|Chechen Republic (English)|
Чеченская Республика (Russian)
Нохчийн Республика (Chechen)
Location of the Chechen Republic in Russia
|Coat of Arms||Flag|
Coat of arms
Flag of Chechnya
|Anthem: Anthem of the Chechen Republic|
|Established||January 11, 1991|
- Rank within Russia
|Population (as of the 2002 Census)|
- Rank within Russia
72. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. A flag is a piece of Cloth, often flown from a pole or mast, generally used Symbolically for signaling or identification A coat of arms or armorial bearings (often just arms for short in European tradition is a design belonging to a particular person (or group of people The Flag of Chechnya is a Rectangle with sides in the ratio 23 the same ratio as the flag of the Russian Federation. A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Hymn of Chechnya is the Anthem of the Republic of Chechnya in the Russian Federation. Grozny (Гро́зный Соьлж-ГIала Sölƶ-Ġala or Соьлжа-ГIала Sölƶa -Ġala sometimes referred to as ce Джовхар-ГIала Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Russia is a Federation which consists of 83  subjects. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal This article is about an administrative division of the federal government of Russia Russia is divided into twelve economic regions (экономи́ческие райо́ны ekonomicheskiye rayony, sing The Russian Federation is divided into 83  federal subjects (constituent units 21 of which are Republics. Southern Federal District ( Russian: Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг tr North Caucasus economic region (Се́веро-Кавка́зский экономи́ческий райо́н tr Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of Russia 's area is about 17 million square kilometers (65 million sq Russian Census of 2002 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2002 го́да was the first Census of the Russian Federation carried 1 inhab. / km²
|Official languages||Russian, Chechen|
|Chairman of the Government||Odes Baysultanov|
|Constitution||Constitution of the Chechen Republic|
The Chechen Republic (IPA: /ˈʧɛʧɨn rɪˈpʌblɨk/; Russian: Чече́нская Респу́блика, Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (/ˈʧɛʧniːə/; Russian: Чечня́; Chechen: Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages The Chechen language (Нохчийн мотт / Noxçiyn mott Medieval Chechen نوًچین موت) is spoken by more than 1 Ramzan Akhmadovich Kadyrov (Russian Рамзан Ахмадович Кадыров) (born 5 October 1976, Tsentoroi, Chechnya A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation The term basic law is used in some places as an alternative to " Constitution " implying it is a temporary but necessary measure without formal enactment A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages This article is about the terrestrial Eurasian mountain range Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages The Chechen language (Нохчийн мотт / Noxçiyn mott Medieval Chechen نوًچین موت) is spoken by more than 1 Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages The Chechen language (Нохчийн мотт / Noxçiyn mott Medieval Chechen نوًچین موت) is spoken by more than 1 Ichkeria can refer to Ichkeria (Chechnya, the historical Turkic name for a region more or less coinciding with the Republic of Chechnya Chechen Russia is a Federation which consists of 83  subjects. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending It is located in the Northern Caucasus mountains, in the Southern Federal District. The North Caucasus, also Ciscaucasus, Ciscaucasia or Forecaucasia, is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe Southern Federal District ( Russian: Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг tr It borders Stavropol Krai to the northwest, the republic of Dagestan to the northeast and east, Georgia to the south, and the republics of Ingushetia and North Ossetia to the west. Stavropol Krai (Ставропо́льский край Stavropolsky kray) is a federal subject of Russia (a Krai) The Republic of Dagestan dæɡɪˈstɑːn (IntEng ˈdeɪɡəstæn (AmEng (Респу́блика Дагеста́н Дагъистанлъул ДжумхIурият Daɣistanłul Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between The Russian Federation is divided into 83  federal subjects (constituent units 21 of which are Republics. The Republic of Ingushetia ( Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк Респу́блика Ингуше́тия Respublika Ingushetiya) is a federal The Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (Респу́блика Се́верная Осе́тия–Ала́ния Ossetic: Республикӕ Цӕгат Ирыстон — Алани
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was split into the Republic of Ingushetia and proclaimed the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, which sought independence. The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985 The Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic or Chechen-Ingush ASSR (Чечено-Ингушская АССР was an Autonomous republic within The Republic of Ingushetia ( Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк Респу́блика Ингуше́тия Respublika Ingushetiya) is a federal The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria ɪʧˈkɛriə ( Chechen Latin: Noxçiyn Respublika Noxçiyçö Chechen Cyrillic: Нохчийн Республика Нохчийчоь Following the First Chechen War with Russia, Chechnya gained de facto independence as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. The First Chechen War also known as the War in Chechnya was fought between Russia and Chechnya from 1994 to 1996 and resulted in Chechnya's Russian federal control was restored during the Second Chechen War. The Second Chechen War, in a later phase better known as the War in the North Caucasus, was launched by the Russian Federation starting August 26 Since then there has been a systematic reconstruction and rebuilding process, though sporadic fighting continues in the mountains and south of the republic.
See "Chechen people" for etymology of the name. Chechens ( Chechen: Hохчи / Noxçi) constitute the largest native Ethnic group originating in the North Caucasus region In 2006 the former president, Alu Alkhanov, proposed changing the official name of the republic to Noxçiyn (or Nokhchiin) which is a transcription of the name in the Chechen language. Alu Dadashevich Alkhanov was the president of Russia 's Chechen Republic. Transcription is the conversion into written typewritten or printed form of a Spoken language source such as the proceedings of a court hearing The Chechen language (Нохчийн мотт / Noxçiyn mott Medieval Chechen نوًچین موت) is spoken by more than 1 
Situated in the eastern part of the North Caucasus, Chechnya is surrounded on nearly all sides by Russian Federal territory. The North Caucasus, also Ciscaucasus, Ciscaucasia or Forecaucasia, is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe In the west, it borders North Ossetia and Ingushetia, in the north, Stavropol Krai, in the east, Dagestan, and to the south, Georgia. Ossetia (pronounced /ɒˈsɛtɪə/ or /oʊˈsiːʃə/ Ossetic: Ирыстон Iryston; Russian: Осетия Osetiya; Georgian The Republic of Ingushetia ( Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк Респу́блика Ингуше́тия Respublika Ingushetiya) is a federal Stavropol Krai (Ставропо́льский край Stavropolsky kray) is a federal subject of Russia (a Krai) The Republic of Dagestan dæɡɪˈstɑːn (IntEng ˈdeɪɡəstæn (AmEng (Респу́блика Дагеста́н Дагъистанлъул ДжумхIурият Daɣistanłul Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between Its capital is Grozny.
Chechnya is located in the Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). The Republic of Dagestan dæɡɪˈstɑːn (IntEng ˈdeɪɡəstæn (AmEng (Респу́блика Дагеста́н Дагъистанлъул ДжумхIурият Daɣistanłul The Republic of Ingushetia ( Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк Респу́блика Ингуше́тия Respublika Ingushetiya) is a federal The Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (Респу́блика Се́верная Осе́тия–Ала́ния Ossetic: Республикӕ Цӕгат Ирыстон — Алани Stavropol Krai (Ставропо́льский край Stavropolsky kray) is a federal subject of Russia (a Krai) Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between The Terek River (Терек თერგი Tergi; Терек Terek, Chechen, Терк Terk) is a major River in the The Sunzha (Су́нжа Сунжæ Sunžæ, Соьлжа Sölƶa) is a river in North Ossetia, Ingushetia and Chechnya, Argun River (Аргу́н flows through the northern Caucasus, Georgia, and the Chechen Republic of Russia. Moscow Time (Моско́вское вре́мя is the Time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia and most of western Russia including Saint Petersburg UTC offset is +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD).
In classical times the northern slopes of the Caucasus mountains were inhabited by the Circassians on the west and the Avars on the east. Chechen society has traditionally been organized around many autonomous local clans called Teips Even today many Chechens consider themselves loyal to their teip The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess ( Çerkes) and is not the self-designation of any people Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group In between them, the Zygians occupied Zyx, approximately the area covered by north Ossetia, the Balkar, the Ingush and the Chechen republics today. Ossetia (pronounced /ɒˈsɛtɪə/ or /oʊˈsiːʃə/ Ossetic: Ирыстон Iryston; Russian: Осетия Osetiya; Georgian The Balkars ( Karachay-Balkar: sg малкъар - malqar, pl Chechnya is a region in the Northern Caucasus which has constantly fought against foreign rule beginning with the Ottoman Turks in the 15th century. The Ottoman Turks were the subdivision of the Ottoman Muslim Millet that dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. Eventually the Chechens converted to Islam and tensions began to die down with the Turks; however, conflicts with their Christian neighbours such as Georgians and Cossacks, as well as with the Buddhist Kalmyks intensified. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Georgians (ქართველები kartvelebi) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus, the oldest group of the The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern Kalmyk redirects here for the breed of cattle see Kalmyk (cattle. The Russian Terek Cossack Host was established in lowland Chechnya in 1577 by free Cossacks resettled from the Volga to the Terek River. Terek Cossack Host (Терское казачье войско was a Cossack host created in 1577 from free Cossacks who resettled from Volga to The Terek River (Терек თერგი Tergi; Терек Terek, Chechen, Терк Terk) is a major River in the
In 1783, Russia and the eastern Georgian kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti (which was devastated by Turkish and Persian invasions) signed the Treaty of Georgievsk, according to which Kartl-Kakheti received protection by Russia. The Caucasian War of 1817–1864 also known as the Russian conquest of the Caucasus was an invasion of the Caucasus by the Russian Empire ended with the The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (1762-1798 was created in 1762 by the unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms which had existed independently since the disintegration of The Treaty of Georgievsk (Георгиевский трактат Georgievskiy traktat; გეორგიევსკის ტრაქტატი georgievskis In order to secure communications with Georgia and other regions of the Transcaucasia, the Russian Empire began spreading its influence into the Caucasus mountains. The current resistance to Russian rule has its roots in the late 18th century (1785–1791), a period when Russia expanded into territories formerly under the dominion of Turkey and Persia (see also the Russo-Turkish Wars and Russo-Persian War, 1804-13), under Mansur Ushurma—a Chechen Naqshbandi (Sufi) Sheikh—with wavering support from other North Caucasian tribes. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Russo-Turkish War may refer to one of the following conflicts between Imperial Russia and the Ottoman Empire: Russo-Turkish War (1568–1570 Sheikh Al Mansur ("The Leader" was a Chechen leader who lead the resistance against Catherine the Naqshbandi ( Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Tasawwuf orders ( Tariqa) of Islam. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Mansur hoped to establish a Transcaucasus Islamic state under shari'a law, but was ultimately unable to do so because of both Russian resistance and opposition from many Chechens (many of whom had not been converted to Islam at the time). The South Caucasus is a mountainous geopolitical area of south-central Eurasia, also referred to as Transcaucasia, or The Transcaucasus. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Its banner was again picked up by the Avar Imam Shamil, who fought against the Russians from 1834 until 1859. Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group Imam Shamil (also spelled as Shamyl, Schamil, or Schamyl; 1797 &ndash March 1871) was an Avar political and religious
Chechen rebellion would characteristically flame up whenever the Russian state faced a period of internal uncertainty. Rebellions occurred during the Russo-Turkish War, the Russian Revolution of 1905, the Russian Revolution of 1917, Russian Civil War (see Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus), and Collectivization. Rebellion is a refusal of obedienceIt may therefore be seen as encompassing a range of Behaviours from Civil disobedience and mass Nonviolent resistance The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans as well as in the Russian goal of recovering territorial losses it had suffered See also Russian Revolution (1917 The 1905 Russian Revolution also known as the Failed Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide struggle of See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus ( MRNC; also known as the Mountain Republic or the Republic of the Mountaineers) (1917–1920 was Collective farming is an organization of agricultural production in which the holdings of several farmers are run as a joint enterprise Under Soviet rule, Chechnya was combined with Ingushetia to form the autonomous republic of Chechen-Ingushetia in the late 1930s. The Republic of Ingushetia ( Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк Респу́блика Ингуше́тия Respublika Ingushetiya) is a federal Autonomy ( Greek: Auto- Nomos - nomos meaning "law" one who gives oneself his/her own Law) is the right to Self-government The Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic or Chechen-Ingush ASSR (Чечено-Ингушская АССР was an Autonomous republic within
The Chechens, though, again rose up against Soviet rule during the 1940s (see 1940-1944 Chechnya insurgency), resulting in the deportation of the entire ethnic Chechen and Ingush populations to the Kazakh SSR (later Kazakhstan) and Siberia in 1944 near the end of the World War II (see Population transfer in the Soviet Union). 1940-1944 Chechnya insurgency was a revolt against the Soviet authorities in the mountainous Chechnya. Deportation, not to be confused with Extradition, generally means the expulsion of someone from a place or Country. The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (Қазақ Кеңестік Социалистік Республикасы Qazaq Keñestik Socialistik Respublikasi; Казахская Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Population transfer in the Soviet Union may be classified into the following broad categories deportations of " Anti-Soviet " categories of population often classified  Stalin and others argued this was punishment to the Chechens for providing assistance to the German forces; although the German front never made it to the border of Chechnya, an active guerrilla movement threatened to undermine the Soviet defenses of the Caucasus (noted writer Valentin Pikul claims that while the city of Grozny was being prepared for a siege in 1942, all of the air bombers stationed on the Caucasian front had to be re-directed towards quelling the Chechen insurrection instead of fighting Germans at the siege of Stalingrad). Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East Valentin Savvich Pikul (July 13 1928 - July 16 1990 was a popular and prolific Russian historical novelist of Ukrainian-Russian heritage An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution The Battle of Stalingrad is a commonly used name in English sources for several large operations by Germany and its allies and Soviet forces conducted with the Chechen-Ingushetia was abolished and the Chechens were allowed to return to their homeland after 1956 during de-Stalinization, which occurred under Nikita Khrushchev. The Cold War ensued as the USSR and the United States struggled indirectly for influence around the world Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 17 1894 – September 11 1971 served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 following
The Russification policies towards Chechens continued after 1956, with Russian language proficiency required in many aspects of life and for advancement in the Soviet system. Russification (in Russian: русификация rusifikátsiya)is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages
With the impending collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, an independence movement, initially known as the Chechen National Congress was formed. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising This movement was ultimately opposed by Boris Yeltsin's Russian Federation, which argued, first, that Chechnya had not been an independent entity within the Soviet Union—as the Baltic, Central Asian, and other Caucasian States had—but was a part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and hence did not have a right under the Soviet constitution to secede; second, that other republics of Russia, such as Tatarstan, would consider seceding from the Russian Federation if Chechnya were granted that right; and third, that Chechnya was a major hub in the oil infrastructure of the Federation and hence its secession would hurt the country's economy and control of oil resources. Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin () (1 February 1931 23 April 2007 was the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999 Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Russian Federation is divided into 83  federal subjects (constituent units 21 of which are Republics. Republic of Tatarstan (Респу́блика Татарста́н Татарстан Республикасы|Tatarstan Respublikası is a federal subject of the Russian
In the ensuing decade, the territory was locked in an ongoing struggle between various factions, usually fighting unconventionally and forgoing the position held by the several successive Russian governments through the current administration. Various demographic factors including religious ones have continued to keep the area in a near constant state of war.
The First Chechen War occurred in a two year period lasting from 1994 to 1996, when Russian forces attempted to stop Chechnya from seceding. The First Chechen War also known as the War in Chechnya was fought between Russia and Chechnya from 1994 to 1996 and resulted in Chechnya's Despite overwhelming manpower, weaponry and air support, the Russian forces were unable to establish effective control over the mountainous area due to many successful Chechen guerrilla raids. In Military tactics, close air support ( CAS) is defined as air action by fixed or rotary winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to Chechens ( Chechen: Hохчи / Noxçi) constitute the largest native Ethnic group originating in the North Caucasus region Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis in 1995 shocked the Russian public, and discredited Chechen guerrillas. The Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis took place from 14 June to 19 June 1995, when a group of 80 to 150 Chechen Separatist Widespread demoralization of the Russian forces in the area prompted Russian President Boris Yeltsin to declare a ceasefire in 1996 and sign a peace treaty a year later. Morale, also known as esprit de corps when discussing the morale of a group is an intangible term used for the capacity of people to maintain Belief in The President of Russia (Президент России or the President of the Russian Federation, Президент Российской A ceasefire (or truce) is a temporary stoppage of a War or any Armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties usually countries or governments that formally ends an armed conflict
The war was disastrous for both sides. Most estimates give figures of between 3,500 and 7,500 Russian military dead, between 3,000 and 15,000 Chechen militants dead, and no fewer than 35,000 civilian deaths—a minimum total of 41,500 dead. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking For the British newspaper and Marxist organization see Militant tendency. A civilian under International humanitarian law is a person who is not a member of his or her Country 's Armed forces. Others have cited figures in the range 80,000 to 100,000. 
After the war, parliamentary and presidential elections took place in January 1997 in Chechnya and brought to power Aslan Maskhadov, chief of staff and prime minister in the Chechen coalition government, for a five-year term. The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria ɪʧˈkɛriə ( Chechen Latin: Noxçiyn Respublika Noxçiyçö Chechen Cyrillic: Нохчийн Республика Нохчийчоь TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Aslan (Khalid Aliyevich Maskhadov ( Chechen: Масхадан Али кант Аслан Latin Masxadan Ali kant Aslan Russian: Аслан Алиевич Масхадов This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. A coalition is an alliance among individuals during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own Self-interest. Maskhadov sought to maintain Chechen sovereignty while pressing Moscow to help rebuild the republic, whose formal economy and infrastructure were virtually destroyed. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of  Russia continued to send money for the rehabilitation of the republic; it also provided pensions and funds for schools and hospitals. Most of these transfers were stolen by Chechen authorities and divided between favoured warlords.  Nearly half a million people (40% of Chechya's prewar population) have been internally displaced and lived in refugee camps or overcrowded villages. A refugee camp is a temporary camp built by a government the United Nations, international organizations (such as the Red Cross) or NGOs to receive  The economy was destroyed. Two Russian brigades were stationed in Chechnya and did not leave. 
In lieu of the devastated economic structure, kidnapping emerged as the principal source of income countrywide, procuring over $200 million during the three year independence of the chaotic fledgling state  but victims were rarely killed. In Criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or Asportation of a person against the person's will usually to hold the person in False imprisonment  In 1998, 176 people had been kidnapped, and 90 of them had been released during the same year according to official accounts. President Maskhadov started a major campaign against hostage-takers, and on October 25, 1998, Shadid Bargishev, Chechnya's top anti-kidnapping official, was killed in a remote controlled car bombing. Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Bargishev's colleagues then insisted they would not be intimidated by the attack and would go ahead with their offensive. Political violence and religious extremism, blamed on "Wahhabism", was rife as well. Wahhabism ( Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية or Wahabism is a conservative reformist call of Sunni Islam attributed to In 1998, a state of emergency was declared by the authorities in Grozny. A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors or order government agencies Tensions led to the open clashes like the July 1998 confrontation in Gudermes between Chechen National Guard and Islamist militants. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar)
In August 1999, the IIPB began an unsuccessful incursion into the neighbouring Russian republic of Dagestan in favor of the Shura of Dagestan who sought independence from Russia. The Second Chechen War, in a later phase better known as the War in the North Caucasus, was launched by the Russian Federation starting August 26 August 1999 was a month with thirty-one days The following events also occurred during the month The Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade (also known as The Islamic International Brigade, the Islamic Peacekeeping Army, IIPB) was the name of an The Republic of Dagestan dæɡɪˈstɑːn (IntEng ˈdeɪɡəstæn (AmEng (Респу́блика Дагеста́н Дагъистанлъул ДжумхIурият Daɣistanłul (see Dagestan War). The Invasion of Dagestan, also known as the War in Dagestan and Dagestan War, began when the Chechnya -based Islamic International Peacekeeping In September, a series of apartment bombings took place in several Russian cities, including Moscow, which were blamed on the Chechens although no evidence linking Chechens with the bombings has been released to the public. The Russian apartment bombings were a series of explosions that hit four apartment blocks in the Russian cities of Buynaksk, Moscow and Volgodonsk The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria ɪʧˈkɛriə ( Chechen Latin: Noxçiyn Respublika Noxçiyçö Chechen Cyrillic: Нохчийн Республика Нохчийчоь In response, after a prolonged air campaign of retaliatory strikes against the Ichkerian regime a ground offensive began in October 1999 effectively starting the Second Chechen War. Ichkeria can refer to Ichkeria (Chechnya, the historical Turkic name for a region more or less coinciding with the Republic of Chechnya Chechen October 1999: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - Much better organised and planned than in the first Chechen War, the military actions by the Russian Federal forces enabled them to re-establish control over most regions and after the re-capture of Grozny in February 2000. Grozny (Гро́зный Соьлж-ГIала Sölƶ-Ġala or Соьлжа-ГIала Sölƶa -Ġala sometimes referred to as ce Джовхар-ГIала February 2000: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September The Ichkerian regime fell apart. Russia has severely disabled the Chechen rebel movement, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus. The North Caucasus, also Ciscaucasus, Ciscaucasia or Forecaucasia, is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe  Nonetheless Russia was successful in installing a pro-Moscow Chechen regime, and the most prominent separatist leaders died including former President Aslan Maskhadov and radical warlord Shamil Basayev. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Shamil Salmanovich Basayev (Шамиль Салманович Басаев (January 14 1965 – July 10 2006 was a Chechen field commander and a leader of the Chechen
Since 1990, the Chechen Republic has had legal, military, and civil conflicts involving separatist movements and pro-Russian authorities. Government of Akhmad Kadyrov Russian President Vladimir Putin established Direct rule of Chechnya in May 2000 Today, Chechnya is a relatively stable federal republic, although there is still some separatist movement there. A federal republic is a Federation of States with a republican form of government Its regional constitution entered into effect on April 2, 2003 after an all-Chechen referendum was held on March 23, 2003. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The independent observers alleged that the officially reported voter turnout seemed to be much higher than the reality.  Some Chechens are or were controlled by regional teips, or clans, despite the existence of pro- and anti-Russian political structures. Teip (also taip) is a Chechen tribal organization or Clan, self-identified through descent from a common Ancestor and geographic
The motivations of the Russian and Chechens in these conflicts are complicated. Principally, Russia's stake in Chechnya relates to the fear that if Chechnya becomes independent, even more territories will break away from Russia, leading to its disintegration. Economic interests are another factor, as is a long standing conflict between Russia and Chechnya.
There are different groups within Chechnya fighting the Russians who have different political, economic and/or ideological motivations for doing so. Some of these derive from hatred and a desire for the revenge of past Russian military and political action in the region. Most notably the forced relocation in the 1940s of the entire population to Siberia, resulting in the estimated death of a quarter of the population. The combination of motives demonstrates the cycle of violence and hatred that often fuels regional conflicts of this nature, as well as a military culture that makes much of the population willing to engage in military struggle under the command of one leader. Unemployment and poverty are also factors in the prolonged conflict.
The former separatist religious leader (mufti) Akhmad Kadyrov, looked upon as a traitor by many separatists, was elected president with 83% of the vote in an internationally monitored election on October 5, 2003. Akhmad Abdulkhamidovich Kadyrov (Ахмат Абдулхамидович Кадыров ( August 23, 1951  – May 9, 2004) also spelled Events 869 - The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Incidents of ballot stuffing and voter intimidation by Russian soldiers and the exclusion of separatist parties from the polls were subsequently reported by the OSCE monitors. On May 9, 2004, Kadyrov was assassinated in Grozny football stadium by a landmine explosion that was planted beneath a VIP stage and detonated during a parade, and Sergey Abramov was appointed to the position of acting prime minister after the incident. Events 1457 BC - Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " A land mine is an Explosive device designed to be placed on or in the ground to explode when triggered by an operator or the Proximity of a vehicle person Sergei Abramov (born February 29 1972) is a Moscow -based politician and former Minister of Finance, acting President and Prime However, since 2005 Ramzan Kadyrov (son of Akhmad Kadyrov) has been caretaker prime minister, and in 2007 was appointed a new president. Ramzan Akhmadovich Kadyrov (Russian Рамзан Ахмадович Кадыров) (born 5 October 1976, Tsentoroi, Chechnya Many allege he is the wealthiest and most powerful man in the republic, with control over a large private militia referred to as the Kadyrovtsy. Kadyrovtsy (Кадыровцы Kadyrovcy, literally "Kadyrov's followers" also Kadyrovites, is a term used by the population of Chechnya, as The militia, which began as his father's security force, has been accused of killings and kidnappings by human rights organizations such as Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Human rights.
In addition to the Russian regional government, there was a separatist Ichkeria government that was not recognized by any state (although members have been given political asylum in European and Arab countries, as well as the United States). The separatist government was recognised for a short while by Georgia (when Georgian President was Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Chechen President was Dzhokhar Dudaev). Zviad Gamsakhurdia ( Georgian: ზვიად გამსახურდია, ( March 31, 1939 — December 31, 1993 Dzhokhar Musayevich Dudayev (Дудин Муса кант Жовхар Джохар Мусаевич Дудаев (February 1944 &ndash April 21 1996) was In 1999 the Taliban government of Afghanistan recognized independent Chechnya and opened an embassy in Kabul on 16 January 2000; recognition ceased with the fall of the Taliban in 2001. The Taliban ( طالبان, also anglicised as Taleban; translation "students" is a Sunni Islamist, predominately Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. The president of this government was Aslan Maskhadov, the Foreign Minister was Ilyas Akhmadov, who was the spokesman for Maskhadov. Aslan (Khalid Aliyevich Maskhadov ( Chechen: Масхадан Али кант Аслан Latin Masxadan Ali kant Aslan Russian: Аслан Алиевич Масхадов Ilyas Khamzatovich Akhmadov ( Ильяс Хамзатович Ахмадов) (born December 19, 1960) served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs Aslan Maskhadov had been elected in an internationally monitored election in 1997 for 4 years, which took place after signing a peace agreement with Russia. In 2001 he issued a decree prolonging his office for one additional year; he was unable to participate in the 2003 presidential election, since separatist parties were barred by the Russian government, and Maskhadov faced accusations of terrorist offences in Russia. Maskhadov left Grozny and moved to the separatist-controlled areas of the south at the onset of the Second Chechen War. The Second Chechen War, in a later phase better known as the War in the North Caucasus, was launched by the Russian Federation starting August 26 Maskhadov was unable to influence a number of warlords who retain effective control over Chechen territory, and his power was diminished as a result. Russian forces killed Maskhadov on March 8, 2005, and the assassination of Maskhadov was widely criticized since it left no legitimate Chechen separatist leader to conduct peace talks with. Events 1618 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Akhmed Zakayev, Deputy Prime Minister and a Foreign Minister under Maskhadov, was appointed shortly after the 1997 election and is currently living under asylum in England. Akhmed Khalidovich Zakayev ( Ахмед Халидович Закаев) (born April 26 1956 in Kazakh SSR, Soviet Union) is the former Deputy England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland He and others chose Abdul Khalim Saidullayev, a relatively unknown Islamic judge who was previously the host of an Islamic program on Chechen television, to replace Maskhadov following his death. Abdul-Halim Salamovich Sadulayev ( Chechen: Садулин Абусаламин кант Абдулхалим Russian: Абдул-Халим Саламович On June 17, 2006, it was reported that Russian special forces killed Abdul Khalim Saidullayev in a raid in a Chechen town Argun. Events 1462 - Vlad III the Impaler attempts to assassinate Mehmed II ( The Night Attack) forcing him to retreat Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The successor of Saidullayev became Doku Umarov. Doku (Dokka Khamatovich Umarov ( Chechen: Умаран Хамади кант Докка Доку Хаматович Умаров also know as Emir Abu On October 31, 2007 Umarov abolished the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and its presidency and in its place proclaimed the Caucasian Emirate with himself as its Emir. Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria ɪʧˈkɛriə ( Chechen Latin: Noxçiyn Respublika Noxçiyçö Chechen Cyrillic: Нохчийн Республика Нохчийчоь The Caucasus Emirate also known as the Caucasian Emirate is a self proclaimed Successor state to the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and was announced on Emir ( Arabic: ar أمير;, female أميرة; emira;) ( Farsi and Urdu: امیر) This change of status has been rejected by many Chechen politicians and military leaders who continue to support the existence of the republic.
Human Rights Watch reports that pro-Moscow Chechen forces under the effective command of President Ramzan Kadyrov, as well as federal police personnel used torture to get information about separatist forces. Human Rights Watch is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Human rights. Ramzan Akhmadovich Kadyrov (Russian Рамзан Ахмадович Кадыров) (born 5 October 1976, Tsentoroi, Chechnya "If you are detained in Chechnya, you face a real and immediate risk of torture. And there is little chance that your torturer will be held accountable," said Holly Cartner, Director Europe and Central Asia division of HRW.
Human rights groups criticized the conduct of the 2005 parliamentary elections as unfairly influenced by the central Russian government and military. 
The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre reports that after hundreds of thousands of people fled their homes after inter-ethnic and separatist conflicts in Chechnya in 1994 and 1999, more than 150,000 people still remain displaced in Russia more than a decade after the beginning of armed conflict. 
According to the 2004 estimates, the population of Chechnya is approximately 1. Chechens ( Chechen: Hохчи / Noxçi) constitute the largest native Ethnic group originating in the North Caucasus region 1 million. As per 2002 Census, Chechens at 1,031,647 make up 93. Russian Census of 2002 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2002 го́да was the first Census of the Russian Federation carried Chechens ( Chechen: Hохчи / Noxçi) constitute the largest native Ethnic group originating in the North Caucasus region 5% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians (40,645, or 3. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries 7%), Kumyks (8,883, or 0. Kumyks ( Kumyk: къумукълар qumuqlar, Russian: кумыки are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan 8%), Ingush (2,914 or 0. 3%) and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0. 5% of the total population. Birth rate was 25. 41 in 2004. (25. 7 in Achkhoi Martan, 19. 8 in Groznyy, 17. 5 in Kurchaloi,28. 3 in Urus Martan and 11. 1 in Vedeno). According to the Chechen State Statistical Committee, Chechnya's population had grown to 1. 205 million in January 2006. January 2006: ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July 
Most Chechens are Sunni Muslim, the country having converted to that religion between the 16th and the 19th centuries. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion At the end of the Soviet era, ethnic Russians comprised about 23% of the population (269,000 in 1989). Due to widespread lawlessness and ethnic cleansing under the government of Dzhokhar Dudayev most non-Chechens (and many Chechens as well) fled the country during the 1990s or were killed. Dzhokhar Musayevich Dudayev (Дудин Муса кант Жовхар Джохар Мусаевич Дудаев (February 1944 &ndash April 21 1996) was 
The languages used in the Republic are Chechen and Russian. The Chechen language (Нохчийн мотт / Noxçiyn mott Medieval Chechen نوًچین موت) is spoken by more than 1 Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Chechen belongs to the Vaynakh or North-central Caucasian linguistic family, which also includes Ingush and Batsb. See also Nakh peoples The Nakh languages are a small family of languages spoken mostly in Russia ( Chechnya and Ingushetia) and Georgia Ingush is a Language spoken by approximately 415000 people (2005 known as the Ingush, across a region covering Ingushetia, Chechnya, Bats (also Batsi, Batsbi, Batsb, Batsaw, Tsova-Tush) is the Language of the Bats people, a Caucasian Some scholars place it in a wider Iberian-Caucasian super-family. The term Ibero-Caucasian (or Iberian-Caucasian) was proposed by Georgian linguist Arnold Chikobava for the union of the three language families that are
Chechnya has one of the youngest populations in the generally aging Russian Federation; in the early 1990s, it was among the few regions experiencing natural population growth.
For the first half of 2007, the birth rate was 26. 4
|census 1926||census 1939||census 2002|
|Chechens||293,190 (72. Chechens ( Chechen: Hохчи / Noxçi) constitute the largest native Ethnic group originating in the North Caucasus region 0%)||360,598 (64. 4%)||1,031,647 (93. 5%)|
|Russians||77,274 (19. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries 0%)||157,621 (28. 1%)||40,645 (3. 7%)|
|Kumyks||2,217 (0. Kumyks ( Kumyk: къумукълар qumuqlar, Russian: кумыки are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan 5%)||3,305 (0. 6%)||8,883 (0. 8%)|
|Ingushes||154 (0. The Ingush ( Ingush: Галгай "Ghalghay" are an Ethnic group of the North Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian 0%)||4,336 (0. 8%)||2,914 (0. 3%)|
|Others||34,112 (8. 4%)||34,088 (6. 1%)||19,597 (1. 8%)|
Overall, Chechnya is predominantly Muslim. Most of whom who follow either the Shafi'i, Hanafi, or the Maliki schools of jurisprudence. The Shāfi‘ī Madhab ( ar شافعي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh, or religious law within The Hanafi ( Arabic حنفي school is the oldest of the four schools of thought ( Madhhabs The Maliki Madhhab ( Arabic مالكي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam The Shafi'i school of jurisprudence has a long tradition among the Chechens, and thus it remains the most practiced. 
The once strong Russian minority in Chechnya, mostly Terek Cossacks, are predominately Russian Orthodox, although presently only one church exists in Grozny. Terek Cossack Host (Терское казачье войско was a Cossack host created in 1577 from free Cossacks who resettled from Volga to See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure The Armenian community, which used to number around 20,000 in Grozny alone, has dwindled to a couple of families. The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large 
During the war, the Chechen economy fell apart. Gross domestic product, if reliably calculable, would be only a fraction of the prewar level. Problems with the Chechen economy had an effect on the federal Russian economy — a number of financial crimes during the 1990s were committed using Chechen financial organizations. Chechnya has the highest ratio within Russian Federation of financial operations made in U.S. dollar to operations in Russian rubles. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been The ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural ru рубли́ rubli; see note on English spelling and Russian plurals with numbers There are many counterfeit U. A counterfeit is an imitation that is made usually with the intent to deceptively represent its content or origins S. dollars printed there. In 1994, the separatists planned to introduce a new currency, the nahar, but that did not happen due to Russian troops re-taking Chechnya in the Second Chechen War. The naxar (co-spelled nakhar or nahar) is the name of the Currency that Chechen Separatists planned for Chechen Republic of Ichkeria The Second Chechen War, in a later phase better known as the War in the North Caucasus, was launched by the Russian Federation starting August 26 As an effect of the war, approximately 80% of the economic potential of Chechnya was destroyed. Much of the money spent by the Russian federal government to rebuild Chechnya has been wasted. According to the Russian government, over $2 billion were spent on the reconstruction of the Chechen economy since 2000. However, according to the Russian central economic control agency (Schyotnaya Palata), not more than $350 million were spent as intended. That being said, the economic situation in Chechnya has improved considerably since 2000. According to the New York Times, major efforts to rebuild Grozny have been made, and improvements in the political situation have led some officials to consider setting up a tourism industry-though there are claims that construction workers are being irregularly paid and that poor people have been displaced. See the main article Grozny#Today. Grozny (Гро́зный Соьлж-ГIала Sölƶ-Ġala or Соьлжа-ГIала Sölƶa -Ġala sometimes referred to as ce Джовхар-ГIала
A memorial is an object which serves as a memory of something usually a person (who has died or an event Catalan ˈkætəˌlæn ( català kətəˈla or) is a Romance language, the national and official language of Andorra, and a co-official "Memorial" ( Russian: Мемориал is an international historical and Civil rights society that operates in a number of post- USSR states The Jamestown Foundation is a Washington DC -based Think tank, whose stated mission is to "inform and educate" policy makers about events and trends which The Kavkaz Center (KC is a privately-run Internet publication that claims to be "a Chechen internet Agency which is independent International The Guardian (until 1959 The Manchester Guardian) is a British Newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. FC Terek Grozny (Russian АНО "Республиканский футбольный клуб "Терек" им See also CSKA Moscow PFC CSKA Moskva (Профессиональный футбольный клуб ЦСКА Москва or Professional Football Club — Central