Chaplin in costume as The Tramp
|Born||Charles Spencer Chaplin, Jr. The Tramp, also known as The Little Tramp ( Charlot internationally Carlitos in Brazilian Portuguese) was Charlie Chaplin 's most memorable |
16 April 1889
Walworth, London, England
|Died||25 December 1977 (aged 88)|
|Years active||1914 - 1976|
|Spouse(s)||Mildred Harris (1918-20)|
Lita Grey (1924-28)
Oona O'Neill (1943-77)
Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin, KBE (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977), better known as Charlie Chaplin, was an Academy Award-winning English comedic actor. Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Year 1889 ( MDCCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Walworth is an inner-city district in the London Borough of Southwark. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Vevey is a town in Switzerland in the canton Vaud, on the north shore of Lake Geneva. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation An actor, actress, player or thespian (see terminology) is a person who Acts in a Dramatic production and who works A film director, or filmmaker, is a person who directs the making of a Film. Mildred Harris ( November 29, 1901 &ndash July 20, 1944) was an American Actress of the Silent film era Lita Grey ( April 15, 1908 &ndash December 29, 1995) was an American actress and the second wife of Charles Chaplin. Paulette Goddard ( June 3, 1910 – April 23, 1990) was an Oscar -nominated American Film and Theatre Oona Lady Chaplin (née O'Neill) ( May 13, 1925 – September 27, 1991) was the daughter of Nobel and Pulitzer The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British Order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Year 1889 ( MDCCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Comedy film is a genre of Film in which the main emphasis is on humor. An actor, actress, player or thespian (see terminology) is a person who Acts in a Dramatic production and who works Chaplin became one of the most famous actors as well as a notable director, composer and musician in the early to mid Hollywood cinema era. A film director, or filmmaker, is a person who directs the making of a Film. A musician is a person who plays or writes Music. Musicians can be classified by their roles in creating or performing music An instrumentalist plays a United States cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century He is considered to have been one of the finest mimes and clowns ever caught on film and has greatly influenced performers in this field. Clowns are comic performers stereotypically characterized by their Grotesque appearance colored wigs stylistic makeup, outlandish Costumes unusually
Chaplin acted in, directed, scripted, produced, and eventually scored his own films. Chaplin was also one of the most creative and influential personalities in the silent-film era. His working life in entertainment spanned over 65 years, from the Victorian stage and music hall in the United Kingdom as a child performer almost until his death at the age of 88. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities Music hall is a form of British theatrical Entertainment which was popular between 1850 and 1960 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Chaplin's high-profile public and private life encompassed highs and lows with both adulation and controversy. Chaplin is also one of the co-founders of United Artists, the movie studio that revolutionized Hollywood. This article is about the film studio Previously it was affiliated with a cinema chain bearing its name now owned by Regal Entertainment Group.
Chaplin's principal character was "The Tramp" (known as "Charlot" in Andorra, France and the French-speaking world, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Romania, and Turkey, and "Carlitos" in Brazil and Argentina). The Tramp, also known as The Little Tramp ( Charlot internationally Carlitos in Brazilian Portuguese) was Charlie Chaplin 's most memorable Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra ( Catalan: Principat d'Andorra) is a small Landlocked country in western This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. La Francophonie is an international organisation of French-speaking countries and governments and in French, the community of French-speaking peoples Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. "The Tramp" is a vagrant with the refined manners and dignity of a gentleman. See also Vagrancy (biology for an alternative use of the term The term gentleman (from Latin gentilis, belonging to a race or "gens" and "man" Cognate with the French word gentilhomme The character wears a tight coat, oversized trousers and shoes, and a derby; carries a bamboo cane; and has a signature toothbrush moustache. The bowler hat, also known as a derby (US or billycock, is a Hard Felt Hat with a rounded crown originally created in 1849 for Edward Bamboo is a group of Woody perennial Evergreen Plants in the True grass family Poaceae, subfamily A Toothbrush moustache (also called a Hitler moustache) is a bushy Moustache, shaved at the edges except for three to five centimetres
Chaplin was born on 16 April 1889, in East Street, Walworth, London. Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Year 1889 ( MDCCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common His parents were both entertainers in the Music Hall tradition; they separated before Charlie was three. Music hall is a form of British theatrical Entertainment which was popular between 1850 and 1960 He learned singing from his parents. The 1891 census shows that his mother, the actress Lily Harvey (Hannah Harriet Hill), lived with Charlie and his older brother Sydney on Barlow Street, Walworth. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population As a child Charlie also lived with his mother in various addresses in and around Kennington Road in Lambeth, including 3 Pownall Terrace, Chester Street, and 46 Methley Street. Kennington Road is a long straight road approximately a mile in length in the London Borough of Lambeth, SE1 running south from Westminster Bridge Road Lambeth is a place in the London Borough of Lambeth, although the area is now more commonly known as Waterloo, after the railway station whose viaduct separates the His maternal grandmother was half-Roma, a fact of which he was extremely proud, but also described as "the skeleton in our family cupboard". The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins  Chaplin's father was an alcoholic and had little contact with his son, though Chaplin and his brother briefly lived with their father and his mistress, Louise, at 287 Kennington Road (which address is now ornamented with a plaque commemorating Chaplin's residence). Alcoholism is a term with multiple and sometimes conflicting definitions The brothers resided there when their mother became mentally ill and was admitted to the Cane Hill Asylum at Coulsdon. Cane Hill was a Psychiatric hospital in Coulsdon in the London Borough of Croydon. Coulsdon is a town in the London Borough of Croydon on the Brighton Road ( A23) His father's mistress sent the young Chaplin to Kennington Road school. Chaplin's father died of alcoholism when Charlie was twelve in 1901. At the time of the 1901 Census, Charles resided at 94 Ferndale Road, Lambeth, with the The Eight Lancashire Lads, which was led by John William Jackson (the 17 year old son of one of the founders). Lambeth is a place in the London Borough of Lambeth, although the area is now more commonly known as Waterloo, after the railway station whose viaduct separates the The Eight Lancashire Lads were a Troupe of young male dancers who toured the Music Halls of Great Britain in the late 1800s and early 1900s
A larynx condition ended the singing career of Chaplin's mother. The larynx (plural larynges) colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the Neck of Mammals involved in protection of the Hannah's first crisis came in 1894 when she was performing at The Canteen, a theatre in Aldershot. Aldershot is a town in the English County of Hampshire, located on heathland about 60 km (37 miles southwest of London. The theatre was mainly frequented by rioters and soldiers, and it was one of the worst places to perform. Hannah was badly injured by the objects the audience mercilessly threw at her, and she was booed off the stage. Backstage, she cried and argued with her manager. In the meantime, the five-year old Chaplin went on stage alone and started singing a very well-known tune at that time, "Jack Jones".
When Hannah Chaplin was again admitted to the Cane Hill Asylum, Chaplin was left in the workhouse at Lambeth in south London, moving after several weeks to the Central London District School for paupers in Hanwell. Hannah Chaplin ( 11 August 1865 — August 28, 1928) was the mother of Charlie Chaplin. A workhouse, colloquially known as a spike was a place where people who were unable to support themselves could go to live and work Hanwell is a town situated in the London Borough of Ealing in West London, between Ealing and Southall. The young Chaplin brothers forged a close relationship to survive. They gravitated to the Music Hall while still very young, and both of them proved to have considerable natural stage talent. Chaplin's early years of desperate poverty were a great influence on his characters. Themes in his films in later years would re-visit the scenes of his childhood deprivation in Lambeth.
Chaplin's mother died in 1928 in Hollywood, seven years after being brought to the U. S. by her sons. Unknown to Charlie and Sydney until years later, they had a half-brother through their mother. The boy, Wheeler Dryden, was raised abroad by his father but later connected with the rest of the family and went to work for Chaplin at his Hollywood studio. George Wheeler Dryden ( August 31, 1892 in London - September 30, 1957 in Los Angeles) was an English actor
Chaplin first toured America with the Fred Karno troupe from 1910 to 1912. Frederick John Westcott ( March 26, 1866 - September 18, 1941) best known by the stage name Fred Karno, was a Theatre Then, after five months back in England, he returned for a second tour and arrived in the United States with the Karno Troupe on October 2, 1912. Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting In the Karno Company was Arthur Stanley Jefferson, who would later become known as Stan Laurel. Stan Laurel (born Arthur Stanley Jefferson; June 16, 1890 &ndash February 23, 1965) was an English comic actor writer Chaplin and Laurel shared a room in a boarding house. Stan Laurel returned to England but Chaplin remained in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In late 1913, Chaplin's act with the Karno Troupe was seen by film producer Mack Sennett, who hired him for his studio, the Keystone Film Company. Mack Sennett ( January 17, 1880 &ndash November 5, 1960) was an Academy Award -winning director and was known as the innovator Keystone Studios was an early Movie studio founded in Edendale California in 1912 as the Keystone Pictures Studio by Chaplin's first film appearance was in Making a Living a one-reel comedy released on February 2, 1914. Making a Living is the first film featuring Charlie Chaplin. It premiered on February 2, 1914. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year At Keystone Studios, Chaplin became an instant success. Chaplin once entered a Charlie Chaplin look-a-like contest in San Francisco and, quite humorously, could not make it to the final round. 
Chaplin's earliest films were made for Mack Sennett's Keystone Studios, where he developed his tramp character and very quickly learned the art and craft of film making. Mack Sennett ( January 17, 1880 &ndash November 5, 1960) was an Academy Award -winning director and was known as the innovator Keystone Studios was an early Movie studio founded in Edendale California in 1912 as the Keystone Pictures Studio by The tramp was first presented to the public in Chaplin's second film Kid Auto Races at Venice (released Feb. Kid Auto Races At Venice is a 1914 American -made Motion picture starring Charlie Chaplin in which his "Tramp" character 7, 1914) though Mabel's Strange Predicament, his third film, (released Feb. Mabel's Strange Predicament is a 1914 American -made Motion picture starring Charles Chaplin and Mabel Normand. 9,1914) was produced a few days before. It was for this film that Chaplin first conceived of the tramp. The character would immediately gain huge popularity among theater audiences. As Chaplin recalled in his autobiography:
Chaplin's early Keystones use the standard Mack Sennett formula of extreme physical comedy and exaggerated gestures. Chaplin's pantomime was subtler, more suitable to romantic and domestic farces than to the usual Keystone chases and mob scenes. The visual gags were pure Keystone, however; the tramp character would aggressively assault his enemies with kicks and bricks. Moviegoers loved this cheerfully earthy new comedian, even though critics warned that his antics bordered on vulgarity. Chaplin was soon entrusted with directing and editing his own films. He made 34 shorts for Sennett during his first year in pictures, as well as the landmark comedy feature Tillie's Punctured Romance.
In 1915, Chaplin signed a much more favorable contract with Essanay Studios, and further developed his cinematic skills, adding new levels of depth and pathos to the Keystone-style slapstick. The Essanay Film Manufacturing Company was a motion picture studio founded on August 10, 1907 in the neighborhood of Uptown Chicago, IL Most of the Essanay films were more ambitious, running twice as long as the average Keystone comedy. Chaplin also developed his own stock company, including ingenue Edna Purviance and comic villains Leo White and Bud Jamison. Edna Purviance ( October 21 1895 &ndash January 11 1958) was an American actress during the Silent movie Leo White ( November 10, 1882 - September 20, 1948) was a stage performer and appeared as a character actor in many Charlie Chaplin
In 1916, the Mutual Film Corporation paid Chaplin US$670,000 to produce a dozen two-reel comedies. Mutual Film Corporation was an early American Motion picture conglomerate best remembered today as the producers of some of Charlie Chaplin 's greatest comedies He was given near complete artistic control, and produced twelve films over an eighteen-month period that rank among the most influential comedy films in cinema. Practically every Mutual comedy is a classic: Easy Street, One AM, The Pawnshop, and The Adventurer are perhaps the best known. Edna Purviance remained the leading lady, and Chaplin added Eric Campbell, Henry Bergman, and Albert Austin to his stock company; Campbell, a Gilbert and Sullivan veteran, provided superb villainy, and second bananas Bergman and Austin would remain with Chaplin for decades. Alfred Eric Campbell ( April 26, 1878, Dunoon &ndash December 20, 1917, Hollywood) was a Scottish Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of Librettist W Chaplin regarded the Mutual period as the happiest of his career, although he also had concerns that the films during that time were becoming formulaic owing to the stringent production schedule his contract required. Upon the US entering World War I, Chaplin became a spokesman for Liberty Bonds with his close friend Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford. 
Most of the Chaplin films in circulation date from his Keystone, Essanay, and Mutual periods. After Chaplin assumed control of his productions in 1918 (and kept exhibitors and audiences waiting for them), entrepreneurs serviced the demand for Chaplin by bringing back his older comedies. The films were recut, retitled, and reissued again and again, first for theatres, then for the home-movie market, and in recent years, for home video. Even Essanay was guilty of this practice, fashioning "new" Chaplin comedies from old film clips and out-takes. The twelve Mutual comedies were revamped as sound movies in 1933, when producer Amadee J. Van Beuren added new orchestral scores and sound effects. A film score is a broad term referring to the music in a film which is generally categorically separated from songs used within a film For the album by The Jam see Sound Affects. Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced Sounds A listing of the dozens of Chaplin films and alternate versions can be found in the Ted Okuda-David Maska book Charlie Chaplin at Keystone and Essanay: Dawn of the Tramp. Ted Okuda (born 1953) is an American non-fiction author in film television and entertainment subjects Efforts to produce definitive versions of Chaplin's pre-1918 short films have been underway in recent years; all twelve Mutual films were restored in 1975 by archivist David Shepard and Blackhawk Films, and new restorations with even more footage were released on DVD in 2006. David Shepard is also the name of a member of the Tennessee House of Representatives. Blackhawk Films, from the 1950s through the early 1980s marketed motion pictures on 16mm, 8mm and Super 8 film
Chaplin never spoke more than cursorily about his filmmaking methods, claiming such a thing would be tantamount to a magician spoiling his own illusion. In fact, until he began making spoken dialogue films with The Great Dictator, Chaplin never shot from a completed script. The Great Dictator is a Comedy film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. The method he developed, once his Essanay contract gave him the freedom to write for and direct himself, was to start from a vague premise -- e. g. , "Charlie enters a health spa" or "Charlie works in a pawn shop. " Chaplin then had sets constructed and worked with his stock company to improvise gags and "business" around them. As ideas were accepted and discarded, a narrative structure would emerge, frequently requiring Chaplin to reshoot an already-completed scene that might have otherwise contradicted the story. 
This is one reason why Chaplin took so much longer to complete his films than did his rivals. In addition, Chaplin was an incredibly exacting director, showing his actors exactly how he wanted them to perform and shooting scores of takes until he had the shot he wanted. (Animator Chuck Jones, who lived near Charlie Chaplin's Lone Star studio as a boy, remembered his father saying he watched Chaplin shoot a scene more than a hundred times until he was satisfied with it. ) This combination of story improvisation and relentless perfectionism -- which resulted in days of effort and thousands of feet of film being wasted, all at enormous expense -- often proved very taxing for Chaplin, who in frustration would often lash out at his actors and crew, keep them waiting idly for hours or, in extreme cases, shutting down production altogether. 
At the conclusion of the Mutual contract in 1917, Chaplin signed a contract with First National to produce eight two-reel films. First National was an association of independent theater owners in the United States that expanded from exhibiting movies to distributing them and eventually to producing them as First National financed and distributed these pictures (1918-23) but otherwise gave him complete creative control over production which he could perform at a more relaxed pace that allowed him to focus on quality. Chaplin built his own Hollywood studio and using his independence, created a remarkable, timeless body of work that remains entertaining and influential. Although First National expected Chaplin to deliver short comedies like the celebrated Mutuals, Chaplin ambitiously expanded most of his personal projects into longer, feature-length films, including Shoulder Arms (1918), The Pilgrim (1923), and the feature-length classic The Kid (1921). Shoulder Arms is Charlie Chaplin 's second Film for First National Pictures. The Pilgrim is a 1923 American Silent film made by Charlie Chaplin for the First National Film Company, starring Chaplin The Kid is a 1921 Silent film by Charlie Chaplin that featured Jackie Coogan, as his adopted son and sidekick
In 1919, Chaplin co-founded the United Artists film distribution company with Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and D.W. Griffith, all of whom were seeking to escape the growing power consolidation of film distributors and financiers in the developing Hollywood studio system. This article is about the film studio Previously it was affiliated with a cinema chain bearing its name now owned by Regal Entertainment Group. Mary Pickford ( April 8, 1892 – May 29, 1979) was an Academy Award -winning Canadian motion picture Douglas Fairbanks ( May 23 1883 – December 12 1939) was an American Actor, Screenwriter, director David Llewelyn Wark "D W" Griffith (January 22 1875 &ndash July 23 1948 was a premier pioneering Academy Award -winning American Film director. This move, along with complete control of his film production through his studio, assured Chaplin's independence as a film-maker. He served on the board of UA until the early 1950s.
All Chaplin's United Artists pictures were of feature length, beginning with the atypical drama in which Chaplin had only a brief cameo role, A Woman of Paris (1923). A Woman of Paris is a feature-length Silent film that debuted in 1923. This was followed by the classic comedies The Gold Rush (1925) and The Circus (1928). The Gold Rush is a 1925 Silent film comedy written directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin in his Little Tramp The Circus is a 1928 silent Film which finds Charlie Chaplin 's Little Tramp character being chased by a police officer at a Circus
After the arrival of sound films, Chaplin made City Lights (1931), as well as Modern Times (1936) before he committed to sound. This article refers to the Charlie Chaplin film For other uses see City Lights (disambiguation City Lights is a 1931 English Modern Times is a 1936 Comedy film by Charlie Chaplin that has his iconic Little Tramp character in his final silent-film appearance These were essentially silent films scored with his own music and sound effects. City Lights contained arguably his most perfect balance of comedy and sentimentality. Of the final scene, critic James Agee wrote in Life magazine in 1949 that it was the "greatest single piece of acting ever committed to celluloid". James Rufus Agee (November 27 1909 &ndash May 16 1955 was an American Novelist, Journalist, Poet Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from Nitrocellulose and Camphor, plus dyes and other agents
Chaplin's dialogue films made in Hollywood were The Great Dictator (1940), Monsieur Verdoux (1947) and Limelight (1952). The Great Dictator is a Comedy film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. Monsieur Verdoux is a 1947 Black comedy film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. Limelight is a 1952 comedy - drama Film written directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin, co-starring Claire Bloom
While Modern Times (1936) is a non-talkie, it does contain talk - usually coming from inanimate objects such as a radio or a TV monitor. This was done to help 1930s audiences, who were out of the habit of watching silent films, adjust to not hearing dialogue. Modern Times was the first film where Chaplin's voice is heard (in the nonsense song at the end, being both written and performed by Chaplin). Modern Times is a 1936 Comedy film by Charlie Chaplin that has his iconic Little Tramp character in his final silent-film appearance However, for most viewers it is still considered a silent film -- and the end of an era.
Although "talkies" became the dominant mode of movie making soon after they were introduced in 1927, Chaplin resisted making such a film all through the 1930s. A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image as opposed to a Silent film. He considered cinema essentially a pantomimic art. He said: "Action is more generally understood than words. Like Chinese symbolism, it will mean different things according to its scenic connotation. Listen to a description of some unfamiliar object -- an African wart hog, for example; then look at a picture of the animal and see how surprised you are (Time Magazine, February 9, 1931). "
It is a tribute to Chaplin's versatility that he also has one film credit for choreography for the 1952 film Limelight, and another as a singer for the title music of The Circus (1928). See also, Choreography (literally "dance-writing" from the Greek words "χορεία" (circular dance see chorea) and "γραφή" The best known of several songs he composed are "Smile", composed for the film Modern Times and given lyrics to help promote a 1950s revival of the film, famously covered by Nat King Cole. " Smile " is a pop song originally used in the soundtrack for the 1936 Charlie Chaplin movie ''Modern Times''. Nathaniel Adams Coles (March 17 1919 &ndash February 15 1965 known professionally as Nat King Cole, was an American musician "This Is My Song" from Chaplin's last film, "A Countess From Hong Kong," was a number one hit in several different languages in the 1960s (most notably the version by Petula Clark and discovery of an unreleased version in the 1990s recorded in 1967 by Judith Durham of The Seekers), and Chaplin's theme from Limelight was a hit in the 1950s under the title "Eternally. Petula Clark, CBE (born 15 November 1932 is an English singer actress and Composer best known for her upbeat popular international hits The Seekers were a group of Australian folk -influenced popular musicians that was formed in Melbourne, in 1962 " Chaplin's score to Limelight was nominated for an Academy Award in 1972 due to a decades-long delay in the film premiering in Los Angeles making it eligible. "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film.
Chaplin's first dialogue picture, The Great Dictator (1940), was an act of defiance against German dictator Adolf Hitler and Nazism, filmed and released in the United States one year before the US abandoned its policy of isolationism to enter World War II. The Great Dictator is a Comedy film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Isolationism is a Foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military policy and a political policy of Economic nationalism ( Protectionism Chaplin played the role of a Hitler-like dictator "Adenoid Hynkel", Dictator of Tomainia, clearly modeled on Hitler. The film also showcased comedian Jack Oakie as "Benzino Napaloni", dictator of Bacteria. Jack Oakie (November 12 1903 &ndash January 23 1978 was an American Actor, starring mostly in Films, but also working on stage, The Napaloni character was clearly a jab at Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and Fascism. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology
Paulette Goddard filmed with Chaplin again, depicting a woman in the ghetto. Paulette Goddard ( June 3, 1910 – April 23, 1990) was an Oscar -nominated American Film and Theatre The film was seen as an act of courage in the political environment of the time, both for its ridicule of Nazism and for the portrayal of overt Jewish characters and the depiction of their persecution. Chaplin played both the role of Adenoid Hynkel and also that of a look-alike Jewish barber cruelly persecuted by the Nazis. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The barber physically resembles Chaplin's Tramp character, but is not considered to be the Tramp. At the conclusion, the two characters Chaplin portrayed swapped positions through a complex plot, and he dropped out of his comic character to address the audience directly in a speech.
Chaplin's political sympathies always lay with the left. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions His politics seem tame by modern standards, but in the 1940s his views (in conjunction with his influence, fame, and status in the United States as a resident foreigner) were seen by many as communistic. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based His silent films made prior to the Great Depression typically did not contain overt political themes or messages, apart from the Tramp's plight in poverty and his run-ins with the law, but his 1930s films were more openly political. Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and Modern Times depicts workers and poor people in dismal conditions. The final dramatic speech in The Great Dictator, which was critical of following patriotic nationalism without question, and his vocal public support for the opening of a second European front in 1942 to assist the Soviet Union in World War II were controversial. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In at least one of those speeches, according to a contemporary account in the Daily Worker, he intimated that Communism might sweep the world after World War II and equated it with human progress. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Apart from the controversial 1942 speeches, Chaplin declined to support the war effort as he had done for the First World War which led to public anger, although his two sons saw service in the Army in Europe. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All For most of WWII he was fighting serious criminal and civil charges related to his involvement with actress Joan Barry (see below). After the war, the critical view towards what he regarded as capitalism in his 1947 black comedy, Monsieur Verdoux led to increased hostility, with the film being the subject of protests in many US cities. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Monsieur Verdoux is a 1947 Black comedy film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. As a result, Chaplin's final American film, Limelight, was less political and more autobiographical in nature. His following European-made film, A King in New York (1957), satirized the political persecution and paranoia that had forced him to leave the US five years earlier. For the 1990 film see King of New York. A King in New York is a 1957 film directed by and starring Charles After this film, Chaplin lost interest in making overt political statements, later saying that comedians and clowns should be "above politics".
Although Chaplin had his major successes in the United States and was a resident from 1914 to 1952, he always maintained a neutral nationalistic stance. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the During the era of McCarthyism, Chaplin was accused of "un-American activities" as a suspected communist sympathizer and J. Edgar Hoover, who had instructed the FBI to keep extensive secret files on him, tried to end his United States residency. McCarthyism is a term describing the intense anti-communist suspicion in the United States in a period that lasted roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s The House Committee on Un-American Activities ( HUAC or HCUA 1938–1975 was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Postnominal initials FBI pressure on Chaplin grew after his 1942 campaign for a second European front in the war and reached a critical level in the late 1940s, when Congressional figures threatened to call him as a witness in hearings. This was never done, probably from fear of Chaplin's ability to lampoon the investigators.  This was probably a wise decision, as Chaplin later stated that, if called, he wanted to appear dressed in his Tramp costume.
In 1952, Chaplin left the US for what was intended as a brief trip home to the United Kingdom for the London premiere of Limelight. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Hoover learned of the trip and negotiated with the Immigration and Naturalization Service to revoke Chaplin's re-entry permit. The United States Immigration and Naturalization Service ( INS) was a part of the United States Department of Justice and handled legal and illegal Immigration Chaplin decided not to re-enter the United States, writing; ". . . . . Since the end of the last world war, I have been the object of lies and propaganda by powerful reactionary groups who, by their influence and by the aid of America's yellow press, have created an unhealthy atmosphere in which liberal-minded individuals can be singled out and persecuted. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people Yellow journalism is Journalism that downplays legitimate news in favor of eye-catching headlines that sell more newspapers Under these conditions I find it virtually impossible to continue my motion-picture work, and I have therefore given up my residence in the United States. "
Chaplin then made his home in Vevey, Switzerland. Vevey is a town in Switzerland in the canton Vaud, on the north shore of Lake Geneva. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation He briefly and triumphantly returned to the United States in April 1972, with his wife, to receive an Honorary Oscar, and was welcomed warmly. The Academy Honorary Award, instituted in 1948 for the 21st Academy Awards (previously called the Special Award) is given by the discretion of the
Chaplin won one Oscar in a competitive category, and was given two honorary Academy Awards. John Leslie (Jackie Coogan ( October 26, 1914 – March 1, 1984) was an American Actor who began his movie career as a "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film.
In 1972, Chaplin won an Oscar for the Best Music in an Original Dramatic Score for the 1952 film Limelight, which co-starred Claire Bloom. The Academy Award for Original Music Score is presented to the best substantial body of music in the form of dramatic underscoring written specifically Claire Bloom (born Patricia Claire Blume; 15 February 1931) is an English Film and stage Actress. The film also features an appearance with Buster Keaton, which was the only time the two great comedians ever appeared together. Joseph Frank "Buster" Keaton ( October 4 1895 &ndash February 1 1966) was an Academy Award -winning American Due to Chaplin's political difficulties, the film did not play a one-week theatrical engagement in Los Angeles when it was first produced. This criterion for nomination was unfulfilled until 1972.
Chaplin was also nominated for Best Comedy Director for The Circus in 1929, for Best Picture, Best Actor, Best Original Screenplay (although the Academy no longer lists these nominations in their official records because he received a Special Award instead of being included in the final voting for the competitive ones), and Best Original Music for The Great Dictator in 1940, and again for Best Original Screenplay for Monsieur Verdoux in 1948. During his active years as a filmmaker, Chaplin expressed disdain for the Academy Awards; his son Charles Jr wrote that Chaplin invoked the ire of the Academy in the 1930s by jokingly using his 1929 Oscar as a doorstop. This may help explain why City Lights and Modern Times, considered by several polls to be two of the greatest of all motion pictures, were not nominated for a single Academy Award. This article refers to the Charlie Chaplin film For other uses see City Lights (disambiguation City Lights is a 1931 English Modern Times is a 1936 Comedy film by Charlie Chaplin that has his iconic Little Tramp character in his final silent-film appearance
When the first Oscars were awarded on May 16, 1929, the voting audit procedures that now exist had not yet been put into place, and the categories were still very fluid. Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Chaplin had originally been nominated for both Best Actor and Best Comedy Directing for his movie The Circus, but his name was withdrawn and the Academy decided to give him a special award "for versatility and genius in acting, writing, directing and producing The Circus" instead. The other film to receive a special award that year was The Jazz Singer. The Jazz Singer is a 1927 American Musical film. The first feature-length motion picture with synchronized Dialogue
Chaplin's second honorary award came forty-four years later in 1972, and was for "the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century". He came out of his exile to accept his award, and received the longest standing ovation in Academy Award history, lasting a full five minutes. A standing ovation is a form of Applause where members of a seated Audience stand up while applauding
Chaplin's final two films were made in London: A King in New York (1957) in which he starred, wrote, directed and produced; and A Countess from Hong Kong (1967), starring Sophia Loren and Marlon Brando, in which Chaplin had made his final on-screen appearance in a brief cameo role as a seasick steward, and in which he directed, produced, and written. For the 1990 film see King of New York. A King in New York is a 1957 film directed by and starring Charles A Countess from Hong Kong is a 1967 Comedy film and the last film directed by Charles Chaplin. Sophia Loren (born September 20 1934 is an Academy Award winning Italian film actress born Sofia Villani Scicolone Marlon Brando Jr (April 3 1924 – July 1 2004 was an Academy Award -winning American Actor, whose body of work spanned over half a century He also composed the music for both films with the theme song from A Countess From Hong Kong, This is My Song reaching number one in England sung by Petula Clark. Petula Clark, CBE (born 15 November 1932 is an English singer actress and Composer best known for her upbeat popular international hits Chaplin also compiled a film The Chaplin Revue from three First National films A Dog's Life (1918), Shoulder Arms (1918) and The Pilgrim (1923) for which he composed the music and recorded an introductary narration. The Chaplin Revue is a 1959 film comprising three silent movies made by Charlie Chaplin. A Dog's Life (1918 is a Silent film written produced and directed by Charlie Chaplin. Shoulder Arms is Charlie Chaplin 's second Film for First National Pictures. The Pilgrim is a 1923 American Silent film made by Charlie Chaplin for the First National Film Company, starring Chaplin Aswel as directing these final films Chaplin also wrote his Autobiography, 'My Autobiography', between 1959 and 1963, which was published in 1964.
In his pictorial autobiography My Life In Pictures, published in 1974, Chaplin indicated that he had written a screenplay for his daughter, Victoria; entitled The Freak, the film would have cast her as an angel. The Freak was an unfinished dramatic comedy from Charles Chaplin. According to Chaplin, a script was completed and pre-production rehearsals had begun on the film (the book includes a photograph of Victoria in costume), but were halted when Victoria married. "I mean to make it some day," Chaplin wrote. However, his health declined steadily in the 1970s which hampered all hopes of the film ever been produced.
From 1969 until 1976, Chaplin wrote original music compositions and scores for his silent pictures and re-released them. He composed the scores of all his First National shorts: The Idle Class in 1971 (paired with The Kid for re-release in 1972), A Day's Pleasure in 1973, Pay Day in 1972, Sunnyside in 1974, and of his feature length films firstly The Circus in 1969 and The Kid in 1971. The Idle Class is a 1921 American Silent film made by First National Pictures. A Day's Pleasure is Charlie Chaplin 's fourth film for First National Films. The Kid is a 1921 Silent film by Charlie Chaplin that featured Jackie Coogan, as his adopted son and sidekick Chaplin worked with music associate Eric James whilst composing all his scores.
Chaplin's last completed work was the score for his 1923 film A Woman of Paris, which was completed in 1976, by which time Chaplin was extremely frail, even finding communication difficult. A Woman of Paris is a feature-length Silent film that debuted in 1923.
Hetty Kelly was Chaplin's 'true' first love, a dancer with whom he "instantly" fell in love when she was fifteen and almost married when she was nineteen. At the time Kelly was performing before him in a London music hall and Chaplin asked if she would meet him the following weekend; she agreed. It is said Chaplin fell madly in love with her and asked her to marry him. When she refused, Chaplin suggested it would be best if they did not see each other again; he was reportedly crushed when she agreed. Years later, her memory would remain a 'fetish' with Chaplin. This article concerns the concept of fetishism in Anthropology. He was devastated in 1921 when he learned that she had died of influenza during the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918. Note For information about the content tone and sourcing of this article please see the tags at the bottom of this page There is a slight controversy over whether or not Chaplin and Kelly had a child; if so, the child has yet to be brought to light.
Chaplin and his first major leading lady, Edna Purviance, were involved in a close romantic relationship during the production of his Essanay and Mutual films in 1916–1917. Edna Purviance ( October 21 1895 &ndash January 11 1958) was an American actress during the Silent movie The romance seems to have ended by 1918, and Chaplin's marriage to Mildred Harris in late 1918 ended any possibility of reconciliation. Mildred Harris ( November 29, 1901 &ndash July 20, 1944) was an American Actress of the Silent film era Purviance would continue as leading lady in Chaplin's films until 1923, and would remain on Chaplin's payroll until her death in 1958. She and Chaplin spoke warmly of one another for the rest of their lives.
On October 23, 1918, Chaplin, age 29, married the popular child-actress, Mildred Harris, age sixteen. Events 4004 BC - Creation of the world begins according to the calculations of Archbishop James Ussher 42 BC - Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Mildred Harris ( November 29, 1901 &ndash July 20, 1944) was an American Actress of the Silent film era They had one son, Norman Spencer Chaplin (also known as "The Little Mouse"), born July 7th, 1919, who died three days later. The couple divorced on April 4, 1921. Chaplin admitted that he "was not in love, now that [he] was married [he] wanted to be and wanted the marriage to be a success. " During the divorce, Chaplin claimed Harris had an affair with noted actress of the time Alla Nazimova, rumoured to be fond of seducing young actresses. Alla Nazimova (Алла Назимова born Mariam Edez Adelaida Leventon (Мириам Эдес Аделаида Левентон May 22, 1879 Harris in turn claimed Chaplin was a sexual addict.
Chaplin was involved in a very public relationship and engagement to the Polish actress Pola Negri in 1922–23, after she arrived in Hollywood to star in films. Pola Negri ( Barbara Apolonia Chałupiec) ( 3 January, 1897 - August 1, 1987) was a Polish film actress who achieved The stormy on-off engagement was halted after about nine months, but in many ways it foreshadowed the modern stereotypes of Hollywood star relationships. Chaplin's public involvement with Negri was unique in his public life. By comparison he strove to keep his other romances and relationships very discreet and private (usually without success). Many biographers have concluded the affair with Negri was largely for publicity purposes.
In 1924, during the time he was involved with the underage Lita Grey, Chaplin was rumored to have had a fling with actress Marion Davies, companion of William Randolph Hearst. Marion Davies ( January 3, 1897 &ndash September 22, 1961) was an American film Actress. For other people named William Randolph Hearst see William Randolph Hearst (disambiguation William Randolph Hearst I (April 29 1863 &ndash Davies and Chaplin were both present on Hearst's yacht the weekend preceding the mysterious death of Thomas Harper Ince. Thomas Harper Ince ( November 6, 1882 – November 19, 1924) was an American Silent film Actor, director Charlie allegedly tried to persuade Marion to leave Hearst and remain with him, but she refused and stayed by Hearst's side until his death in 1951. Chaplin made a rare cameo appearance in Davies' 1928 film Show People, and by some accounts supposedly continued an affair with her until 1931. Show People ( 1928) is a Comedy Silent film produced at Cosmopolitan Productions for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and directed
Chaplin first met Lita Grey during the filming of The Kid. Lita Grey ( April 15, 1908 &ndash December 29, 1995) was an American actress and the second wife of Charles Chaplin. Three years later, at age 35, he became involved with the then 16-year-old Grey during preparations for The Gold Rush in which she was to star as the female lead. They married on November 26, 1924, after she became pregnant (a development that resulted in her being removed from the cast of the film). Events 43 BC - The Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus ("Octavian" later "Caesar Augustus" Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. They had two sons, the actors Charles Chaplin Jr. (1925–1968) and Sydney Earle Chaplin (1926–). Charles Spencer Chaplin Jr ( 5 May 1925 - 20 March 1968) was an American Actor. Sydney Earle Chaplin was born on March 31, 1926 in Los Angeles, California. The marriage was a disaster, with the couple hopelessly mismatched. The couple divorced on August 25, 1927. Their extraordinarily bitter divorce in 1928 had Chaplin paying Grey a then-record-breaking US$825,000 settlement, on top of almost one million dollars in legal costs. The stress of the sensational divorce, compounded by a federal tax dispute, allegedly turned his hair white. The Chaplin biographer Joyce Milton asserted in Tramp: The Life of Charlie Chaplin that the Grey-Chaplin marriage was the inspiration for Vladimir Nabokov's 1950s novel Lolita. Lolita (1955 is a Novel by Vladimir Nabokov, first written in English and published in 1955 in Paris, later translated by the author
Grey's replacement on The Gold Rush was Georgia Hale. Georgia Hale (born on June 24, 1905 in St Joseph Missouri &ndash died on June 7, 1985 in Hollywood California) was In the documentary series, Unknown Chaplin, Hale, in a 1980s interview states that she had idolized Chaplin since childhood and that the then-19-year-old actress and Chaplin began an affair that continued for several years, which she details in her memoir, Charlie Chaplin: Intimate Close-Ups. Unknown Chaplin is an acclaimed three-part 1983 British Television documentary about the career and the methods of the Film luminary During production of Chaplin's film City Lights in 1929-30, Hale was called in to replace Virginia Cherrill as the flower girl. This article refers to the Charlie Chaplin film For other uses see City Lights (disambiguation City Lights is a 1931 English Virginia Cherrill ( April 12, 1908 - November 14, 1996) was an American actress best known for her role as the blind flower girl Seven minutes of test footage survives from this recasting, and is included on the 2003 DVD release of the film, but economics forced Chaplin to rehire Cherrill. In discussing the situation in Unknown Chaplin, Hale states that her relationship with Chaplin was as strong as ever during filming.
A specialty dancer in Florenz Ziegfeld's Follies, Louise Brooks, met Chaplin when he came to New York for the opening there of The Gold Rush. Florenz Ziegfeld Jr ( March 21, 1869 &ndash July 22, 1932) called Flo Ziegfeld, was an American Broadway Louise Brooks ( November 14, 1906 &ndash August 8, 1985) was an American Dancer, model, Showgirl For two months, they cavorted together at the Ritz, and with film financier A. C. Blumenthal and Follies dancer Peggy Fears in Blumenthal's penthouse suite at the Ambassador Hotel. Peggy Fears ( June 1, 1903 - August 24, 1994) was an American actress who appeared in Broadway musical comedies Brooks was with Chaplin when he spent four hours watching a musician torture a violin in a Lower East Side restaurant, an act he would recreate in Limelight. The Lower East Side is a Neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough of Manhattan.
May Reeves was originally hired to be Chaplin's secretary on his 1931-1932 extended trip to Europe, dealing mostly with reading his personal correspondence. She worked only one morning, and then was introduced to Chaplin, who was instantly infatuated by her. May became his constant companion and lover on the trip, much to the disgust of Chaplin's brother, Syd. After Reeves also became involved with Syd, Chaplin ended the relationship and she left his entourage. Reeves chronicled her short time with Chaplin in her book, "The Intimate Charlie Chaplin".
Chaplin and actress Paulette Goddard were involved in a romantic and professional relationship between 1932 and 1940, with Goddard living with Chaplin in his Beverly Hills home for most of this time. Paulette Goddard ( June 3, 1910 – April 23, 1990) was an Oscar -nominated American Film and Theatre Second Chorus ( 1940) is a Hollywood musical Comedy Film starring Fred Astaire, Burgess Meredith, Paulette Paulette Goddard ( June 3, 1910 – April 23, 1990) was an Oscar -nominated American Film and Theatre
Chaplin "discovered" Goddard and gave her starring roles in Modern Times and The Great Dictator. Refusal to clarify their marital status is often claimed to have eliminated Goddard from final consideration for the role of Scarlett O'Hara in Gone with the Wind. Gone with the Wind is a 1939 American dramatic - romantic - War film adapted from Margaret Mitchell 's 1936 After the relationship ended in 1940, Chaplin and Goddard made public statements that they had been secretly married in 1936; but these claims were likely a mutual effort to prevent any lasting damage to Goddard's career. In any case, their relationship ended amicably in 1942, with Goddard being granted a settlement. Goddard went on to a major career in films at Paramount in the 1940s, working several times with Cecil B. DeMille. Cecil Blount DeMille ( August 12, 1881 – January 21, 1959) was an Academy Award -winning American Film director Like Chaplin, she lived her later life in Switzerland, dying in 1990.
Chaplin had a brief affair with Joan Barry (1920-1996) in 1942, whom he was considering for a starring role in a proposed film, but the relationship ended when she began harassing him and displaying signs of severe mental illness (not unlike his mother). Chaplin's brief involvement with Barry proved to be a nightmare for him. After having a child, she filed a paternity suit against him in 1943. Although blood tests proved Chaplin was not the father of Barry's child, Barry's attorney, Joseph Scott, convinced the court that the tests were inadmissible as evidence, and Chaplin was ordered to support the child. Joseph Scott may refer to Sir Joseph Scott 1st Baronet (1752-1828 English landowner and politician Joseph Scott (attorney (1867–1958 The injustice of the ruling later led to a change in California law to allow blood tests as evidence. Federal prosecutors also brought Mann Act charges against Chaplin related to Barry in 1944, of which he was acquitted. The United States White-Slave Traffic Act of 1910 (ch 395; codified as amended at) prohibited White slavery.  Chaplin's public image in America was gravely damaged by these sensational trials.  Barry was institutionalized in 1953 after she was found walking the streets barefoot, carrying a pair of baby sandals and a child's ring, and murmuring: "This is magic. "
During Chaplin's legal trouble over the Barry affair, he met Oona O'Neill, daughter of Eugene O'Neill, and married her on June 16, 1943. Oona Lady Chaplin (née O'Neill) ( May 13, 1925 – September 27, 1991) was the daughter of Nobel and Pulitzer Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (October 16 1888–November 27 1953 was a Nobel -prize winning American playwright Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He was fifty-four; she had just turned eighteen. The elder O'Neill refused all contact with Oona after the marriage, up until his death in 1953. O'Neill and Chaplin each seemed to provide elements missing in the other's life -- she longed for the love of a father figure, and Chaplin craved her loyalty and support as his public popularity declined. The marriage was a long and happy one, with eight children. They had three sons: Christopher, Eugene and Michael Chaplin and five daughters: Geraldine, Josephine, Jane, Victoria and Annette-Emilie Chaplin. Christopher Chaplin (born 6 July 1962 in Corsier-sur-Vevey) is an actor who appeared in the film Total Eclipse as the character Michael Chaplin (born 7 March 1946) is an Anglo - American actor born in Santa Monica California. Geraldine Leigh Chaplin (born July 31, 1944) is a Golden Globe and BAFTA Award -nominated actress and the daughter of Charlie Josephine (Josie Hannah Chaplin (born March 28, 1949 in Santa Monica California) is the daughter of actor/comedian/director Charlie Chaplin Victoria Chaplin (born May 19 1951) is an American actress the daughter of actor/comedian Charlie Chaplin and Oona Chaplin O'Neill Oona survived Chaplin by fourteen years, but her final years were unhappy, with grief over Chaplin's death eventually leading to alcoholism. She died from pancreatic cancer in 1991. Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of the Pancreas. Each year about 37680 individuals in the United States are diagnosed with this condition and 34290
Chaplin was named in the New Year's Honours List in 1975 and, on March 4, was knighted at age eighty-five as a Knight Commander of the British Empire (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth II. The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery achievement or service to the United Kingdom. Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery achievement or service to the United Kingdom. The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British Order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II The honour was first proposed in 1931, and again in 1956, when it was vetoed by the then Conservative government for fears of damage to relations with the United States at the height of the Cold War and planned invasion of Suez of that year. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, (أزمة السويس - العدوان الثلاثي Crise du canal de Suez מבצע קדש Kadesh
Chaplin's robust health began to slowly fail in the late 1960s, after the completion of his final film A Countess from Hong Kong. A Countess from Hong Kong is a 1967 Comedy film and the last film directed by Charles Chaplin. After receiving his Academy Award in 1972, Chaplin's health began to decline more rapidly. By 1977 he could no longer communicate and was confined to a wheelchair. He died in his sleep of natural causes, on Christmas Day, 1977, in Vevey, Switzerland, aged 88. Vevey is a town in Switzerland in the canton Vaud, on the north shore of Lake Geneva. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation  He was interred in Corsier-Sur-Vevey Cemetery, Vaud, Switzerland. Burial, also called interment and inhumation, is the act of placing a person or object into the ground Vevey is a town in Switzerland in the canton Vaud, on the north shore of Lake Geneva. The Canton of Vaud ( French pronunciation) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland and is located in Romandy, the southwestern part of the Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation On March 1, 1978, his corpse was stolen by a small group of Polish and Bulgarian mechanics in an attempt to extort money from his family. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) A cadaver or corpse is a dead Body. "Cadaver" is normally used as a more formal term for a body being used in medical training or research  The plot failed, the robbers were captured, and the corpse was recovered eleven weeks later near Lake Geneva. Lake Geneva or Lake Léman (Lac Léman Léman Lac de Genève is the second largest freshwater Lake in Central Europe in terms of surface area (after His body was reburied under two metres of concrete to prevent further attempts.
During World War I, Chaplin was criticised in the British press for not joining the Army. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All He had in fact presented himself for service, but was denied for being too small and underweight. Chaplin raised substantial funds for the war effort during War bond drives, by making, at his own expense, The Bond, a comedic propaganda film used in 1918. War bonds are a type of Savings bond used by combatant nations to help fund a war effort and as a Monetary policy for controlling Inflation from an The Bond is a Propaganda Film created by Charlie Chaplin at his own expense for the Liberty Load Committee for theatrical release A propaganda film is a Film, either a documentary -style production or a fictional screenplay that is produced to convince the viewer of a certain political point The lingering controversy reportedly is thought to have prevented Chaplin from receiving a knighthood in the 1930s.
For Chaplin's entire career, some level of controversy existed over claims of Jewish ancestry. Nazi propaganda in the 1930s prominently portrayed him as Jewish (named Karl Tonstein) relying on articles published in the US press before, and FBI investigations of Chaplin in the late 1940s also focused on Chaplin's ethnic origins. Paranoia about Jewish domination of the film industry was probably the root cause underlying this controversy. There is no documentary evidence of Jewish ancestry for Chaplin himself. For his entire public life, he fiercely refused to challenge or refute claims that he was Jewish, saying that to do so would always "play directly into the hands of anti-semites. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility " Although baptised in the Church of England, Chaplin was thought to be an agnostic for most of his life. In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Agnosticism ( Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the 
Chaplin has also figured in the mysterious events surrounding the death of producer Thomas Ince aboard the yacht of William Randolph Hearst in 1924, one of Hollywood's greatest mysteries. Thomas Harper Ince ( November 6, 1882 – November 19, 1924) was an American Silent film Actor, director For other people named William Randolph Hearst see William Randolph Hearst (disambiguation William Randolph Hearst I (April 29 1863 &ndash A fictionalized version of these events is depicted in Peter Bogdanovich's 2001 film The Cat's Meow. Peter Bogdanovich ( Serbian Cyrillic: Петар Богдановић Latin: Petar Bogdanović (born July 30, 1939, is an American The Cat's Meow is a Drama film directed by Peter Bogdanovich. The precise circumstances of Ince's death will likely never be known.
Chaplin's lifelong attraction to younger women remains another enduring source of interest to some. The term ephebophilia is the sexual preference for adolescents around 15-19 years of age His biographers have attributed this to a teenage infatuation with Hetty Kelly, whom he met in Britain while performing in the music hall, and which possibly defined his feminine ideal. Chaplin clearly relished the role of discovering and closely guiding young female stars; with the exception of Mildred Harris, all of his marriages and most of his major relationships began in this manner.
Since the 1960s, Chaplin's films have been unendingly compared to those of Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd (the other two great silent film comedians alongside Charlie Chaplin), especially among the loyal fans of each comic. Joseph Frank "Buster" Keaton ( October 4 1895 &ndash February 1 1966) was an Academy Award -winning American Harold Clayton Lloyd Sr ( April 20, 1893 &ndash March 8, 1971) was an American Film actor and producer
The three had very different styles: Chaplin had a strong affinity for sentimentality and pathos (which was popular in the 1920s), Lloyd was renowned for his everyman persona and classic 1920s optimism, and Keaton adhered to on screen stoicism with a cynical tone more suited to modern audiences. On a historical level, Chaplin was behind the pioneering generation of film comedians, and both the younger Keaton and Harold Lloyd built upon his groundwork (in fact, Lloyd's early characters "Willie Work" and "Lonesome Luke" were obvious Chaplin ripoffs, something that Lloyd acknowledged and tried hard to move away from - eventually succeeding). Chaplin's period of film experimentation ended after the Mutual period (1916-1917), just before Keaton entered films.
Commercially, Chaplin made some of the highest-grossing films in the silent era; The Gold Rush is the fifth with US$4. The Gold Rush is a 1925 Silent film comedy written directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin in his Little Tramp 25 million and The Circus is the seventh with US$3. The Circus is a 1928 silent Film which finds Charlie Chaplin 's Little Tramp character being chased by a police officer at a Circus 8 million. However, Chaplin's films combined made about US$10. 5 million while Harold Lloyd's grossed US$15. 7 million (Lloyd was far more prolific, releasing twelve feature films in the 1920s while Chaplin released just three). Buster Keaton's films were not nearly as commercially successful as Chaplin's or Lloyd's even at the height of his popularity, and only received belated critical acclaim in the late 1950s and 1960s.
Beyond a healthy professional rivalry, former vaudevillians Chaplin and Keaton thought highly of one another. Keaton stated in his autobiography that Chaplin was the greatest comedian that ever lived, and the greatest comedy director. Chaplin also greatly admired Keaton: he welcomed him to United Artists in 1925, advised him against his disastrous move to MGM in 1928, and for his last American film, Limelight, wrote a part specifically for Keaton as his first on-screen comedy partner since 1915. This article is about the film studio Previously it was affiliated with a cinema chain bearing its name now owned by Regal Entertainment Group.
Chaplin was an admirer of his predecessor, the French silent movie comedian Max Linder, to whom he dedicated one of his films. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Max Linder ( December 16, 1883 &ndash October 31, 1925) was an influential French pioneer of Silent film.
|Academy Honorary Award|
Lillian Gish and Orson Welles
|Academy Honorary Award|
Charles S. For more information see the article about Charlie Chaplin Dates given are those of the film's initial release The Academy Honorary Award, instituted in 1948 for the 21st Academy Awards (previously called the Special Award) is given by the discretion of the Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and Lillian Diana Gish ( October 14 1893 – February 27 1993) was an American stage screen and television actress whose George Orson Welles (May 6 1915 – October 10 1985 was an Academy Award -winning director, writer actor and producer for film stage radio and television The Academy Honorary Award, instituted in 1948 for the 21st Academy Awards (previously called the Special Award) is given by the discretion of the Boren and Edward G. Robinson
for Mr. Smith Goes to Washington
|NYFCC Award for Best Actor|
for The Great Dictator
for Sergeant York
Roy Export Company Establishment (current rights holder) claims, in apparent contradiction to the common rule of the shorter term of the Berne Convention, that all works are still copyrighted until 2047 (over 70 years from death of Chaplin(director)). The rule of the shorter term, also called the comparison of terms, is a provision in international Copyright treaties that allows signatory countries to The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, usually known as the Berne Convention, is an international agreement governing Copyright This ultimately depends on individual E. U. countries and their bilateral treaties with the U. S.
Roy Export Company Establishment (current rights holder) claims that all works are still copyrighted until 2015 or later (later either over 38 years from death of Chaplin, or over 70 years from issue).
Publishers of public domain DVD in Japan claim that works issued before 1954 are in public domain in Japan.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Chaplin, Charles Spencer, Jr. Turner Classic Movies ( TCM) is a cable television channel featuring commercial -free classic movies mostly from the Turner Entertainment and Warner (full name)|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||English actor and director|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 16, 1889|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Walworth, London, England|
|DATE OF DEATH||December 25, 1977|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Vevey, Switzerland|
Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Year 1889 ( MDCCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Walworth is an inner-city district in the London Borough of Southwark. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Vevey is a town in Switzerland in the canton Vaud, on the north shore of Lake Geneva.