side must avoid (Fine & Benko 2003:2). Stalemate is a situation in Chess where the player whose turn it is to move is not in check but has no legal moves Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's

### King and rook

Checkmate with the rook
A second checkmate with the rook

The first diagram shows the basic checkmate position with a rook, which can occur on any edge of the board. A rook, (♖ ♜ borrowed from Persian رخ rokh, Sanskrit rath, "chariot" also known as a castle is a piece in the The black king can be on any square on the edge of the board, the white king is in opposition to it, and the rook can check from any square on the rank or file (assuming that it can not be captured). The second diagram shows a slightly different position where the kings are not in opposition but the defending king must be in a corner.

With white to move, checkmate can be forced in at most sixteen moves from any starting position (Fine & Benko 2003:2). Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's Again, see Wikibooks - Chess/The Endgame for a demonstration of how the king and rook versus king mate is achieved.

White checkmates by boxing in the black king.

In this position, White checkmates by confining the black king to a rectangle and shrinking the rectangle to force the king to the edge of the board:

• 1. Kd3+ Kd5
• 2. Re4 Kd6
• 3. Kc4! Kc6
• 4. Re6+ Kc7
• 5. Kc5 Kd7
• 6. Kd5 Kc7
• 7. Rd6 Kb7
• 8. Rc6 Ka7
• 9. Kc5 Kb7
• 10. Kb5 Ka7
• 11. Rb6 Ka8
• 12. Kc6 Ka7
• 13. Kc7 Ka8
• 14. Ra6# (second checkmate position) (Seirawan 2003:1-4)

There are two stalemate positions to watch out for: (Fine & Benko 2003:2-3):

Stalemate if Black is to move
Stalemate if Black is to move

### King and two bishops

Checkmate with two bishops

Here are the two basic checkmate positions with two bishops (on opposite colors), which can occur in any corner. Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's A bishop (♗♝ is a piece in the Board game of Chess. Each player begins the game with two bishops (Two bishops or more on the same color cannot checkmate. ) The first is a checkmate in the corner. The second one is a checkmate in a side square next to the corner square. With the side with the bishops to move, checkmate can be forced in at most nineteen moves (Müller & Lamprecht 2001:17). Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's

A second checkmate with two bishops

It is not too difficult for two bishops to force checkmate, with the aid of their king. Two principles apply:

• The bishops are best when they are near the center of the board and on adjacent diagonals. This cuts off the opposing king.
• The king must be used aggressively, in conjunction with the bishops.
Two bishops (and king) can force checkmate. From Seirawan.

In the position from Seirawan, White wins by first forcing the black king to the side of the board, then to a corner, and then checkmates. It can be any side of the board and any corner. The process is:

• 1. Ke2 Ke4 (Black tries to keep his king near the center)
• 2. Be3 Ke5 (forcing the king back, which is done often)
• 3. Kd3 Kd5
• 4. Bd4 Ke6
• 5. Ke4 Kd6 (Black tries a different approach to stay near the center)
• 6. Bc4 (White has a fine position. The bishops are centralized and the king is active. )
• 6. . . Kc6 (Black avoids going toward the side)
• 7. Ke5 Kd7 (Black is trying to avoid the a8 corner)
• 8. Bd5 (keeping the black king off c6)
• 8. . . Kc7
• 9. Bc5 Kd7
• 10. Bd6! (an important move that forces the king to the edge of the board)
• 10. . . Ke8 (Black is still avoiding the corner)
• 11. Ke6 (now the black king cannot get off the edge of the board)
• 11. . . Kd8
• 12. Bc6 (forcing the king toward the corner)
• 12. . . Kc8 (Black's king is confined to c8 and d8. The white king must cover a7 and b7)
• 13. Kd5 (13. Ke7? is stalemate)
• 13. Stalemate is a situation in Chess where the player whose turn it is to move is not in check but has no legal moves . . Kd8
• 14. Kc5 Kc8
• 15. Kb6 Kd8 (Now White must allow the king to move into the corner)
• 16. Bc5 Kc8
• 17. Be7! (an important move that forces the king toward the corner)
• 17. . . Kb8
• 18. Bd7! (the same principle as the previous move)
• 18. . . Ka8
• 19. Bd8 (White must make a move that gives up a tempo. In Chess, tempo refers to a "turn" or single move When a player achieves a desired result in one fewer moves he "gains a tempo" and conversely when This move is one, along with Bc5, Bf8, Be6, or Ka6. )
• 19. . . Kb8
• 20. Bc7+ Ka8
• 21. Bc6#, as in the first diagram in this section (Seirawan 2003:5-7). Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's

Note that this is not the shortest forced checkmate from this position. Müller and Lamprecht give a fifteen move solution, however it contains an inaccurate move by Black (according to endgame tablebases) (Müller & Lamprecht 2001:17). An endgame tablebase is a computerized Database of all Chess positions within certain endgames The tablebase reveals the game-theoretical value Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's With optimal play by both sides, checkmate in this position requires seventeen moves. The longer variation is more instructive.

### King, bishop and knight

A checkmate with a bishop and knight
A second checkmate with a bishop and knight

This checkmate is the most difficult to force, because these two pieces cannot form a linear barrier to the enemy king from a distance. Technique Since checkmate can only be forced in the corner of the same colour as the squares on which the bishop moves an opponent who is aware of this will try to stay first in Also, the checkmate can be forced only in a corner that the bishop controls.

Here are the two basic checkmate positions with a bishop and a knight, or the bishop and knight checkmate. A bishop (♗♝ is a piece in the Board game of Chess. Each player begins the game with two bishops The knight (♘ ♞ sometimes referred to by players as a 'horse' is a piece in the Game of Chess, representing a Knight (armoured cavalry Technique Since checkmate can only be forced in the corner of the same colour as the squares on which the bishop moves an opponent who is aware of this will try to stay first in The first position is a checkmate by the bishop, with the king in the corner. The second position is a checkmate by the knight, with the king in a side square next to the corner. Alternatively, the knight can be on c6 or d7 in the second position.

With White to move, checkmate can be forced in at most thirty-three moves from any starting position (Müller & Lamprecht 2001:19), except those in which the black king is initially forking the bishop and knight and it is not possible to defend both. Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's In Chess, a fork is a tactic that uses one piece to attack two or more of the opponent's pieces at the same time hoping to achieve material gain (by capturing However, the mating process requires accurate play, since a few errors could result in a draw either by the fifty move rule or stalemate. Technique Since checkmate can only be forced in the corner of the same colour as the squares on which the bishop moves an opponent who is aware of this will try to stay first in The fifty move rule in Chess states that a player can claim a draw if no capture has been made and no pawn has been moved in the last fifty consecutive Stalemate is a situation in Chess where the player whose turn it is to move is not in check but has no legal moves

## The case of two or more knights

Main article: Two knights endgame
Two knights and their king cannot force a checkmate, although there are checkmate positions such as this one. Two knights can not force checkmate Troitzky line Examples This diagram shows an example of how having the pawn makes things worse for Black (here
Two knights cannot force checkmate if Black plays 1. . . Kc8.
Two knights cannot force checkmate.

It is impossible to force checkmate with a king and two knights, although checkmate positions are possible (see the first diagram). In the second diagram, if Black plays 1. . . Ka8? White can checkmate with 2. Nbc7#, but Black can play 1. . . Kc8 and escape the threat. The defender's task is easy — he simply has to avoid moving into a position in which he can be checkmated on the next move, and he always has another move available in such situations (Speelman, Tisdall & Wade 1993:11). Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's

In the third diagram, White can play 1. Nc6+ Ka8, but now if White plays 2. Nb5 threatening 3. Nc7#, Black is stalemated. Stalemate is a situation in Chess where the player whose turn it is to move is not in check but has no legal moves It is sometimes possible to force checkmate with two knights against a pawn, because in some positions, having a pawn removes this stalemate defence.

Three knights and a king can force checkmate against a lone king. Four knights can force checkmate against a lone king even without their own king's participation. These situations are generally only seen in chess problems, since one or more of the knights must be a promoted piece, and there is very rarely a reason (e. A chess problem, also called a chess composition, is a puzzle set by somebody using Chess pieces on a Chess board that presents the solver with Promotion to various pieces Promotion to a queen is the most common in practical play since the queen is the most powerful piece g. , avoidance of stalemate) to promote a pawn to anything other than a queen (see underpromotion). Promotion to various pieces Promotion to a queen is the most common in practical play since the queen is the most powerful piece

Under some circumstances, two knights and a king can force checkmate against a king and pawn (or rarely more pawns). The winning plan, quite difficult to execute in practice, is to blockade the enemy pawn(s) with one of the knights, maneuver the enemy king into a stalemated position, then bring the other knight over to checkmate. (See Two knights endgame. Two knights can not force checkmate Troitzky line Examples This diagram shows an example of how having the pawn makes things worse for Black (here )

## Rare checkmate positions

In some rare positions it is possible to force checkmate with a king and bishop versus a king and pawn or a king and knight versus a king and pawn.

### Stamma's mate

White wins by Stamma's mate, with or without the move

In the diagram showing Stamma's mate (named for Philipp Stamma), White to move wins (Emms 2004:122):

• 1. Philipp Stamma ( c 1705–1755 a native of Aleppo, Syria, later resident of England and France, was a Chess master Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's Nb4+ Ka1
• 2. Kc1 a2
• 3. Nc2#

White also wins if Black is to move first:

• 1.  . . . Ka1
• 2. Nc1 a2
• 3. Nb3#
Nogueiras-Gongora, 2001
White to move wins.

This checkmate has occurred in actual games, see the game Nogueiras-Gongora [1] from the 2001 Cuban Championship, which proceeded

• 81. In the second part of the 19th century Celso Golmayo Zúpide had been generally accepted as Cuban champion since his 1862 match defeat of Félix Sicre. Kc2 Ka1
• 82. Nc5 Ka2 (if 82. . . a2 then 83. Nb3#)
• 83. Nd3 (reaching the first position)
• 83. . . Ka1
• 84. Nc1 a2
• 85. Nb3# (Snape 2003:55)

### Unusual checkmate positions

Checkmate, but it cannot be forced
Checkmate, but it cannot be forced

There are also positions in which a king and knight or bishop can checkmate a king and bishop, but checkmate cannot be forced (see the diagrams for some examples). Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in Chess (and in other Boardgames of the Chaturanga family in which one player's Nevertheless, it keeps these material combinations from being ruled a draw because of "insufficient mating material" or "impossibility of checkmate". This page explains commonly used terms in Chess in alphabetical order In Chess, a draw is one of the possible outcomes of a game the others being a win for white and a win for black

## Quick checkmates

Some common or notable mating patterns have names of their own. Apart from the aforementioned fool's mate, these include scholar's mate, smothered mate, the back rank mate, Boden's mate, epaulette mate, and Légal's mate (see below). For the Peter Hammill album of the same name see Fool's Mate (album Fool's mate, also known as the "two-move checkmate" In Chess, scholar's mate is the Checkmate which occurs after the moves 1 In Chess, a smothered mate is a Checkmate delivered by a knight in which the mated king is unable to move because he is surrounded (or smothered In Chess, a back rank checkmate is a Checkmate delivered by a rook or queen along a back rank (that is the row on which the pieces Boden's Mate is a Checkmate pattern in Chess. It is named after Samuel Boden, who delivered the first known example of this mate in Schulder-Boden Epaulette or epaulet mate is in its broadest definition a Checkmate where two parallel retreat squares for a checked king are occupied by his The Légal Trap, Blackburne Trap, also known as Légal Pseudo-Sacrifice and Légal Mate is a Chess opening trap characterized by a

Some opening traps involve an early checkmate. In Chess the word " opening " has two common meanings both of which are discussed in this article These include:

• Benoni Defense 1. The Benoni Defense is a group of Chess openings generally characterized by the opening moves 1 d4 c5 2. d5 e6 3. Nc3 exd5?! 4. Nxd5 Ne7 5. Bg5 h6 6. Bh4 Qa5+ 7. c3 Nf5?? 8. Qa4!! Qxa4 9. Nc7# 1-0 Yermolinsky-Tate, Reno 2001
• Blackburne Shilling Gambit 1. Alex Yermolinsky (born April 11 1958 in Leningrad, Soviet Union) is an American Chess Grandmaster. Emory A Tate Jr (born December 27, 1958, Chicago, Illinois) is an American International Master of Chess. The Blackburne Shilling Gambit is the name facetiously given to a dubious Chess opening, derived from an offshoot of the Italian Game, that begins 1 e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 Nd4?! 4. Nxe5!? Qg5! 5. Nxf7?? Qxg2 6. Rf1 Qxe4+ 7. Be2 Nf3#
• Budapest Gambit 1. The Budapest Gambit (or Budapest Defence) is a Chess opening beginning with the moves 1 d4 Nf6 2. c4 e5 3. dxe5 Ng4 4. Bf4 Nc6 5. Nf3 Bb4+ 6. Nbd2 Qe7 7. a3 Ngxe5! 8. axb4?? Nd3#
• Budapest Gambit 1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e5 3. d5?! Bc5 4. Bg5? Ne4! 5. Bxd8?? Bxf2#
• Caro-Kann Defence 1. The Caro-Kann Defence is a common Chess opening characterized by the moves 1 e4 c6 2. d4 d5 3. Nc3 dxe4 4. Nxe4 Nd7 5. Qe2 Ngf6?? 6. Nd6# Alekhine-Four Amateurs, simultaneous exhibition, Palma de Mallorca 1935
• Caro-Kann Defence (from above) 5. Alexander Alexandrovich Alekhine (alʲɛkˈsandr̠ alʲɛkˈsandr̠ovʲiʨ aˈlʲɛxin Russian Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Але́хин) (October A simultaneous exhibition or simultaneous display (often abbreviated to "simul" is an event where one player (commonly a Chess master or grandmaster Bc4 Ngf6 6. Ng5 e6 7. Qe2 Nb6 8. Bd3 h6 9. N5f3 c5 10. dxc5 Nbd7!? 11. b4 b6 12. Nd4! bxc5?? 13. Nc6! Qc7 14. Qxe6+! (1-0 Perenyi-Eperjesi, Budapest 1974) fxe6 15. Bg6#
• Caro-Kann Defence 1. e4 c6 2. Nc3 d5 3. Nf3 dxe4 4. Nxe4 Bf5?! 5. Ng3 Bg6? 6. h4 h6 7. Ne5 Bh7 8. Qh5! g6 9. Bc4! e6 10. Qe2 Nf6?? 11. Nxf7! Kxf7 12. Qxe6+ (1-0 Alekhine-Bruce, Plymouth 1938) Kg7 13. Qf7#
• Caro-Kann Defence 1. The Caro-Kann Defence is a common Chess opening characterized by the moves 1 e4 c6 2. d4 d5 3. Nc3 dxe4 4. Nxe4 Nf6 5. Qd3!? e5?! 6. dxe5 Qa5+ 7. Bd2 Qxe5 8. 0-0-0! Nxe4?? 9. Qd8+!! Kxd8 10. Bg5++ (Réti-Tartakower, Vienna 1910) 10. Richard Réti ( 28 May, 1889, Pezinok (now Slovakia) &ndash 6 June, 1929, Prague) was an Austrian Ksawery Tartakower (Russian Савелий Григорьевич Тартаковер generally known as Saviely or Savielly Tartakower in English less often . . Ke8 11. Rd8# or 10. . . Kc7 11. Bd8#
• Dutch Defense 1. The Dutch Defence is a Chess opening characterised by the moves 1 d4 f5 2. Bg5 h6 3. Bh4 g5 4. Bg3 f4? 5. e3 h5 (5. . . fxg3?? 6. Qh5#) 6. Bd3!? Rh6?? 7. Qxh5+! Rxh5 8. Bg6# Teed-Delmar, New York 1896
• Dutch Defense 1. d4 f5 2. h3 Nf6 3. g4 fxg4 4. hxg4 Nxg4 5. Qd3 Nf6?? 6. Rxh7! Rxh7 7. Qg6#
• Englund Gambit 1. The Englund Gambit is a rarely played Chess opening that starts with the moves 1 d4 e5?! 2. dxe5 Nc6 3. Nf3 Qe7 4. Bf4 Qb4+ 5. Bd2 Qxb2 6. Bc3?? Bb4 7. Qd2 Bxc3 8. Qxc3 Qc1#
• From Gambit 1. Bird's Opening or the Dutch Attack is a Chess opening characterised by the move 1 f4 e5 2. fxe5 d6 3. exd6 Bxd6 4. Nf3 (4. b3?? Qh4+ 5. g3 Qxg3+ 6. hxg3 Bxg3# Pantelidakis-Rhine, Chicago 1974) g5 5. h3?? Bg3# Napetschnig-Rhine, Chicago 1977
• Grünfeld Defense 1. The Grünfeld Defence ( ECO codes D70-D99 is a Chess opening characterised by the moves 1 d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 d5 4. cxd5 Nxd5 5. e4 Nxc3 6. bxc3 Bg7 7. Bc4 c5 8. Ne2 cxd4 9. cxd4 Nc6 10. Be3 Qa5+!? 11. Bd2 Qa3 12. Rb1 0-0 13. d5? Ne5 14. Bb4? Qf3!! 15. gxf3?? Nxf3+ 16. Kf1 Bh3#
• Marshall Defense 1. The Marshall Defense is a Chess opening that begins with the moves 1 d4 d5 2. c4 Nf6?! 3. cxd5 Nxd5 4. Nf3 Nc6? 5. e4 Nf6 6. Nc3 Bg4 7. d5 Ne5? 8. Nxe5! Bxd1 9. Bb5+ c6 10. dxc6 Qc7?? 11. cxb7+ Kd8 (after 11. . . Qd7 and 11. . . Nd7, White mates, or forces mate, with 12. bxa8(Q) or bxa8(R)) 12. Nxf7#
• Nimzowitsch Defense 1. This article is about the opening moves 1e4 Nc6 For the more common 1 e4 Nc6 2. d4 d5 3. exd5 Qxd5 4. Nf3 Bg4 5. Nc3 Bxf3 6. Nxd5 Bxd1 7. Nxc7+ Kd8 8. Nxa8 Bxc2 9. Bf4 Nxd4 10. Nc7? e5! 11. Bxe5?? Bb4#. Also possible is 7. . . Kd7 8. Nxa8 Bxc2 9. Bf4 e5 10. dxe5 Bb4+ 11. Ke2 Nge7 12. e6+ fxe6 13. Nc7?? Nd4+ 14. Ke3 Nef5# Kiss-Barcza, Debrecen 1930. Gedeon (Gideon Barcza ( August 21, 1911 in Kisújszállás – February 27, 1986 in Budapest) was a Hungarian
• Owen's Defense 1. Owen's Defense (also known as the Queen's Fianchetto Defense or Greek Defense) is a Chess opening defined by the moves 1 e4 b6 2. d4 Bb7 3. Bd3 f5?! 4. exf5! Bxg2 5. Qh5+ g6 6. fxg6! Nf6?? 7. gxh7+! Nxh5 8. Bg6# Greco-N. Gioachino Greco (1600 &ndash c 1634 was an Italian Chess player and writer N. , Rome 1619
• Philidor's Defense 1. The Philidor Defence is a Chess opening characterised by the moves 1 e4 e5 2. Nf3 d6 3. Bc4 Bg4?! 4. Nc3 g6? 5. Nxe5! Bxd1?? 6. Bxf7+ Ke7 7. Nd5# Légal-Saint Brie, Paris 1750. This mating pattern is now called Légal's mate. The Légal Trap, Blackburne Trap, also known as Légal Pseudo-Sacrifice and Légal Mate is a Chess opening trap characterized by a
• Richter-Veresov Attack 1. The Richter-Veresov Attack or Veresov Opening is a Chess opening. d4 Nf6 2. Nc3 d5 3. Bg5 c5!? 4. Bxf6 exf6!? 5. dxc5 d4 6. Ne4 Bf5 7. Ng3? Bxc5! 8. Nxf5? Qa5+! 9. c3 dxc3 10. b4 Bxb4 11. Qc2 Qxf5! 12. Qxf5?? c2# N. N. -Rhine, Chicago 1977
• Robatsch Defense 1. The Modern Defence, also known as the Robatsch Defence, after Karl Robatsch, is a Chess opening in which Black allows White to occupy the center with e4 g6 2. Nf3 d6 3. Bc4 Nd7?? 4. Bxf7+! Kxf7 5. Ng5+ Kf6 (otherwise 6. Ne6 wins the queen) 6. Qf3+ Kxg5 (6. . . Ke5 7. Qc3+ Kf4 8. Qg3#) 7. d4+ Kh4 8. Qh3#
• Ruy Lopez 1. The Ruy Lopez, called the Spanish Opening or Spanish Game outside English speaking countries, is a Chess opening characterised by the moves e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Ba4 Nf6 5. 0-0 Nxe4 6. d4 exd4?! 7. Re1 d5 8. Nxd4 Bd6 9. Nxc6 Bxh2+! 10. Kh1! Qh4 11. Rxe4+! dxe4 12. Qd8+! Qxd8 13. Nxd8+ Kxd8 14. Kxh2 f5?? 15. Bg5# [2]Pandolfini-NN, 1970
• Scandinavian Defense 1. Bruce Pandolfini is a Chess author teacher and coach He was famously portrayed by Ben Kingsley in the 1993 film Searching for Bobby Fischer The Scandinavian Defense or Center Counter Defense, is a Chess opening characterized by the moves 1 e4 d5 2. exd5 Qxd5 3. Nc3 Qa5 4. d4 c6 5. Nf3 Bg4 6. Bf4 e6 7. h3 Bxf3 8. Qxf3 Bb4 9. Be2 Nd7 10. a3 O-O-O?? 11. axb4!! Qxa1+ 12. Kd2! Qxh1 13. Qxc6+! bxc6 14. Ba6# Canal-N. Esteban Canal ( April 19 1896 – February 14 1981) was a leading Peruvian Chess player who had his best tournament results N. , Budapest 1934 (the "Peruvian Immortal": White sacrifices both rooks and his queen to finish with Boden's mate)
• Sicilian Defence 1. The Peruvian Immortal is the name given to a spectacular Chess game played by the Peruvian master (later grandmaster) Esteban Canal Boden's Mate is a Checkmate pattern in Chess. It is named after Samuel Boden, who delivered the first known example of this mate in Schulder-Boden The Sicilian Defence is a Chess opening that begins with the moves 1 e4 c5 2. d4 cxd4 3. c3 dxc3 4. Nxc3 Nc6 5. Nf3 e6 6. Bc4 Qc7 7. 0-0 Nf6 8. Qe2 Ng4! 9. h3?? Nd4! (winning White's queen, at least) 10. Nxd4? Qh2# (the Siberian Trap)
• Sicilian Defence 1. The Siberian Trap is a Chess opening trap After a series of natural moves in the Smith-Morra Gambit of the Sicilian Defence, White can e4 c5 2. d4 cxd4 3. c3 d5 4. exd5 Qxd5 5. Nf3?! Bg4 6. Qa4+ Nc6 7. Nxd4 Bd7 8. Nb5? 0-0-0! 9. Nxa7+?? Nxa7 10. Qxa7 Qd1+!! (0-1 Dutch-Sugden, London 1964) 11. Kxd1 Bg4+ 12. Kc2 Bd1# or 12. Ke1 Rd1# (an ending strikingly similar to Réti-Tartakower, Vienna 1910, cited above)
• Sicilian Defence 1. Richard Réti ( 28 May, 1889, Pezinok (now Slovakia) &ndash 6 June, 1929, Prague) was an Austrian Ksawery Tartakower (Russian Савелий Григорьевич Тартаковер generally known as Saviely or Savielly Tartakower in English less often e4 c5 2. Nf3 Nf6 3. e5 Nd5 4. Nc3 e6 5. Nxd5 exd5 6. d4 Nc6 7. dxc5 Bxc5 8. Qxd5 Qb6 9. Bc4 Bxf2+ 10. Ke2 O-O 11. Rf1 Bc5 12. Ng5 Nd4+ 13. Kd1 Ne6 14. Ne4 d6 15. exd6 Bxd6?? 16. Nxd6 Rd8 17. Bf4! Nxf4? 18. Qxf7+ Kh8 19. Qg8+! (1-0 Unzicker-Sarapu, Siegen Olympiad 1970) Rxg8 20. Nf7#
• Sicilian Defence 1. The Sicilian Defence is a Chess opening that begins with the moves 1 e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 a6 6. Bg5 e6 7. f4 b5 8. e5 dxe5 9. fxe5 Qc7 10. Qe2 Nfd7 11. 0-0-0 Bb7 12. Qg4 Qxe5 13. Bd3 Nf6? 14. Bxf6 Qxf6? 15. Rhe1 h5 16. Nxe6! Be7 (16. . . hxg4 17. Bxb5+! Ke7 (17. . . axb5? 18. Nc7# or 18. Nxg7#) 18. Nxf8+ Kxf8? 19. Re8#) 17. Bxb5+! axb5 18. Nc7+! Kf8 19. Rd8+! Bxd8 20. Re8# Tal-N. Mikhail Tal (Mihails Tāls Михаил Нехемьевич Таль Mikhail Nekhemievich Tal, mʲixa'iɫ̺ n̻ʲɛ'xɛmjɛvʲiʨ t̺al̻ sometimes transliterated Mihails N. , England 1974
• Three Knights Game 1. The Three Knights Opening is a Chess opening that begins with the moves 1 e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Nc3 g6 4. d4 exd4 5. Nd5 Bg7 6. Bg5 Nge7? 7. Nxd4! Bxd4?? 8. Qxd4! Nxd4 9. Nf6+ Kf8 10. Bh6#
• Two knights defense 1. The Two Knights Defense is a Chess opening that begins 1 e4 e5 2 e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 Nf6 4. Ng5 d5 5. exd5 Nxd5 6. Nxf7 Kxf7 7. Qf3 Ke8? 8. Bxd5 Bd7?? (or several other moves) 9. Qf7#
• Vienna Game 1. The Vienna Game is a Chess opening characterised by the moves 1 e4 e5 2. Nc3 Nf6 3. Bc4 Nxe4 4. Bxf7+ (4. Nxe4 d5) Kxf7 5. Nxe4 Nc6 6. Qf3+ Kg8?? 7. Ng5! Qxg5 8. Qd5#

## Notes

1. ^ "The King Isn't Dead After All! The Real Meaning of Shah Mat or the Lesson of the Commode", Jan Newton, GoddessChess. The rules of chess (also known as the laws of chess) are rules governing the play of the game of Chess. In games such as Chess, Shogi, and Xiangqi, a check is an immediate threat to capture the king (or general in xiangqi In Chess, the endgame (or end game or ending) refers to the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board A chess problem, also called a chess composition, is a puzzle set by somebody using Chess pieces on a Chess board that presents the solver with In 1913 preeminent Chess historian HJR Murray wrote in his 900-page magnum opus A History of Chess that "The Game possesses a Technique Since checkmate can only be forced in the corner of the same colour as the squares on which the bishop moves an opponent who is aware of this will try to stay first in In Chess, a back rank checkmate is a Checkmate delivered by a rook or queen along a back rank (that is the row on which the pieces Boden's Mate is a Checkmate pattern in Chess. It is named after Samuel Boden, who delivered the first known example of this mate in Schulder-Boden Epaulette or epaulet mate is in its broadest definition a Checkmate where two parallel retreat squares for a checked king are occupied by his For the Peter Hammill album of the same name see Fool's Mate (album Fool's mate, also known as the "two-move checkmate" In Chess, an ideal mate is a Checkmate position that is a special form of Model mate. The Légal Trap, Blackburne Trap, also known as Légal Pseudo-Sacrifice and Légal Mate is a Chess opening trap characterized by a A model mate is a checkmating position in Chess in which the checkmated king and all vacant squares in its field are attacked only once and squares in Basic checkmates See also Checkmate Checkmate can be forced against a lone king with a king plus (1 a queen, (2 a rook, (3 two A pure mate is a checkmating position in Chess in which the mated king and all vacant squares in its field are attacked only once and squares in the king's In Chess, scholar's mate is the Checkmate which occurs after the moves 1 In Chess, a smothered mate is a Checkmate delivered by a knight in which the mated king is unable to move because he is surrounded (or smothered com, September 2003

## References

• Davidson, Henry (1981), A Short History of Chess (1949), McKay, ISBN 0-679-14550-8
• Emms, John (2004), Starting Out: Minor Piece Endgames, Everyman Chess, ISBN 1-85744-359-4
• Fine, Reuben & Benko, Pal (2003), Basic Chess Endings (1941), McKay, ISBN 0-8129-3493-8
• Levy, David & Newborn, Monty (1991), How Computers Play Chess, Computer Science Press, ISBN 0-7167-8121-2
• Müller, Karsten & Lamprecht, Frank (2001), Fundamental Chess Endings, Gambit Publications, ISBN 1-901983-53-6
• Pandolfini, Bruce (1988), Pandolfini's Endgame Course, Fireside, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0-671-65688-1
• Seirawan, Yasser (2003), Winning Chess Endings, Everyman Chess, ISBN 1-85744-348-9
• Silman, Jeremy (2007), Silman's Complete Endgame Course: From Beginner to Master, Siles Press, ISBN 1-890085-10-3
• Snape, Ian (2003), Chess Endings Made Simple: How to Approach the Endgame with Confidence, Gambit Publications, ISBN 1-901983-97-8
• Speelman, Jon; Tisdall, Jon & Wade, Bob (1993), Batsford Chess Endings, B. John Emms (born March 14 1967) is a chess player who has earned the rank of International Grandmaster. Everyman Chess is a major publisher of books and CDs about Chess. Reuben Fine ( October 11 1914  &ndash March 26 1993) was one of the best Chess players in the world from the mid 1930s through Pal Benko ( Hungarian: Benkő Pál, born July 14, 1928 in Amiens) is a Chess grandmaster, author and David Neil Lawrence Levy (b March 14 1945, in London) is a Scottish International Master of Chess, a businessman Dr Karsten Müller was born November 23 1970 in Hamburg Germany Frank Lamprecht (born 21 June 1968) is a German Chess international master and chess trainer Gambit Publications is a major publisher of Chess books The company's headquarters is in London Bruce Pandolfini is a Chess author teacher and coach He was famously portrayed by Ben Kingsley in the 1993 film Searching for Bobby Fischer Yasser Seirawan ( ياسر سيروان) (born March 24, 1960) is a Chess grandmaster and 4-time US -champion Jeremy Silman (born August 28 1954) is an American International Master of Chess. Jonathan Simon Speelman (born 2 October 1956) is an English Chess player a Grandmaster, a mathematician and a chess writer Jonathan D Tisdall (b August 26, 1958 in Buffalo, New York) is a grandmaster of Chess (title awarded 1995 and works } Robert Graham Wade OBE (born April 10 1921 Dunedin, New Zealand) is a British Chess player writer arbiter coach and T. Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-4420-7