|Charles II the Bald|
|Holy Roman Emperor, King of Western Francia|
Seal of Charles the Bald
|Reign||King of Western Francia: 843–877;|
|Coronation||King of Aquitaine: 6 June 848, Orleans;|
King of Lotharingia: 9 September 869, Metz;
Emperor: 25 December 875, Rome
|Titles||King of Aquitaine (838-855);|
King of Italy (875-877)
|Born||June 13, 823|
|Died||October 6, 877 (aged 54)|
|Place of death||Avrieux, France|
|Predecessor||In Western Francia: Louis the Pious;|
in the Empire, Emperor Louis II
|Successor||In Western Francia: Louis the Stammerer;|
In the Empire, Charles the Fat
|Consort||Ermentrude of Orléans|
Richilde of Provence
|Issue||Judith of Flanders|
Louis the Stammerer
Charles the Child
|Father||Louis the Pious|
|Mother||Judith of Bavaria|
|After the Treaty of Verdun (843)|
Charles the Bald (numbered Charles II of France and the Holy Roman Empire) (French: Charles le Chauve, German: Karl der Kahle; 13 June 823 – 6 October 877), Holy Roman Emperor (875–877) and King of West Francia (840–877), was the youngest son of Emperor Louis the Pious, by his second wife Judith. Louis the Pious (778 &ndash 20 June 840) also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781 and co-Emperor In the Treaty of Verdun of 843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, Charlemagne 's grandsons divided his territories the Carolingian Lothair I ( German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 &ndash 29 September 855) Middle Francia designates the realm created for Emperor Lothair I (843-855 wedged between East Francia and West Francia. West Francia or the West Frankish Kingdom was a short-lived kingdom encompassing the lands of the western part of the Carolingian Empire that came under the undisputed Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian) (806 &ndash August 28, 876 East ( ern) Francia ( Regnum Francorum orientalium) known variously as Francia Orientalis or the Kingdom of the East Franks, was the This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Events 1525 - Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the Celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for Events By Place Byzantine Empire Crete is conquered from the Byzantines by the Saracens. Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Events By Place Asia Indravarman II succeeds Jayavarman III as ruler of the Khmer Empire. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Events By Place Europe December 29 — Charles the Bald, king of West Francia, is crowned emperor Events By Place Asia Indravarman II succeeds Jayavarman III as ruler of the Khmer Empire. West Francia or the West Frankish Kingdom was a short-lived kingdom encompassing the lands of the western part of the Carolingian Empire that came under the undisputed Events By Place Europe After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German Events By Place Asia Indravarman II succeeds Jayavarman III as ruler of the Khmer Empire. Louis the Pious (778 &ndash 20 June 840) also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781 and co-Emperor Queen Judith or Iudit ( 805 - April 19 or 23 843 also known as Judith of Bavaria, was the daughter of Count Welf and a Saxon
He was born on 13 June 823 in Frankfurt, when his elder brothers were already adults and had been assigned their own regna, or subkingdoms, by their father. The attempts made by Louis the Pious to assign Charles a subkingdom, first Alemannia and then the country between the Meuse and the Pyrenees (in 832, after the rising of Pepin I of Aquitaine) were unsuccessful. Alamannia or Alemannia was the territory inhabited by the Alamanni after they broke through the Roman limes in 213 Meuse (møːz is a department in northeast France, named after the Meuse River. The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés Pepin I (797 &ndash December 13, 838) was King of Aquitaine. He was the second son of Emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife The numerous reconciliations with the rebellious Lothair and Pepin, as well as their brother Louis the German, King of Bavaria, made Charles's share in Aquitaine and Italy only temporary, but his father did not give up and made Charles the heir of the entire land which was once Gaul and would eventually be France. Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian) (806 &ndash August 28, 876 The following is a list of rulers during the History of Bavaria. Aquitaine (Aquitània Akitania archaic Guyenne / Guienne (Occitan Guiana) is one of the 26 Regions of France, in the south-western part of At a diet near Crémieux in 837, Louis the Pious bade the nobles do homage to Charles as his heir. This led to the final rising of his sons against him and Pepin of Aquitaine died in 838, whereupon Charles received that kingdom, finally once and for all. Pepin's son Pepin II would be a perpetual thorn in his side. Pepin II, called the Younger (823 &ndash after 864 in Senlis) was King of Aquitaine from 838 as the successor upon the death of his father Pepin
The death of the emperor in 840 led to the outbreak of war between his sons. Charles allied himself with his brother Louis the German to resist the pretensions of the new emperor Lothair I, and the two allies defeated Lothair at the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye on June 25, 841. Contention over the division of the Carolingian Empire between the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious culminated in the decisive Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Events By Place Europe June 25 - Battle of Fontenay: Louis the German and Charles the Bald defeat In the following year, the two brothers confirmed their alliance by the celebrated Oaths of Strasbourg. The Oaths of Strasbourg ( Modern French: les serments de Strasbourg, Modern German: die Straßburger Eide, Latin Sacramenta The war was brought to an end by the Treaty of Verdun in August 843. In the Treaty of Verdun of 843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, Charlemagne 's grandsons divided his territories the Carolingian The settlement gave Charles the Bald the kingdom of the West Franks, which he had been up till then governing and which practically corresponded with what is now France, as far as the Meuse, the Saône, and the Rhône, with the addition of the Spanish March as far as the Ebro. Meuse (møːz is a department in northeast France, named after the Meuse River. The Saône (son ( Sona in Arpitan) is a River of eastern France. The Rhone, or the Rhône is one of the major Rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. Mark from the Old English mearc and march (or various plural forms of these words derived from the Frankish word marka ("boundary" The Ebro ( Ebre) is Spain 's most voluminous river Its source is in Fontibre ( Cantabria) Louis received the eastern part of the Carolingian Empire, known as the East Francia and later Germany. Carolingian Empire is a historiographical term sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty. East ( ern) Francia ( Regnum Francorum orientalium) known variously as Francia Orientalis or the Kingdom of the East Franks, was the Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Lothair retained the imperial title and the Iron Crown of Lombardy. The Iron Crown of Lombardy ( Corona Ferrea) is both a reliquary and one of the most ancient royal insignia of Europe He also received the central regions from Flanders through the Rhineland and Burgundy as king of Middle Francia. Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. The Rhineland ( Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. Burgundy (Bourgogne Burgund is a region historically situated in modern-day France and Switzerland, inhabited in turn by Celts ( Gauls) Middle Francia designates the realm created for Emperor Lothair I (843-855 wedged between East Francia and West Francia.
The first years of Charles's reign, up to the death of Lothair I in 855, were comparatively peaceful. Events By Place Europe Louis II succeeds Lothar as Western Emperor During these years the three brothers continued the system of "confraternal government", meeting repeatedly with one another, at Koblenz (848), at Meerssen (851), and at Attigny (854). Koblenz (also Coblenz in pre-1926 German Spellings French Coblence) is a city situated on both banks of the Rhine Events By Place Europe The Saracens destroy Leontini. Charles the Bald, Louis the German and Meerssen ( is a place and a Municipality in southeastern Netherlands. Events By Place Europe Vikings plunder London and Canterbury. Attigny is a commune on the River Aisne in the arrondissement of Vouziers in the département of Ardennes in the Champagne-Ardenne Events By Place Europe Charles the Bald, Louis the German and Lothar meet at Attigny. In 858, Louis the German, invited by disaffected nobles eager to oust Charles, invaded the West Frankish kingdom. This article is about the year 858 AD. For the terrorist attack on Korean air see Korean_Air_Flight_858. Charles was so unpopular that he was unable to summon an army, and he fled to Burgundy. Burgundy (Bourgogne Burgund is a region historically situated in modern-day France and Switzerland, inhabited in turn by Celts ( Gauls) He was saved only by the support of the bishops, who refused to crown Louis king, and by the fidelity of the Welfs, who were related to his mother, Judith. The Elder House of Welf was a Dynasty of European rulers in the 9th through 11th centuries to 1055 In 860, he in his turn tried to seize the kingdom of his nephew, Charles of Provence, but was repulsed. This article is about the year 860 For the area code see Area code 860. Charles of Provence (845 &ndash 24 January 863) was the Carolingian King of Provence from 855 until his early death in 863 On the death of his nephew Lothair II in 869, Charles tried to seize Lothair's dominions, but by the Treaty of Mersen (870) was compelled to share them with Louis the German. Lothair II ( 835 - August 8, 869) was the second son of Emperor Lothair I and Ermengarde of Tours. Events By Place Asia The Zanj (Black slaves from East Africa) provoked by mercilessly harsh labor conditions in the salt flats The Treaty of Meerssen or Mersen in 870 was an agreement of the division of the Carolingian Empire by the surviving sons of Louis I, Charles Events By Place Europe Prague Castle is founded The Great Summer Army invades England and conquers
Besides these family disputes, Charles had to struggle against repeated rebellions in Aquitaine and against the Bretons. Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into Led by their chiefs Nomenoë and Erispoë, who defeated the king at Ballon (845) and Juvardeil (851), the Bretons were successful in obtaining a de facto independence. Nominoe or Nomenoe ( French: Nominoë, Breton: Nevenoe; died 7 March 851) was the first Duke of Brittany Erispoe ( French: Erispoë, Latin: Herispoius, Herispogius, or Respogius; died 2 or 12 November 857 Events March 28 — Paris is sacked by Viking raiders probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collect a huge ransom in exchange Events By Place Europe Vikings plunder London and Canterbury. Charles also fought against the Vikings, who devastated the country of the north, the valleys of the Seine and Loire, and even up to the borders of Aquitaine. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas The Seine (sɛn in French) is a slow flowing major River and commercial waterway within the regions of Île-de-France and Haute-Normandie Loire ( Arpitan: Lêre, Occitan: Léger) is an administrative department in the east-central part of France occupying the Several times Charles was forced to purchase their retreat at a heavy price. Charles led various expeditions against the invaders and, by the Edict of Pistres of 864, made the army more mobile by providing for a cavalry element, the predecessor of the French chivalry so famous during the next 600 years. The Edict of Pistres or Edictum Pistensis is often held up as one of the few examples if not the sole example of good government from Charles the Bald Events By Place Europe July 25 - Edict of Pistres: Charles the Bald orders defensive measures against the Vikings The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on Chivalric order Chivalry is a term related to the Medieval institution of Knighthood. By the same edict, he ordered fortified bridges to be put up at all rivers to block the Viking incursions. Two of these bridges at Paris saved the city during its siege of 885–886. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The Siege of Paris of 885 to 886 was a Viking siege of Paris, then capital of the kingdom of the West Franks.
In 875, after the death of the Emperor Louis II (son of his half-brother Lothair), Charles the Bald, supported by Pope John VIII, traveled to Italy, receiving the royal crown at Pavia and the imperial insignia in Rome on December 29. Events By Place Europe December 29 — Charles the Bald, king of West Francia, is crowned emperor Louis II the Younger (825 &ndash 12 August 875) was the King of Italy from 844 and then Emperor from 855 until his death John VIII was Pope from December 13, 872 to December 16, 882. Pavia (pronounced Pavìa,) the ancient Ticinum, is a town and Comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II Louis the German, also a candidate for the succession of Louis II, revenged himself by invading and devastating Charles' dominions, and Charles had to return hastily to Francia. Francia or Frankia, later also called the Frankish Empire (imperium Francorum Frankish Kingdom (Latin regnum Francorum, "Kingdom of the After the death of Louis the German (28 August 876), Charles in his turn attempted to seize Louis's kingdom, but was decisively beaten at Andernach on October 8, 876. Events 475 - The Roman General Orestes forces western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos to flee his Capital Events Births Deaths Louis the German, King of East Francia Map-bms876 Simple876 Andernach (pronounced) is a town in the district of Mayen-Koblenz, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany of currently about 30000 inhabitants which are Events 314 - Roman Emperor Licinius is defeated by his colleague Constantine I at the Battle of Cibalae, and loses Events Births Deaths Louis the German, King of East Francia Map-bms876 Simple876 In the meantime, John VIII, menaced by the Saracens, was urging Charles to come to his defence in Italy. Saracen was a term used by Europeans in the Middle Ages for Fatimids at first then later for all who professed the religion of Islam. Charles again crossed the Alps, but this expedition was received with little enthusiasm by the nobles, and even by his regent in Lombardy, Boso, and they refused to join his army. Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the Boso was a Frankish nobleman from the Bosonid -family who was related to the Carolingian dynasty, who rose to become King of Provence (879 &ndash At the same time Carloman, son of Louis the German, entered northern Italy. Charles, ill and in great distress, started on his way back to Gaul, but died while crossing the pass of Mont Cenis at Brides-les-Bain, on 6 October 877. Mont Cenis (Moncenisio is a Massif and pass (el 2081 m / 6827 ft in Savoy in France which forms the limit between the Cottian Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Events By Place Asia Indravarman II succeeds Jayavarman III as ruler of the Khmer Empire.
According to the Annals of St-Bertin, Charles was hastily buried at the abbey of Nantua, Burgundy because the bearers were unable to withstand the stench of his decaying body. He was to have been buried in the Basilique Saint-Denis and may have been transferred there later. The Basilica of Saint Denis ( French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the burial site of almost all the French It was recorded that there was a memorial brass there that was melted down at the Revolution.
Charles was succeeded by his son, Louis. Louis the Stammerer ( November 1, 846 — April 10, 879; Louis le Bègue) was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Charles was a prince of education and letters, a friend of the church, and conscious of the support he could find in the episcopate against his unruly nobles, for he chose his councillors from among the higher clergy, as in the case of Guenelon of Sens, who betrayed him, and of Hincmar of Reims.
It has been suggested that Charles was not in fact bald, but that his epithet was applied ironically - that, in fact, he was extremely hairy. In support of this idea is the fact that none of his enemies commented on what would be an easy target. However, none of the voluble members of his court comments on his being hairy; and the Genealogy of Frankish Kings, a text from Fontanell dating from possibly as early as 869, and a text without a trace of irony, names him as Karolus Caluus ("Charles the Bald"). Certainly, by the end of the 10th century, Richier of Reims and Adhemar of Chabannes refer to him in all seriousness as "Charles the Bald". 
Charles married Ermentrude, daughter of Odo I, Count of Orléans, in 842. Ermentrude of Orléans (also Hirmentrude or Irmintrud) ( September 27 823 &ndash October 6 869) was Queen of Franks Odo I (Eudes also Hodo, Uodo, or Udo in contemporary Latin) (died 834 was the Count of Orléans ( comes Aurelianensium Events By Place Europe February 14 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German sign a treaty She died in 869. Events By Place Asia The Zanj (Black slaves from East Africa) provoked by mercilessly harsh labor conditions in the salt flats In 870, Charles married Richilde of Provence, who was descended from a noble family of Lorraine, but none of the children he had with her played a part of any importance. Events By Place Europe Prague Castle is founded The Great Summer Army invades England and conquers Richilde of the Ardennes, or Richilde of Provence (c 845 - 2 June 910) was the second wife of Charles the Bald, King and Emperor of Lorraine (Lorraine Lothringen is a historical area in present-day northeast France.
Emperor Charles II the BaldBorn: June 13 823 Died: October 6 877
Pippin I of Aquitaine
|King of Aquitaine|
as Charles II
Contested by Pepin II 838-855
as King and Emperor of the Franks
|King of Western Francia|
|(Holy) Roman Emperor|
Title next held byCharles III
|King of Italy|