Native name: Wharekauri
Topographical map of the Chatham Islands
|Location||Southern Pacific Ocean|
|Major islands||Chatham Island, Pitt Island|
|Highest point||Maungatere Hill|
The archipelago of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in the Moriori language and Wharekauri in the Māori language), is a territory of New Zealand and consists of about 10 islands within a 40-km radius. An archipelago (ɑrkəˈpɛləgoʊ is a chain or cluster of Islands The word archipelago literally means "chief Sea " from Italian For the New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island An island (ˈaɪlənd or isle (/ˈaɪl/ is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water in two dimensions above high tide and isolated from other significant The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand The remote islands, located over 800 kilometers east of southern New Zealand, have officially belonged to the country since 1842.
The islands as a grouping are located at about Christchurch, New Zealand. The Chatham Rise is an area of ocean floor to the east of New Zealand, forming part of the Zealandia continent Christchurch (Ōtautahi The largest City in the South Island, it is also the second largest city and third largest urban area of New Zealand New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island They cover a total of 966 km², almost all of which is in the two main islands, Chatham Island and Pitt Island. Chatham Island is by far the largest island of the Chatham Islands group in the south Pacific Ocean off the eastern coast of New Zealand, &mdash Pitt Island or Rangiauria is the second largest island in the Chatham Islands, originally known as Rekohu, roughly 800 km east of
Chatham and Pitt are the only inhabited islands, with the remaining smaller islands being conservation reserves with access restricted or prohibited.
The names of the main islands, in the order of occupation are:
Some of these islands, once cleared for farming, are now preserved as nature reserves to conserve some of the flora and fauna that are unique to the Chatham Islands. Cape Pattison is a headland in the northwest of Chatham Island, the largest island in the Chatham Islands chain located 800 km east of New Zealand Chatham Island is by far the largest island of the Chatham Islands group in the south Pacific Ocean off the eastern coast of New Zealand, &mdash
The international date line lies to the east of the Chathams, even though the islands lie east of 180° longitude. Consequently, the Chatham Islands observe their own time, 45 minutes ahead of New Zealand time, including during periods of daylight saving. History On 2 November 1868, New Zealand officially adopted a standard time to be observed nationally and was perhaps the first country to do so (New Zealand Time orients itself to 180° longitude). Chatham Island is an antipode point of the French department of Hérault (Languedoc-Rousillon). The antipodes refer to lands and peoples located on the opposite side of the World compared to the speaker Hérault ( Occitan: Erau) is a department in the southwest of France named after the Hérault river. Languedoc-Roussillon ( Occitan: Lengadòc-Rosselhon; Catalan: Llenguadoc-Rosselló) is one of the 26 regions of France.
Most of the land is fern or pasture covered, although there are some areas of forest. Of interest are the macrocarpa trees, with branches trailing almost horizontally in the lee of the wind. Cupressus macrocarpa ( Monterey Cypress, Macrocarpa; syn Callitropsis macrocarpa (Hartw The islands are generally hilly; Pitt more so than Chatham; although the highest point (299 m) is located on a plateau near the southernmost point of the main island. The main island of the groups, Rekohu, is dotted with numerous lakes and lagoons, notably the large Te Whanga Lagoon. Covering 180 km² Te Whanga Lagoon dominates the geography of Chatham Island, in the South Pacific Ocean off New Zealand 's east coast Other lakes on Chatham include Huro and Rangitahi. Rekohu has a number of streams including Te Awainanga and Tuku.
The island is home to a number of endemic birds. Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. The most famous species of the islands are the Magenta Petrel and the Black Robin, both of which came periously close to extinction before being saved through conservation efforts. The Magenta Petrel or Chatham Island Taiko ( Pterodroma magentae) is a small Seabird in the Gadfly petrel Genus, The Black Robin or Chatham Island Robin (Petroica traversi is an endangered Bird from the Chatham Islands off the east coast of Bird conservation is a field in the science of Conservation biology related to threatened Birds Humans have had a profound effect on many bird species Other endemic species are the Chatham Island Oystercatcher, the Chatham Gerygone, the Parea or Chatham Islands Pigeon, Forbes' Parakeet, the Chatham Islands Snipe and the Shore Plover. The Chatham Island Oystercatcher, Haematopus chathamensis, is a species of Oystercatcher. UserPolbot. -->The Chatham Island Warbler ( Gerygone albofrontata) is a species of Bird in the Pardalotidae The Parea ( Moriori) or Chatham Island Pigeon ( Hemiphaga chathamensis) is a Bird endemic to the Chatham Islands in Forbes' parakeet ( Cyanoramphus forbesi) or the Yellow-fronted Parakeet is a rare parrot endemic to the Chatham Islands. UserPolbot. -->The Chatham Island Snipe ( Coenocorypha pusilla) is a species of Wader in the Scolopacidae The Shore Plover ( Thinornis novaeseelandiae) is a small species (20 cm in length 60g of Plover endemic to New Zealand. Several species have also gone extinct, including the three endemic species of rail, Chatham Islands Raven and the Chatham Islands Fernbird. In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. The rails, or Rallidae, are a large cosmopolitan family of small to medium-sized Birds The family exhibits considerable diversity The Chatham Islands Raven was native to the Chatham Islands ( New Zealand) The Chatham Islands Fernbird ( Bowdleria rufescens) is an extinct bird species endemic to Pitt Island and Mangere Island (which belong to the Chatham
The first human habitation of the Chathams involved migrating Polynesian tribes who settled the islands about 1500 CE, and in their isolation became the Moriori people. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a Subregion of Oceania, comprising a large grouping of over A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally consists of a Social group existing before the development of or outside of States Many anthropologists use Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands ( Rekohu in the Moriori language, Wharekauri in the Māori language The exact origins of these people remains a matter of some dispute. The Moriori population of the islands numbered about 2000. Their agricultural resources were not suited for the colder Chathams, so they lived as hunter-gatherers, taking food from the sea and from native flora. A hunter-gatherer society is one whose primary subsistence method involves the direct procurement of edible plants and animals from the wild Foraging and Hunting Whilst their new environment deprived them of the resources with which to build ocean-going craft for long voyages, their intelligence and perseverance saw the invention of the most ingenuous craft afloat. Moriori built what was known as the waka korari, a semi-submerged craft, constructed of flax and lined with air bladders from kelp. This craft was used to travel to the outer islands on 'birding' missions (King. M, 1989, Moriori A people Rediscovered). The Moriori society was a peaceful society and bloodshed was outlawed by the chief Nunuku after generations of warfare. Arguments were solved by consensus or by individual duels singular combat rather than warfare, but at the first sign of bloodshed, the fight was over.
The name "Chatham Islands" comes from the ship HMS Chatham of the Vancouver Expedition, whose captain William R. Broughton landed on November 29, 1791, claimed possession for Great Britain and named the islands after the political head of the Royal Navy (coincidentally also named Chatham). The Vancouver Expedition Chatham' s first significant voyage was Vancouver's five-year mission to the South Seas and Pacific Northwest coast of America The Vancouver Expedition (1791-1795 was a five-year voyage of exploration and diplomacy commanded by Captain George Vancouver. William Robert Broughton was a British naval officer in the late 18th century Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Year 1791 ( MDCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands John Pitt 2nd Earl of Chatham, KG, PC ( 9 October 1756 - 24 September 1835) was the eldest son of William Pitt the A relative of his, Thomas Pitt was also a member of the Vancouver Expedition. Thomas Pitt 2nd Baron Camelford ( February 19, 1775 - March 10, 1804) was a British peer naval officer and wastrel best known for Sealers and whalers soon started hunting in the surrounding ocean with the islands as their base. Sealing redirects here for other uses see Sealing (disambiguation. Whaling is the hunting of Whales and dates back to at least 6000 BC It is estimated that 10 to 20 percent of the indigenous population soon died from diseases introduced by foreigners. The sealing and whaling industries ceased activities about 1861, while fishing remained as a major economic activity. For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish.
On November 19, 1835, a British ship carrying 500 Māori armed with guns, clubs and axes arrived, followed by another ship on December 5, 1835 with a further 400 Māori. Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1835 ( MDCCCXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 63 BC - Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations. Year 1835 ( MDCCCXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common They proceeded to massacre the Moriori and enslave the survivors. A Moriori survivor recalled: "[The Māori] commenced to kill us like sheep. . . . [We] were terrified, fled to the bush, concealed ourselves in holes underground, and in any place to escape our enemies. It was of no avail; we were discovered and killed - men, women and children indiscriminately". A Māori conqueror justified their actions as follows: "We took possession. . . in accordance with our customs and we caught all the people. Not one escaped. . . . . "
After the invasion, Moriori were forbidden to marry Moriori, nor to have children with each other. All became slaves of the Ngati Tama and Ngati Mutunga invaders. Many died from despair. Many Moriori women had children to their Maori masters. A small amount of Moriori women eventually married either Maori or European men. Some were taken from the Chathams and never returned. Today, in spite of the difficulties and genocide that Moriori faced, Moriori are enjoying a renaissance, both on Rekohu and in the mainland of New Zealand. Moriori culture is being revived and they have celebrated the opening of the new Kopinga Marae (meeting house) in January 2005.
An all-male group of German Lutheran missionaries arrived in 1843. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. When a group of women were sent out to join them three years later, several marriages ensued, and many members of the present-day population can trace their ancestry back to the missionary families.
Moriori have received recognition from the Crown and Government and some of their claims against those institutions for the generations of neglect and oppression have been listened to and acted on. Moriori are recognised as the original people of Rekohu. The Crown also recognised the invading Maori tribe: Ngati Mutunga as having "indigenous" status in the Chatham Islands by right of 160 odd years of occupation. Both groups have been given settlement packages of fishing quota.
It had been thought since the 1800s that the original Moriori arrived directly from more northerly Polynesian islands, which would make the Moriori's fishing rights claim invalid. However, current research indicates that ancestral Moriori were Māori who came to the Chatham Islands from New Zealand about 1500.  As Kerry Howe puts it,
Scholarship over the past 40 years has radically revised the model offered a century earlier by Smith: the Moriori as a pre-Polynesian people have gone (the term Moriori is now a technical term referring to those ancestral Maori who settled the Chatham Islands). '
Modern inhabitants, descendants of those who invaded and conquered the archipelago in 1835, claim access to ancestral Māori fishing rights. An extensive report on these claims, "Rekohu", has been published by the Waitangi Tribunal. The Waitangi Tribunal (Māori Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti) is a New Zealand permanent commission of inquiry established by an Act of Parliament in 
Chatham and Pitt Islands are inhabited. The population of 609 individuals have European (66%), Māori (57%) and Moriori origins. The term New Zealand European refers to New Zealand residents of European descent who identify as New Zealand Europeans rather than some more specific European This article discusses the Māori people of New Zealand For their language see Māori language, and for other meanings see Māori (disambiguation. Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands ( Rekohu in the Moriori language, Wharekauri in the Māori language The town of Waitangi is the main settlement with some 200 residents. Waitangi is the main port and settlement on the Chatham Islands. Other villages are at Te One and Kaingaroa (where two primary schools are located. A third school can be found on Pitt Island). There are also the fishing villages of Owenga and Port Hutt.
Waitangi facilities include a hospital with resident doctor, trading bank, several stores, and engineering and marine services. The main shipping wharf is located here.
Visitors to the Chathams usually arrive by air from Christchurch, Auckland or Wellington (around 1. Christchurch (Ōtautahi The largest City in the South Island, it is also the second largest city and third largest urban area of New Zealand The Auckland metropolitan area or Greater Auckland, in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest and most populous urban area in the country Wellington (ˈwælɪŋtən is the Capital of New Zealand, the country's second largest urban area, the 5 - 2 hours from Christchurch on a Convair 580). The Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation, commonly known as Convair, was a US aerospace development and manufacturing complex of the 1940s and later WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout While freight generally arrives by ship (4 - 5 days' sailing time), the sea journey takes too long for many passengers, and is not always available.
Although the Chathams are part of New Zealand, and there are no border controls or formalities on arrival, visitors are advised to have prearranged their accommodation on the islands before arriving. Transport operators may refuse to carry passengers without accommodation bookings. Also, there are no scheduled public transport services on the island but accommodation providers are normally able to arrange transport as well.
For many years a Bristol Freighter served the islands, a slow and noisy freight aircraft converted for carrying passengers by installing a passenger container equipped with airline seats and a toilet in part of the cargo hold. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The air service primarily served to ship out high-value export crayfish products. Crayfish, crawfish, crawdads, or crodgers are freshwater Crustaceans resembling small Lobsters to which they are closely
The grass landing-field at Hapupu, at the northern end of the Island, proved a limiting factor, as few aircraft apart from the Bristol Freighter had both the range to fly to the islands and the ruggedness to land on the grass airstrip. Although other aircraft did use the landing field occasionally, they would often require repairs to fix damage resulting from the rough landing. Hapupu is also the site of the JM Barker (Hapupu) National Historic reserve (one of only two in New Zealand) where momori rakau (Moriori tree carvings) can be found.
In 1991, after many years of requests by locals and the imminent demise of the aging Bristol Freighter aircraft, the construction of a sealed runway at Karewa, Tuuta Airport, allowed more modern aircraft to land safely. Chatham Islands / Tuuta Airport is a small airport 105 NM (19 The Chathams' own airline, Air Chathams, now operates services to Auckland on Thursdays, Wellington on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and Christchurch on Tuesdays. Air Chathams Limited is a commuter Airline based in the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. The timetable varies seasonally, but generally planes depart the Chathams around 10. 30 am (Chathams Time) and arrive in the mainland around noon. Then they refuel and reload, depart again at around 1 pm, back to the Chathams. Air Chathams operates twin turboprop Convair 580 aircraft in combi (freight and passenger) configurations and Fairchild Metroliners. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
There is a small section of tar sealed road between Waitangi and Te One but the majority of the island's roads are gravel.
In Parliament, until the 1980s the Chathams constituted part of the Lyttelton electorate, but since that time they have formed part of the Rongotai general electorate, which mostly lies in Wellington. The (unofficial flag of the Chatham Islands ( Wharekauri in Maori; Rekohu in the indigenous language Moriori) Lyttelton ( is a Port Town on the north shore of Lyttelton Harbour next to Banks Peninsula, 12 km by road from Christchurch This article is about the Wellington city suburb of Rongotai For the article about the New Zealand parliamentary electorate of the same name see Rongotai (NZ electorate Annette King serves as the Member for Rongotai. Early life King was born in Murchison, a town in the Tasman region of the South Island. The Te Tai Tonga Māori seat (held in 2004 by Mahara Okeroa) also includes the Chatham Islands. Te Tai Tonga is a New Zealand Parliamentary Māori electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives In New Zealand politics, the Māori Seats, a special category of electorate, give reserved positions to representatives of Māori The term of all current Parliamentarians expires at the next General Election. Members of New Zealand 's House of Representatives, commonly called " Parliament " normally gain their parliamentary seats through nationwide general
Local government on the islands, uniquely within New Zealand, involves a council established by its own Act of Parliament, the (Chatham Islands Council Act 1995). Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Chatham Islands Council operates as a district council with regional council functions, making it in effect a unitary authority but with not quite as many responsibilities as the others. Territorial authorities are the second tier of Local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. The region is the top tier of Local government in New Zealand. See also Independent city A unitary authority is a type of Local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all Local government functions
Policing is carried out by a sole-charge constable appointed by the Wellington police district, who at various times has often doubled as an official for many government departments, including court registrar (Department for Courts), customs officer (New Zealand Customs Service) and immigration officer (Department of Labour - New Zealand Immigration Service). The New Zealand Police ( Ngā Pirihimana o Aotearoa) is the national Police force of New Zealand, responsible for enforcing criminal and A constable is a person holding a particular office most commonly in law enforcement. Wellington (ˈwælɪŋtən is the Capital of New Zealand, the country's second largest urban area, the State sector organisations in New Zealand are as follows (see also State Sector Act 1988) Parliamentary Offices Office
A District Court judge sent from either the North Island or the South Island presides over court sittings, but urgent sittings may take place at the Wellington District Court. The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. The South Island is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the more populous North Island. Wellington (ˈwælɪŋtən is the Capital of New Zealand, the country's second largest urban area, the
Because of the isolation and small population, some of the rules governing daily activities undergo a certain relaxation on some of New Zealand's smaller islands. For example, every transport service operated solely on Great Barrier Island, the Chatham Islands or Stewart Island need not comply with section 70C of the Transport Act 1962 (the requirements for drivers to maintain driving-hours logbooks). Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Drivers subject to section 70B must nevertheless keep record of their driving hours in some form. See New Zealand Gazette 14 August 2003. Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar.
The partially-elected Hawke's Bay District Health Board provides the islands with health services. Geography The region is situated on the east coast of the North Island.
There are three schools on the Chatham Islands, at Kaingaroa, Te One and Pitt Island. Pitt Island and Kaingaroa are staffed by sole charge principals while Te One has three teachers and a principal. These schools cater for children from Year 1 to 8. There is no secondary school on the Chathams. The majority of secondary school aged students leave the island for boarding schools in New Zealand. A small number remain on the island and carry out their secondary education through correspondence.
In Jules Verne's Robur the Conqueror, Robur anchors his flying vessel Albatross over the islands after the horizontal propellers are damaged in a storm. The Chatham Islands are an archipelago of about 10 islands lying 800 km to the east of Christchurch. Jules Gabriel Verne ( February 8 1828 &ndash March 24 1905) was a French Author who pioneered the science-fiction Robur-the-Conqueror (Robur-le-Conquérant is a science fiction novel by Jules Verne, published in 1886
David Mitchell's novel Cloud Atlas (ISBN 0375507256) describes an imagined life of an 18th Century American traveller who ends up on the Chatham Islands. David Mitchell (born January 12, 1969) is an English Novelist. Cloud Atlas is a 2004 novel the third book by British author David Mitchell. He describes a number of incidents involving Moriori and Maori and "western" peoples, as well as giving a brief history of the Moriori people.