Charles Stewart Parnell (Irish: Cathal Stiúbhard Pharnell ), (27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish Protestant landowner, nationalist political leader, land reform agitator, Home Rule MP in the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, founder and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden For the game see 1846 (board game. Year 1846 ( MDCCCXLVI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating across the island of Ireland. Irish nationalism (Náisiúnachas Éireannach refers to political and sociological movements and sentiment that embodies a love for Irish ancestry, culture and language and A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person The Irish Land League was an Irish political organization of the late 19th century which sought to help poor Tenant farmers Its primary aim was to abolish Home rule refers to a demand that constituent parts of a state be given greater self-government within the greater administrative purview of the central government A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP (commonly called the Irish Party was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing He was one of the most important figures in 19th century Ireland and Great Britain and described by Prime Minister William Gladstone as the most remarkable person he had ever met. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation.  Another future Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Asquith, described him as one of the three or four greatest men of the nineteenth century, while Lord Haldane described him as the strongest man the British House of Commons had seen in 150 years. The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s and a third party Herbert Henry Asquith 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC ( 12 September 1852 &ndash 15 February 1928) served Richard Burdon Sanderson Haldane 1st Viscount Haldane, KT, OM, PC, FRS, FSA ( 30 July 1856 - 19 August The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords
|Birth||27 June 1846|
|1875||Elected Home Rule League MP for Meath. Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden |
|1877||August: Elected President, Home Rule Confederation of Great Britain;|
obstructionist try to wreck South Africa Bill in Commons.
|1878||links with Clan na Gael|
|1879||President, Irish Land League;|
'The ‘New Departure' campaign. For the Celtic Rock band formerly known as Clan na Gael see Seven Nations. The Irish Land League was an Irish political organization of the late 19th century which sought to help poor Tenant farmers Its primary aim was to abolish The term New Departure has been used to describe several initiatives in the late 19th century where Irish republicans, who were committed to independence from Britain through
|1880||May: Replaces William Shaw as chairman (leader) of the Home Rule League;19 September: Parnell outlines "boycotting" strategy in Ennis speech. The Home Rule League, sometimes called the Home Rule Party, was a Political party which campaigned for Home rule for the island of Ireland from 1873 to A boycott is a form of Consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using buying or dealing with someone or some other organization as an expression of |
|1881||Land Act enacted by Gladstone. Criticised by Irish leaders for exceptions denied aid; 13 October: Arrested for 'treasonable practices' and sent to Kilmainham Gaol; issued 'No Rent Manifesto'. Kilmainham Gaol ( Príosún Chill Mhaighneann) is a former Prison, located in Kilmainham in Dublin, which is now a museum |
|1882||25 April: Kilmainham Treaty between Parnell & govt. The Kilmainham Treaty was an agreement between the British government under William Ewart Gladstone and the Irish nationalist leader Charles Stewart Parnell Parnell released. 'No Rent Manifesto' withdrawn. Land Act amended. 8 May 1882: Chief Secretary (Lord Frederick Cavendish) and Under-Secretary T.H. Burke murdered by Invincibles in Viceregal Lodge (Known as the "Phoenix Park Murders") Public outcry. Lord Frederick Charles Cavendish (30 November 1836 – 6 May 1882 was an English Liberal politician and protégé of the Prime Minister, The Irish National Invincibles (Dosháraithe Náisiúnta na hÉireann usually known as "the Invincibles" were a radical IRB splinter group active in Dublin Áras an Uachtaráin, formerly the Viceregal Lodge, is the official residence of the President of Ireland. The term Phoenix Park Murders is used to refer to the assassination in 1882 of Thomas Henry Burke and the newly appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland, Lord Frederick Parnell condemns murders; October: Irish National League replaces Land League. The Irish National League (INL was a nationalist Political party in Ireland. Parnell controls it. Home Rule Party name changed to Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP). The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP (commonly called the Irish Party was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing |
|1883||December: Parnell receives £37,000 personal gift following national fundraising to alleviate his "financial distress". |
|1884||October: Catholic Hierarchy ally themselves with IIP and ditch their own party. |
|1885||June: Lord Salisbury forms minority Tory ministry. 1 August: Confidential meeting with new Lord Lieutenant, Lord Carnavon. The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (Ard-Leifteanant na hÉireann ( Plural: Lords Lieutenant) also known as the Judiciar in the early Mediaeval period 14 August: Ashbourne Land Act enacted. The Purchase of Land (Ireland Act 1885 also known as the Ashbourne Act is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (48 & 49 Vict 7 November: Parnell urges Irish voters in Great Britain to vote Tory on eve of general election. IIP wins 85 seats. Hawarden Kite reveals Gladstone is now pro-Irish home rule. The Hawarden Kite was a famous British scoop of 1885 an apparent instance of flying a kite, when Herbert Gladstone son of the then Leader of the Opposition |
|1886||1 February: Gladstone forms government with IIP support. 26 March: Cabinet discusses draft Home Rule Bill. Joseph Chamberlain resigns. Joseph Chamberlain ( 8 July 1836 &ndash 2 July 1914) was an influential British businessman politician and statesman 8 June: Bill defeated in Commons. September: Commons rejects Parnell's Tenants' Relief Bill. October: Plan of Campaign launched in "United Ireland" newspaper. The Plan of Campaign was a stratagem adopted in Ireland between 1886 and 1891 co-ordinated by Irish politicians for the benefit of Tenant farmers Elections put Tories back in power. |
|1887||Arthur Balfour becomes Chief Secretary. Arthur James Balfour 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC (25 July 1848 - 19 March 1930 was a British Conservative politician and New Land Act and new coercion laws. Between 1801 and 1922 the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed over 100 acts of emergency law in an attempt to establish law and order in Ireland. March: The Times publishes a series "Parnellism and Crime". The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. 18 April: article in series links Parnell to the Phoenix Park murders, quoting a letter he supposedly wrote. 17 July: Salisbury (PM) sets up commission to investigate links between Parnell and crime. |
|1888||May: Parnell distances himself from the Plan of Campaign in a speech to the Liberal Eighty Club in London, in the interest of Home Rule. The Plan of Campaign was a stratagem adopted in Ireland between 1886 and 1891 co-ordinated by Irish politicians for the benefit of Tenant farmers |
|1889||22 February: Richard Piggott revealed as forger of Parnell letter. Richard Piggott (1838? - Madrid, 1889 was a journalist for The Times, well known for the 'Piggott forgeries' Later Gladstone leads Commons in a standing ovation when Parnell returns. December: Captain O'Shea files for divorce, naming Parnell as co-respondent. |
|1890||February: Commission's 35 volume report clears Parnell of murder link but not of Home Rule links with crime. November: story of divorce breaks. Initial support for Parnell as presumption that it is a new smear. 24 November: Gladstone tactfully warns Parnell's deputy, Justin McCarthy of "problems" with scandal for Liberals. 25 November: IIP re-elects Parnell chairman, unaware of Liberal problems. 26 November: Gladstone letter on problems published. 1 December: After 5 days debate, 44 IPP MPs desert Parnell. Party and country splits. Parnell supporters forcibly seize his United Ireland party paper HQ. Anti-Parnellites launch own newspapers. 22 December: Anti-Parnellites win Kilkenny North by-election. |
|1891||January: Parnell rejects with unbending authority offer to retire temporarily from politics and then return later to leadership. Parnellites lose two by-elections (2 April Sligo; 8 July Carlow) Closer battle in Sligo but defeat also. Parnell appeals for Fenian support. Fianna Éireann The Fenians, both the Fenian Brotherhood and Irish Republican Brotherhood, were fraternal organisations dedicated to the establishment of an independent 25 June: Parnell marries Katharine O'Shea. Catholic hierarchy (minus one) issue condemnation. 27 September: Health badly deteriorated, Parnell delivers last public speech in co. Roscommon. Roscommon (Ros Comáin is the county seat of County Roscommon in Ireland. |
Catches pneumonia from the deluge at the meeting and never recovers. Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of the Lung. Frequently it is described as lung Parenchyma / alveolar inflammation and abnormal
|Death||6 October 1891 at the age of 45 in Brighton. Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus|
Charles Stewart Parnell was born in Avondale, County Wicklow, of gentry stock. County Wicklow (Contae Chill Mhantáin is a county on the east coast of Ireland, immediately south of Dublin. He was the third son and seventh child of John Henry Parnell (1811-1859), a wealthy Anglo-Irish landowner, and his American wife Delia Tudor Stewart (1816-1896); of Bordentown, New Jersey), daughter of the American naval hero, Admiral Charles Stewart (1778-1869) (the stepson of one of George Washington's bodyguards). " Anglo-Irish " was a term used historically to describe a privileged Social class in Ireland, whose members were the descendants and successors of the See also: Bordentown Township New Jersey Bordentown City is in Burlington County, New Jersey, United George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the There were eleven children in all: five boys and six girls. Admiral Stewart's mother, Parnell's great-grandmother, belonged to the Tudor family so had a distant relationship with the British Royal Family. The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was an English royal Dynasty that lasted 118 years from 1485 to 1603 a period known as the Tudor period The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. John Henry Parnell himself was a cousin of one of Ireland's leading aristocrats, Viscount Powerscourt, and also the grandson of a Chancellor of the Exchequer in Grattan’s Parliament, Sir John Parnell, who lost office in 1799 when he opposed the Act of Union . Powerscourt Estate (Eastát Chúirt an Phaoraigh located near Enniskerry, County Wicklow, Ireland, is a large Country estate which is Henry Grattan (3 July 1746 &ndash 6 June 1821 was a member of the Irish House of Commons and a campaigner for legislative freedom for the Irish Parliament in the The phrase Act of Union 1800 (or sometimes Act of Union 1801) (Acht an Aontais 1800 is used to describe two complementary Acts whose official United Kingdom titles are
The Parnells of Avondale were descended from an English merchant family, which came to prominence in Congleton, Cheshire, early in the seventeenth century where as Baron Congleton two generations held the office of Mayor of Congleton before moving to Ireland. Congleton is a town and Civil parish in Cheshire, England, on the banks of the River Dane, and to the west of the Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a county in North West England. Baron Congleton, of Congleton in the County Palatine of Chester is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The family produced a number of notable figures, including Thomas Parnell (1679-1718), the Irish poet and Henry Parnell, 1st Baron Congleton (1776-1842) the Irish politician. This article is about the poet Thomas Parnell (scientist started the Pitch drop experiment in 1927 Thomas Parnell ( 11 Henry Brook Parnell 1st Baron Congleton PC ( 3 July 1776 &ndash 8 June 1842) known as Sir Henry Parnell 4th Baronet, Parnell’s grandfather William Parnell (1780-1821), who inherited the Avondale Estate in 1795, was a liberal Irish MP for Wicklow from 1817-1820. Thus, from birth, Charles Stewart Parnell possessed an extraordinary number of links to many elements of society; he was linked to the old Irish Parliamentary tradition via his great-grandfather and grandfather, to the American War of Independence via his grandfather, to the War of 1812 (where his grandfather had been awarded a gold medal by the United States Congress for gallantry); he belonged to the disestablished Church of Ireland (its members mostly unionists) though in later years he was to drop away from formal church attendance  ; he was connected with the aristocracy through the Powerscourts and distantly connected to the Royal Family. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating across the island of Ireland. Unionism in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and Yet it was as a leader of Irish Nationalism that Parnell established his fame. Irish nationalism (Náisiúnachas Éireannach refers to political and sociological movements and sentiment that embodies a love for Irish ancestry, culture and language and
Parnell's parents separated when he was six and as a boy was sent to different schools in England, where he spent an unhappy youth. His father died in 1859 and he inherited the Avondale estate. The young Parnell studied at Magdalene College, Cambridge (1865-9) but forced by the troubled financial circumstances of the estate he inherited he was absent a great deal and never completed his degree. Magdalene College redirects here see also Magdalen College Oxford Magdalene College (ˈmɔːdlɪn was founded in 1428 as a Benedictine hostel in time In 1871 he joined his elder brother John Howard Parnell (1843-1923) who farmed in Alabama (later Irish Parnellite MP). John Howard Parnell (1843 – May 3 1923) was an older brother of the Irish Nationalist leader Charles Stewart Parnell and after his brother’s Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. The Irish National League (INL was a nationalist Political party in Ireland. and heir to the Avondale estate), on an extended tour of the United States. Their travels took them mostly through the South and apparently the brothers neither spent much time in centres of Irish immigration nor sought out Irish-Americans. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive
In 1874 he became High Sheriff of his home county of Wicklow in which he was also officer in the Wicklow militia. Year 1874 ( MDCCCLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common He was noted as an improving landowner who played an important part in opening the south Wicklow area to industrialisation . Perhaps due to lack of interest in other enterprises, his attention was drawn to the theme dominating the Irish political scene of the mid-1870s, Isaac Butt’s Home Rule League formed in 1873 to campaign for a moderate degree of self-government. Isaac Butt 6 September 1813 &ndash 5 May 1879) was an Irish Barrister, and the founder and first leader of a number of Irish nationalist The Home Rule League, sometimes called the Home Rule Party, was a Political party which campaigned for Home rule for the island of Ireland from 1873 to It was in support of this movement that Parnell first tried to stand for election in Wicklow, but as high sheriff was disqualified. He failed again in 1874 as home rule candidate in a County Dublin by-election. County Dublin (Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath or more correctly today the Dublin Region ( Réigiúin Átha Cliath) is the area that contains the city of Dublin His chance came when in an 1875 by-election backed by Fenian Patrick Egan  he entered parliament for County Meath. Patrick Egan ( August 31 1841 &ndash 1919 was an Irish and American political leader County Meath (Contae na Mí is a county in Ireland, often informally called The Royal County He subsequently sat for the constituency of Cork City from 1880 until 1891.
Charles Stewart Parnell was first elected to the House of Commons (the lower level of British legislature), as a Home Rule League MP for Meath, on April 21, 1875. The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords The Home Rule League, sometimes called the Home Rule Party, was a Political party which campaigned for Home rule for the island of Ireland from 1873 to Meath was a former United Kingdom constituencies UK Parliament constituency in Ireland returning two Members of Parliament (MPs He replaced the deceased League MP, veteran Young Irelander John Martin. Young Ireland ( Irish: Éire Óg) was a political cultural and social movement which was to revolutionise the way that Irish nationalism was perceived John Martin ( 8 September 1812 &ndash 29 March 1875) was an Irish nationalist activist who progressed from early militant support During his first year remained a reserved observer of parliamentary proceedings.
He first came to attention in the public eye when in 1876 he claimed in the Commons that he did not believe that any murder had been committed by Fenians in Manchester. The Manchester Martyrs were Fenians, members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood executed for killing a policeman during a prison escape This drew the interest of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), a physical force Irish organisation that had staged a rebellion in 1867  . The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB was a secret oath-bound fraternal organisation dedicated to the establishment of an "independent democratic Republic" in the mid nineteenth Physical force Irish republicanism is a term used to describe the recurring appearance of non-parliamentary violent insurrection in Ireland between 1798 and the present Parnell made it his business to cultivate Fenian sentiments both in Britain and Ireland  and became associated with the more radical wing of the Home Rule League, which included Joseph Biggar (MP for Cavan from 1874), John O'Connor Power (MP for County Mayo from 1874) (both, although constitutionalists, had links with the IRB), Edmund Dwyer-Gray (MP for Tipperary from 1877), and Frank Hugh O'Donnell (MP for Dungarvan from 1877). Joseph Gillis Biggar (1828– February 19 1890) commonly known as Joe Biggar or J Cavan (ˈkævən) is the county seat of County Cavan in Ireland. John O'Connor Power (1846 &ndash 21 February 1919) was an Irish Fenian and a Home Rule League and Irish Parliamentary Party Edmund Dwyer Gray ( December 29, 1845 &ndash March 27, 1888) was an Irish newspaper proprietor politician and MP in the Tipperary ( Irish: Tiobraid Árann, lit "The well of Arra" is the name of a town (pop 4546 in the south-west of County Tipperary, Ireland Frank Hugh O'Donnell (also Frank Hugh O'Cahan O'Donnell) born Francis Hugh MacDonald ( 9 October 1846 &ndash 2 November 1916 Dungarvan ( Dún Garbháin in Irish) is a town and Harbour on the south coast of Ireland in the province of Munster. He engaged with them and played a leading role in a policy of obstructionism  (i. Obstructionism or policy of obstruction denotes the deliberate interference with the progress of a legislation by various means such as Filibustering or slow walking which may e. , the use of technical procedures to disrupt the House of Commons' ability to function) to force the House to pay more attention to Irish issues, which had previously been ignored. This behaviour was opposed by the less aggressive chairman (leader) of the Home Rule League, Isaac Butt.
Parnell visited America that year accompanied by O’Connor Power. The question of his closeness to the IRB, and whether indeed he ever joined the organisation, has been a matter of academic debate for a century. The evidence suggests that later, following the signing of the Kilmainham Treaty, Parnell did take the IRB oath, possibly for tactical reasons  . The Kilmainham Treaty was an agreement between the British government under William Ewart Gladstone and the Irish nationalist leader Charles Stewart Parnell What is known is that IRB involvement in the League's sister organisation, the ‘’Home Rule Confederation of Great Britain’’, led to the moderate Butt's ousting from its presidency (even though he had founded the organisation) and the election of Parnell in his place on 28 August 1877.  Parnell was a restrained speaker in the House but his organisational, analytical and tactical skills earned wide praise, enabling him to take on the British organisation's presidency. Butt died in 1879 and was replaced as chairman of the Home Rule League by the Whig-orientated William Shaw. The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to Shaw's victory was temporary, however.
From August 1877 Parnell held a number of private meetings with prominent republican leaders. He visited Paris where he met Irish-Americans John O’Leary and J. J. O'Kelly both of whom were impressed by him and reported positively to the most capable and militant Irish-American John Devoy of Clan na Gael  . Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánach are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in Ireland. John O'Leary ( born 23 July 1830 died 16 March 1907 was an Irish Poet and Fenian. James Joseph O'Kelly (born sometime in 1845 died 22 December 1916) was an Irish nationalist Journalist, Politician and John Devoy (1842-1928 was an Irish Rebel leader and exile Early life Devoy was born near Kill County Kildare. For the Celtic Rock band formerly known as Clan na Gael see Seven Nations. In December at a reception for Michael Davitt on his release from prison, he met William Carrol who assured him of Clan na Gael’s support in the struggle for Irish self-government. Michael Davitt ( Irish name: Mícheál Mac Dáibhéid) ( March 25, 1846 &ndash May 30, 1906) was an Irish This led to a meeting in March 1878 between influential constitutionalists, Parnell and Frank Hugh O’Donnell, and leading Fenians O’Kelly, O’Leary and Carroll. This was followed by a telegram from John Devoy in October 1878 which offered Parnell a "New Departure" deal of separating militancy from the constitutional movement as a path to all-Ireland self-government, under certain conditions: abandonment of a federal solution in favour of separatist self-government, vigorous agitation in the land question on the basis of peasant proprietorship, exclusion of all sectarians issues, collective voting by party members and energetic resistance to coercive legislation  . The term New Departure has been used to describe several initiatives in the late 19th century where Irish republicans, who were committed to independence from Britain through
Parnell preferred to keep all options open without clearly committing himself when he spoke in 1879 before Irish Tenant Defence Associations at Ballinasloe and Tralee. Ballinasloe ( is a town in the eastern extremity of County Galway in Ireland. Tralee (Trá Lí (or Tráigh Lí is the county town of County Kerry, in the southwest corner of Ireland. It was not until Davitt persuaded him to address a second meeting at Westport County Mayo in June that he began to grasp the potential of the land reform movement. Westport ( is a Town in County Mayo in Ireland. It is situated on the west coast of Ireland, at the south-east corner of Clew Bay Land reforms (also Agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning is an often- controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government On 1 June Parnell and the American Fenians forged an understanding binding them to mutual support and a shared political agenda  . Working together with Davitt who was impressed by him  , he now took on the role of leader of the New Departure, holding platform after platform meetings around the country  . Throughout the autumn of 1879 he repeated the message to tenants:
|“||"you must show the landlord that you intend to keep a firm grip on your homesteads and lands. |
You must not allow yourselves be dispossessed as you were dispossessed in 1847," 
after the long depression left them without income for rent. He was elected president of Davitt’s newly founded Irish National Land League in Dublin on 21 October 1879, signing a militant Land League address campaigning for land reform. The Irish Land League was an Irish political organization of the late 19th century which sought to help poor Tenant farmers Its primary aim was to abolish Land reforms (also Agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning is an often- controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government At the age of thirty-two and after just over four years in parliament he had put into place a political coalition without precedent  in Irish politics.
He was elected president of Davitt’s newly founded Irish National Land League in Dublin on 21 October 1879, signing a militant Land League address campaigning for land reform. The Irish Land League was an Irish political organization of the late 19th century which sought to help poor Tenant farmers Its primary aim was to abolish Land reforms (also Agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning is an often- controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government In so doing he linked the mass movement to the parliamentary agitation, with profound consequences for both of them.
In a bout of activity, he left for America in December 1879 with John Dillon to raise funds for famine relief and secure support for Home Rule. John Dillon (4 September 1851 – 4 August 1927 was an Irish land reform agitator Irish Home Rule activist nationalist politician Member of Parliament Timothy Healy followed to cope with the press and the collected £70,000  for distress in Ireland. Timothy Michael Healy, KC (17 May 1855 &ndash 26 March 1931 was an Irish nationalist politician journalist author barrister and one of the most During Parnell’s highly successful tour he had an audience with the American President, on 2 February 1880 he addressed the House of Representatives on the state of Ireland and spoke in sixty-two cities including in Canada, where he was so well received in Toronto, that Healy dubbed him "the uncrowned king of Ireland" . The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario He strove to retain Fenian support but insisted when asked by a reporter that he personally could not join a secret society  . Central to his whole approach to politics was ambiguity in that he allowed his hearers to remain uncertain. During his tour he seemed to be saying that there were virtually no limits. To abolish landlordism, he asserted, would be to undermine English misgovernment, and he is alleged to have added:
|“||When we have undermined English misgovernment we have paved the way|
for Ireland to take her place amongst the nations of the earth. Absentee landlord is an economic term for a person who owns and rents out a Profit -earning Property, but does not live within the property's local economic
And let us not forget that that is the ultimate goal at which all we Irishmen aim.
None of us whether we be in America or in Ireland . . . . will be satisfied
until we have destroyed the last link which keeps Ireland bound to England. 
His activities came to an abrupt end when the United Kingdom general election, 1880 was announced for April and he returned to fight it. Results |} Total votes cast 3359416 Voting summary Seats summary The Conservatives were defeated by the Liberal Party, William Ewart Gladstone was again Prime Minister. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s and a third party Sixty-three Home Rulers were elected, twenty-seven Parnell supporters, Parnell being returned for three seats in Cork, Mayo and Meath,. He chose to sit for the Cork seat. His triumph facilitated his nomination in May in place of Shaw as leader of a new Home Rule League Party, faced with a country on the brink of a land war.
Although the League discouraged violence, agrarian outrages grew widely from 863 incidents in 1879 to 2590 in 1880  after evictions increased from 1,238 to 2,110 in the same period. Parnell saw the need to replace violent agitation with country-wide mass meetings and the application of Davitt’s Captain Boycott, also as a means of achieving his objective of self-government. Captain Charles Cunningham Boycott ( March 12 1832 &mdash June 19 1897) was a British land agent whose ostracism by his local Gladstone was alarmed at the power of the Land League at the end of 1880  . He attempted to defuse the land question with Balfour’s dual ownership Second Land Act of 1881 but it failed to eliminate tenant evictions. Arthur James Balfour 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC (25 July 1848 - 19 March 1930 was a British Conservative politician and British Prime Minister William Gladstone had taken up the " Irish Question " in part to win the general election of 1868 by uniting the Liberal Party
Parnell’s own newspapers, the United Ireland, attacked the Land Act  and he was arrested on 13 October 1881 together with his party lieutenants, William O'Brien, John Dillon, Michael Davitt and Willie Redmond who had also conducted a bitter verbal offensive. William O'Brien (Irish Parliamentary Party should not be confused with his contemporary William X William Hoey Kearney Redmond ( 15 April, 1861 &ndash 9 June, 1917) (commonly known as Willie Redmond) was an Irish They were imprisoned under a proclaimed Coercion Act in Kilmainham Gaol for "sabotaging the Land Act", from where the No-Rent Manifesto, which Parnell and the others signed, was issued calling for a national tenant farmer rent strike. Between 1801 and 1922 the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed over 100 acts of emergency law in an attempt to establish law and order in Ireland. Kilmainham Gaol ( Príosún Chill Mhaighneann) is a former Prison, located in Kilmainham in Dublin, which is now a museum The Land League was suppressed immediately.
Whilst in gaol, Parnell moved in April 1882 to make a deal with the government, negotiated through Captain William O'Shea MP. Captain William Henry O'Shea (1840– 22 April 1905) was an Irish soldier and Member of Parliament. , that, provided the government settled the "rent arrears" question allowing 100,000 tenants to appeal for fair rent before the land courts, then withdrawing the manifesto and undertaking to move against agrarian crime, after he realised militancy would never win Home Rule. His release on 2 May following the so-called Kilmainham Treaty marked a critical turning point in the development of Parnell’s leadership when he returned to the parameters of parliamentary and constitutional politics  , and resulted in losing the support of Devoy’s American-Irish. The Kilmainham Treaty was an agreement between the British government under William Ewart Gladstone and the Irish nationalist leader Charles Stewart Parnell However, his political diplomacy preserved the national Home Rule movement after the Phoenix Park Murders of the Chief Secretary Lord Cavendish, and his Under-Secretary, T.H. Burke on 6 May. The term Phoenix Park Murders is used to refer to the assassination in 1882 of Thomas Henry Burke and the newly appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland, Lord Frederick The office before 1800 The dominant position of the Lord Lieutenant in the Irish governmental system had been central to the British administration for much of the history of Lord Frederick Charles Cavendish (30 November 1836 – 6 May 1882 was an English Liberal politician and protégé of the Prime Minister, Parnell was shocked to the extent that he offered Gladstone to resign his seat as MP . The militants Invincibles responsible, fled to America which allowed him break links with radical Land Leaguers. The Irish National Invincibles (Dosháraithe Náisiúnta na hÉireann usually known as "the Invincibles" were a radical IRB splinter group active in Dublin In the end it resulted in a Parnell - Gladstone alliance working closely together. Davitt and other prominent members left the IRB and many rank and file Fenians drifted into the Home Rule movement, the IRB ceasing to be an important force in Irish politics  .
Parnell now sought to use his experience and huge support to advance his pursuit of Home Rule and resurrected the suppressed Land League on 17 October 1882 as the Irish National League (INL). The Irish National League (INL was a nationalist Political party in Ireland. It combined moderate agrarianism, a Home Rule programme with electoral functions, was hierarchical and autocratic in structure with Parnell wielding immense authority and direct parliamentary control  . Parliamentary constitutionalism was the future path. The informal alliance between the new, tightly disciplined INL and the Catholic Church was one of the main factors for the revitalisation of the national Home Rule cause after 1882. Parnell saw that the explicit endorsement of Catholicism was of vital importance to the success of this venture and worked in close co-operation with the Catholic hierarchy in consolidating its hold over the Irish electorate  . The leaders of the Catholic Church largely recognised the Parnellite party as guardians of church interests, despite uneasiness with a powerful lay leadership  . At the end of 1885 the highly centralised organisation had 1,200 branches spread around the country, though less in Ulster  . Parnell left the day-to-day running of the INL in the hands of his lieutenants Timothy Harrington as Secretary, William O’Brien editor of its newspaper United Ireland and Timothy Healy. Timothy Charles Harrington (1851 &ndash 12 March 1910) born in co Its continued agrarian agitation led to the passing of several Irish Land Acts that over three decades which changed the face of Irish land ownership, replacing large Anglo-Irish estates with tenant ownership. British Prime Minister William Gladstone had taken up the " Irish Question " in part to win the general election of 1868 by uniting the Liberal Party " Anglo-Irish " was a term used historically to describe a privileged Social class in Ireland, whose members were the descendants and successors of the
Parnell next turned to the Home Rule League Party of which he was to remain the re-elected leader for over a decade, spending most of his time at Westminster, Henry Campbell his personal secretary. Henry Campbell (1856 – March 6, 1924) was an Irish nationalist politician and MP He fundamentally changed the party, replicated the INL structure within it and created a well-organised grass roots structure, introduced membership to replace “ad hoc” informal groupings in which MPs with little commitment to the party voted differently on issues or if they did, often voted against their own party . Or they simply did not attend the House of Commons at all (some citing expense, given that MPs were unpaid until 1911 and the journey to Westminster both costly and arduous).
In 1882 he changed its name to the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP). The Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP (commonly called the Irish Party was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing A central aspect of Parnell's reforms was a new selection procedure to ensure the professional selection of party candidates committed to taking their seats. In 1884 he imposed a firm ‘party pledge’ which obliged and ensured, that party MPs voted as a bloc in parliament on all occasions. The creation of a strict party whip and formal party structure was unique in party politics. Whip is a role in party-based politics whose primary purpose is to ensure control of the formal decision-making process in a parliamentary legislature The Irish Parliamentary Party is generally seen as the first modern political party, its efficient structure and control contrasting with the loose rules and flexible informality found in the main British parties, which came to model their party structures on the Parnellite model.
The changes impacted on the nature of candidates chosen. Under Butt, the party's MPs were a mixture of Catholic and Protestant, landlord and others, Whig, Liberal and Tory, often leading to disagreements in policy that meant that MPs split in votes. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Landlord is the owner of a House, Apartment, Condominium, or Real estate which is rented or Leased to an individual or business The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s and a third party In the political tradition of some English-speaking countries, the term Tory has referred to a variety of political parties and Creeds since it was Under Parnell, the number of Protestant and landlord MPs dwindled, as did the number of Tories seeking election. The parliamentary party became much more Catholic and middle class, with a large number of journalists and lawyers elected and the disappearance of Protestant Ascendancy landowners and Tories from it. The Protestant Ascendancy is a convenient phrase used when referring to the political economic and social domination of the former Kingdom of Ireland by a minority of great
Parnell’s party emerged swiftly as a tightly disciplined and, on the whole, energetic body of parliamentarians  . By 1885 he was leading a party well-poised for the next general election, his statements on Home Rule designed to secure the widest possible support. Speaking in Cork on 21 January 1885 :
|“||We cannot ask the British constitution for more than the restitution of Grattan’s parliament, but no man has the right to fix the boundary of a nation. Henry Grattan (3 July 1746 &ndash 6 June 1821 was a member of the Irish House of Commons and a campaigner for legislative freedom for the Irish Parliament in the |
No man has the right to say to his country, "Thus far shalt thou go and no further", and we have never attempted
to fix the "ne plus ultra" to the progress of Ireland’s nationhood, and we never shall  .
Parnell's unified Irish bloc had come to dominate British politics, making and unmaking Liberal and Conservative governments in the mid-1880s as it fought for self government for Ireland, initially of course within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s and a third party The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Both UK parties discovered common ground on which they could negotiate political understanding with Parnell. When Gladstone’s government fell in June 1885, the delayed November general elections, (boundaries were being redrawn) brought a complete Parnellite dominance of 86 Irish Home Rule MPs. Results |} Total votes cast 4638235 All parties shown Voting summary Seats summary See also holding the balance of power in the Commons. Parnell’s task was now to win acceptance of the principle of a Dublin parliament.
He at first supported a coalition with the Conservatives but after renewed agrarian distress arose when agricultural prices fell and unrest developed during 1885 the Conservative government announced coercion measures in January 1886. Parnell switched his support to the Liberals and the government fell  . The Liberals regained power, their leader Gladstone now under Parnell’s sway moving towards Home Rule, which Gladstone’s son revealed publicly under what became known as the Hawarden Kite. The Hawarden Kite was a famous British scoop of 1885 an apparent instance of flying a kite, when Herbert Gladstone son of the then Leader of the Opposition
The prospects shocked Unionists. Unionism in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and The Orange Order, revived in the 1880s to oppose the Land League now openly opposed Home Rule. The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order or the Orange Lodge, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly On 20 January the Irish Unionist Party was established in Dublin  . The Irish Unionist Alliance (also known as the Irish Unionist Party) was a Unionist party founded in Ireland in the second half of the 19th century By 28 January Salisbury’s government had resigned. On 8 April 1886 Gladstone introduced the First Irish Home Rule Bill, his object to establish an Irish legislature, although large imperial issues were to be reserved to the Westminster parliament  . The First Home Rule Bill (official name Irish Government Bill 1886) was the first major attempt made by a British parliament to The Conservatives now emerged as enthusiastic unionists, Lord Randolph Churchill declared The Orange card is the one to play  . Lord Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill ( 13 February 1849 – 24 January 1895) was a British Statesman. Gladstone committed the more progressive section of his party to support the cause of Irish Home Rule. In the course of a long and fierce debate he made a remarkable Home Rule Speech, beseeching parliament to pass the bill. However, Unionist anti-home rule protest demonstrations resulted in a split between pro- and anti-home rulers within the Liberal Party and the defeat of the bill on its second reading in June by 341 to 311 votes.
Parliament was dissolved and elections called, Irish Home Rule the central issue. The result of the July 1886 general election was again Liberal defeat, the Conservative anti-Home-Rulers and the Liberal Unionist Party returned with a majority of 118 over the combined Gladstonian Liberals and the retained 85 Irish Party seats. Results |} Vote summary Seats summary See also MPs elected in the UK general election 1886 The Liberal Unionists were a British political party that split away from the Liberals in 1886 and had effectively merged with the Conservatives by the
Parnell next became the centre of public attention when in March 1887 he found himself accused by the British newspaper The Times of support for the brutal murders in May 1882 of the Chief Secretary for Ireland, Lord Cavendish and the Under-Secretary Burke in Dublin’s Phoenix Park, and of the general involvement of his movement with crime (i. The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. The term Phoenix Park Murders is used to refer to the assassination in 1882 of Thomas Henry Burke and the newly appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland, Lord Frederick The Phoenix Park (Páirc an Fhionn-Uisce is the largest enclosed urban public Park in Europe located 3 km to the north west of Dublin city centre in Ireland e. , with illegal organisations such as the IRB). The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB was a secret oath-bound fraternal organisation dedicated to the establishment of an "independent democratic Republic" in the mid nineteenth Letters were published which suggested Parnell was complicit in the murders. Below is the most important one. However, a Commission of Enquiry which Parnell requested revealed in February 1889 after 128 sessions that the letters were in fact a fabrication created by Richard Piggott, a disreputable anti-Parnellite rogue journalist, who broke down under cross-examination after the letter was showed to be a forgery by him with his characteristic spelling mistakes. The Parnell Commission was a judicial Inquiry in the late 1880's into allegations of crimes by Irish parliamentarian Charles Stewart Parnell which resulted in his Richard Piggott (1838? - Madrid, 1889 was a journalist for The Times, well known for the 'Piggott forgeries' He fled to Madrid where he committed suicide. Parnell was vindicated, the Tories and their Prime Minister Lord Salisbury having hoped to demonstrate otherwise. "Lord Salisbury" redirects here For other holders of the title see Marquess of Salisbury.  The extraordinary document, dated 15 May, 1882, ran as follows:
Dear Sir, - I am not surprised at your friend's anger, but he and you should know that to denounce the murders was the only course open to us. To do that promptly was plainly our best policy. But you can tell him, and all others concerned, that, though I regret the accident of Lord Frederick Cavendish's death, I cannot refuse to admit that Burke got no more than his deserts. You are at liberty to show him this, and others whom you can trust also, but let not my address be known. He can write to House of Commons. Yours very truly, Chas S. Parnell. 
The 35-volume commission report published in February 1890, did not however clear Parnell's movement of criminal involvement. Parnell then took The Times to court and the newspaper paid him £5,000 damages in an out-of-court settlement. When Parnell entered parliament on 1 March 1890 after he was cleared, he received a standing ovation from his fellow MPs led by Gladstone.  It had been a dangerous crisis in his career, yet Parnell had at all times remained calm, relaxed and unperturbed which greatly impressed his political friends. For while he was vindicated in triumph, links between the Home Rule movement and militancy, had been established. This he could have politically survived were it not for the crisis to follow.
During the period 1886-90 Parnell continued to pursue Home Rule, striving to reassure English voters that it would be of no threat to them. In Ireland unionist resistance, (especially after the Irish Unionist Party was formed), became increasingly organised  . Parnell pursued moderate and conciliatory tenant land purchase and still hoped to retain a sizeable landlord support for home rule. During the agrarian crisis which intensified in 1886 and launched the Plan of Campaign organised by Parnell’s lieutenants, he chose in the interest of Home Rule not to associate himself with it  . The Plan of Campaign was a stratagem adopted in Ireland between 1886 and 1891 co-ordinated by Irish politicians for the benefit of Tenant farmers
All that remained, it seemed, was to work out details of a new home rule bill with Gladstone. They held two meetings, one in March 1888 and a second more significant meeting at Gladstone’s home in Hawarden on 18-19 December 1899. Hawarden ( IPA /ˈhɑdən/ "Harden" Penarlâg is a town in Flintshire, North Wales, approximately 5 miles (as On each occasion Parnell’s demands were entirely within the accepted parameters of Liberal thinking, Gladstone noting that he was one of the best people he had known to deal with  . A remarkable transition from an inmate at Kilmainham to an intimate at Hawarden in just over seven years  . This was the high point of Parnell’s career. In the early part of 1890 he still hoped to advance the situation on the land question which a substantial section of his party were displeased with, insufficient achieved for the tenantry of the smaller tenants
Parnell’s leadership was first put to the test in February 1886 when he forced the candidature for a Galway seat by-election of Captain William O'Shea who had negotiated the Kilmainham Treaty. Captain William Henry O'Shea (1840– 22 April 1905) was an Irish soldier and Member of Parliament. He rode roughshod over his lieutenants Healy, Dillon and O’Brien who were not in favour of O’Shea. Galway was the harbinger of the fatal crisis to come  . O’Shea had already separated from his wife Mrs Katharine O’Shea but would not divorce her as she was expecting a substantial inheritance. Katharine O'Shea, also known as Katie O'Shea, Kitty O'Shea or following her second marriage Katharine Parnell ( 30 January 1846 &ndash Parnell first had contact to Mrs. O’Shea when she acted as liaison in 1885 with Gladstone during proposals for the First Home Rule Bill  . He later took up residence with her in Eltham, Surrey in the summer of 1886  . Eltham is a district in the London Borough of Greenwich. It is a suburban development situated east south-east of Charing Cross. Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. When Mrs O’Shea’s aunt died in 1899, her money was left in trust (later inherited by cousins).
On 24 December 1889 Capt. O’Shea filed for divorce, citing Parnell as co-respondent. The case did not come for trial until 15 November 1890. It was soon 'revealed' (though it had been widely known among politicians at Westminster) that Parnell had been the long term partner, and father of three of the children, of Mrs O'Shea (also known derogatively as "Kitty")  . Meanwhile Parnell assured the Irish Party there was no need to fear the verdict, he would be exonerated. During January 1890 resolutions of confidence in his leadership were passed throughout the country  .
Parnell did not contest the divorce case on 15 November so as to assure a divorce in order to marry Mrs O’Shea, so that Capt. O’Shea’s allegations went unchallenged. A divorce decree was granted on the 17th. , Parnell’s two children placed in O’Shea’s custody (his first had died when he was in Kilmainham gaol). Next day the Irish National League passed a resolution upholding his leadership. The Irish National League (INL was a nationalist Political party in Ireland. The Catholic Church hierarchy in Ireland was largely silent, some bishops explicitly declaring the issue to be purely political  , though divorce is forbidden under Catholic doctrine and most of Parnell's supporters were Roman Catholics. This article refers to hierarchy in the Catholic Church. For hierarchy in other communions with a "catholic" character please see articles on the churches As co-respondent, Parnell was legally the apparent cause of the divorce, so that it was rather the ‘nonconformist conscience’ in England which openly rebelled against him  , and resulted in Gladstone’s warning, given to Justin McCarthy as intermediary, that if Parnell retained leadership it would mean the loss of the next election, the end of their alliance and Home Rule. Nonconformism is the refusal to conform to common standards conventions rules customs traditions norms or laws When the annual party leadership election meeting was held on the 25th, this threat was not conveyed to the members whom Parnell managed to control, until they loyally re-elected their 'Chief' in his office   . Gladstone published his warning in a letter next day. Angry members demanded a new meeting, called for 1 December.
Parnell issued a manifesto ‘To the people of Ireland’ on the 29 November saying a section of the party had lost its independence, and Gladstone’s terms for Home Rule were inadequate. A total of 73 members were present for the fateful meeting in committee room 15 at Westminster. The party tried desperately to achieve a compromise on Parnell retiring temporarily. But Parnell, a proud and passionate man, refused, saying "If I go, I go forever". He vehemently insisted that the independence of the Irish party could not be compromised either by Gladstone or by the Catholic hierarchy  and as chairman blocked any motion to remove him. On 6 December after five days of debating a majority of 44 present led by Justin McCarthy walked out to found a new organisation, thus creating rival Parnellite and Anti-Parnellite parties. The minority of 28 who remained true to their embattled 'Chief' continued in the Irish National League under John Redmond, the vast majority of Anti-Parnellites forming the Irish National Federation, later led by John Dillon and supported by the Catholic Church. John Edward Redmond (Seán Éamonn Mac Réamoinn (1 September 1856 &ndash 6 March 1918 was an Irish nationalist Politician, Barrister, MP The Irish National Federation (INF was a nationalist Political party in Ireland. See also: Diocese of Meath.
During the meeting, when Parnell had challenged Gladstone's intervention with the question, "Who is the master of the party?"; Timothy Healy, a notoriously waspish MP, responded with the legendary quip "Who is the mistress of the party?", Parnell retorted, how dare he in an assembly of Irishmen insult a woman  . Timothy Healy may refer to Timothy Michael Healy (1855–1931 Irish politician Timothy S Healy continued in public with a series of polemics to viciously attack Parnell, articulating an aggressively Catholic nationalism. Parnell in contrast had insisted in a major speech in Belfast in May 1891
|“||’’It is undoubtedly true that until the prejudices of the protestant and unionist minority are conciliated …. . |
Ireland can never enjoy perfect freedom, Ireland can never be united. ’’ 
All of his former close associates, Michael Davitt, John Dillon, William O’Brien and Timothy Healy deserted him to join the Anti-Parnellites. The bitterness of the split was to tear the country apart and resonated well into the next century.
On 10 December Parnell arrived in Dublin to a hero’s welcome  . He and his followers later forcibly seized the offices of the party paper United Irishman. His prestige had risen to unprecedented heights but the crisis crippled this support, and most rural nationalists turned against him. In the December north co. Kilkenny by-election he attracted Fenian "hillside men" to his side. County Kilkenny ( is a landlocked county in Ireland. The county takes its name from the city of Kilkenny and has a population of 87558 Fianna Éireann The Fenians, both the Fenian Brotherhood and Irish Republican Brotherhood, were fraternal organisations dedicated to the establishment of an independent This ambiguity shocked former adherents, who clashed physically with his supporters, his candidate beaten by almost two to one  . Deposed as leader, he fought a long and fierce campaign for re-instatement. He conducted a political tour of Ireland to re-establish popular support. In a north Sligo by-election the defeat of his candidate by 2,493 votes to 3,261 was less resounding, the clergy not united  . County Sligo ( is a county in the province of Connacht in the west of Ireland.
He fulfilled his loyalty to Katharine when they married on 25 June, 1891 in Steyning registry office  , West Sussex, after Parnell unsuccessfully sought a church wedding. Steyning is a small town and Civil parish in the Horsham District of West Sussex, England. Settlements Most settlements in West Sussex are either along the south coast or are situated in the M23 corridor On which day the Catholic hierarchy, worried by the number of priests who had supported him in north Sligo, issued a near-unanimous condemnation of his conduct (only Bishop Edward O'Dwyer of Limerick withheld his signature). Limerick (pronounced /ˈlɪmrɪk/ Luimneach in Irish) is a city and the county seat of County Limerick in the Province of Munster The Parnells took up residence in Brighton. Brighton ( is a town on the south coast of England and with its neighbour Hove, forms the city of Brighton and Hove.
He returned to fight the third and last by-election in co. Carlow having lost the support of the Freeman's Journal when its proprietor Edmund Dwyer-Gray deflected to the anti-Parnellites. County Carlow (Contae Cheatharlach is a County in Ireland located towards the south east of Ireland, in the province of Leinster. Sir Edmund John Chisholm Dwyer-Gray ( 2 April 1870 &ndash 6 December 1945) was an Irish - Australian politician who was the On the difficult campaign trail, his health visibly faded since Kilmainham gaol and seriously deteriorating during the year, quicklime was thrown at his eyes by a hostile crowd in Castlecomer, co. Calcium oxide ( CaO) commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, is a widely used Chemical compound. Castlecomer (Caisleán an Chomair is the main Town in north County Kilkenny, Ireland. Kilkenny. Fr. PJ Ryan, a Land League protagonist, called in medical aid given by his brother, Dr Valentine Ryan of Carlow Town, a Home Rule sympathiser. Parnell continued the exhausting life of an Irish public agitator, refused to regard parliamentary pressure as outmoded and looked to the next election to restore his fortunes. Results |} The totals above exclude two Irish candidates whose party affiliation was unclear to F On 27 September rather than disappoint his followers in the west he addressed a crowd in pouring rain at Creggs on the Galway–Roscommon border and contracted pneumonia. County Galway (Contae na Gaillimhe is located on the West Coast of Ireland. Not to be confused with Roscommon County Michigan, United States County Roscommon (Contae Ros Comáin is a County located in central Ireland
He returned to Dublin, departing by mail boat on 30 September ("I shall be all right. I shall be back next Saturday week. "). He died in his home in Brighton of a heart attack in his wife’s arms on 6 October. He was only 45 years of age. Though an Anglican, his funeral to the Irish National Catholic Glasnevin Cemetery in Dublin on 11 October 1891, was attended by more than 200,000 people  . The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Glasnevin Cemetery ( also known as Prospect Cemetery, is the main Catholic Cemetery in Dublin, the capital of Ireland. Such was his reputation that his gravestone of unhewn Wicklow granite, erected in 1940,  carries just one word in large lettering: PARNELL. A headstone, tombstone or gravestone is a marker normally carved from stone, placed over or next to the site of a Burial County Wicklow (Contae Chill Mhantáin is a county on the east coast of Ireland, immediately south of Dublin.
His brother John Howard inherited the Avondale estate which he found heavily mortgaged and eventually sold it in 1899. John Howard Parnell (1843 – May 3 1923) was an older brother of the Irish Nationalist leader Charles Stewart Parnell and after his brother’s Five years later, at the suggestion of Horace Plunkett it was purchased by the State. Sir Horace Curzon Plunkett, ( 24 October 1854 – 26 March 1932) was an Anglo-Irish unionist, later Irish nationalist It is open to public view and is where the "Parnell Society" holds its annual August summer school. The "Parnell National Memorial Park" is in nearby Rathdrum, County Wicklow. Rathdrum ( is a Village in County Wicklow, Ireland. It is situated high on the western side of the beautiful Avonmore Valley and offers the tourist majestic The capital city Dublin commemorated Parnell with the naming of Parnell Street, Parnell Square and the Parnell Monument on central O'Connell Street. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Parnell Street ( Sráid Pharnell in Irish) is located on Dublin's Northside and runs from Capel Street in the west to Gardiner Street in the Parnell Square ( Cearnóg Parnell in Irish, formerly Rutland Square) and was renamed after Charles Stewart Parnell (1846-1891 O'Connell Street (Sráid Uí Chonaill is Dublin 's main thoroughfare
He is also commemorated on the first Sunday after the anniversary of his death on October 6th, known as "Ivy Day", which originated when the mourners at his funeral in 1891, taking their cue from a wreath of ivy sent by a Cork woman "as the best offering she cold afford", took ivy leaves from the walls and stuck them in their lapels. Ever after, the ivy leaf became the Parnellite emblem, worn by his followers when then gathered to honour their lost leader.
Parnell's personal political views remained an enigma. An effective communicator he was skilfully ambivalent and matched his words depending on circumstances and audience though he would always first defend constitutionalism on which basis he sought to bring about change. But he was hampered by the crimes that hung around the Land League, and by the opposition of landlords aggravated by attacks on their property  .
Yet he condoned radical republican and atheist Charles Bradlaugh and associated with the Roman Catholic Church, was linked both with the landed aristocracy class and the Irish Republican Brotherhood, with speculation in the 1990s that he may have even joined the latter organisation. Political radicalism or simply radicalism is adherence to radical views and principles in Politics. Republicanism is the Ideology of governing a nation as a Republic, with an emphasis on Liberty, Rule of law, Popular sovereignty Atheism Charles Bradlaugh ( 26 September 1833 – 30 January 1891) was a political activist and one of the most famous English atheists The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB was a secret oath-bound fraternal organisation dedicated to the establishment of an "independent democratic Republic" in the mid nineteenth The historian Andrew Roberts argues that he was sworn into the IRB in the old library at Trinity College Dublin in May 1882 and that this was concealed for 40 years  . Trinity College Dublin ( TCD; Irish Coláiste na Tríonóide Baile Átha Cliath; Latin: Collegium Sacrosanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae He was conservative by nature, leading some historians to suggest that personally he would have been closer to the Conservative rather than to the Liberal Party, but for political needs. Andrew Kettle, Parnell's right hand man, who shared a lot of his opinions, wrote of his own views:
I confess that I felt [in 1885], and still feel, a greater leaning towards the British Tory party than I ever could have towards the so-called Liberals.  .
Historians believe Parnell and Timothy Healy shared that viewpoint  . In later years the double effect of the Phoenix Park trauma and the O’Shea affair reinforced the conservative side of his nature  .
Charles Stewart Parnell possessed the remarkable attribute of charisma, was an enigmatic personality, politically gifted and is regarded as one of the most extraordinary figures in Irish and British politics. He began the process that undermined his own Anglo-Irish caste and destroyed landlordism. Absentee landlord is an economic term for a person who owns and rents out a Profit -earning Property, but does not live within the property's local economic He created single-handedly in the Irish Party the first modern disciplined political party machine with its whip, holding together all strands of Irish nationalism and harnessing Irish-America into the Irish cause. He had the power to make and unmake governments in the United Kingdom and converted the British Prime Minister Gladstone to Irish Home Rule.
Over a century after his death he is still surrounded by public interest. His early death, and the divorce upheaval which preceded it, gave him a public appeal and interest that other contemporaries, such as Timothy Healy or John Dillon, could not match. Historians speculate as to whether, had Parnell lived and home rule been granted a decade earlier, All-Ireland independence could have, in time, flowed from such a settlement and have meant there would have been no Easter Rising, no Anglo-Irish War, no independent twenty-six county Free State and no ensuing Civil War? The enactment of All-Ireland independence could certainly only have taken place with the consent of all of Ulster, its inclusion in an All-Ireland parliament, at the time, a debatable issue. The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca was a rebellion staged in Ireland in Easter Week, 1916 The Irish War of Independence (or Tan War, or Anglo-Irish War, Irish: Cogadh na Saoirse) from January 1919 to July 1921 was a guerrilla The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by The Irish Civil War ( June 28 1922 &ndash May 24 1923) pitted supporters of the Anglo-Irish Treaty against its opponents However, after Edward Carson the Ulster leader, backed by the Ulster Covenant and his armed Ulster Volunteers, forced through his amending "exclusion of Ulster Bill" to the 1914 Third Home Rule Act, and with the establishment of a Northern Ireland Home Rule Government in Belfast under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, Unionist opposition since 1885 to "All-Ireland independence" proved itself to be extremely resilient and steadfast. Edward Henry Carson Baron Carson, PC, Kt, KC (often known as Sir Edward Carson or Lord Carson) ( The Ulster Covenant was signed by just under half a million of men and women from Ulster, on and before September 28, 1912, in protest against the The Ulster Volunteers were a unionist militia founded in 1912 to block Home Rule for Ireland. The Home Rule Act of 1914, also known as the ( Irish) Third Home Rule Act (or Bill) and formally known as the Government of Ireland Act 1914 Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Belfast ( is the capital city of Northern Ireland and the seat of government in Northern Ireland. An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act 1920, (and sometimes called the Fourth Home Rule Act) was an Act
The scale of Parnell's impact can be seen in the fact that parties from Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael have tried to claim him as "one of their own", as more recently have some in Sinn Féin. Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach shortened to Fianna Fáil ( is currently the largest Political party in the Fine Gael – The United Ireland Party, shortened to Fine Gael (ˌfina gail meaning Family of the Irish or Tribe of the Irish, is the second largest Sinn Féin () is a political party in Ireland. The current party led by Gerry Adams was formed following a split in January 1970 The uniqueness of his appeal was shown when, in the early 1890s two visiting members of the Royal Family, the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of York (later King George V), paid a private visit to the grave of the "uncrowned king of Ireland" in Glasnevin. Prince Albert Victor Duke of Clarence and Avondale (Albert Victor Christian Edward 8 January 1864 &ndash 14 January 1892 was a member of the British Royal Family.
Ultimately the O'Shea divorce issue and Parnell's premature death changed the shape of late nineteenth century politics, to an extent that can be but speculated. He had been prepared to sacrifice everything for his love to Mrs O’Shea, including the cause to which he had devoted his political life. For generations of Irish people, his life as the “lost leader” was highly dramatic and deeply tragic, against whose mythical reputation no later leader who lived a normal lifespan and who faced the practicalities of governance that Parnell never faced, could hope to prevail.
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
|MP for Meath|
Alexander Martin Sullivan
William Goulding and J. This is a list of people on the Postage stamps of the Irish Free State between 1922 and 1937 and on the postage stamps of Ireland since 1937, including The year 1937 in film involved some significant events Events April 16 - Way Out West premieres in Clark Gable (February 1 &ndashNovember 16) was an iconic American Actor nicknamed "The King of Hollywood" in his heyday The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories John Martin ( 8 September 1812 &ndash 29 March 1875) was an Irish nationalist activist who progressed from early militant support Meath was a former United Kingdom constituencies UK Parliament constituency in Ireland returning two Members of Parliament (MPs Alexander Martin Sullivan ( 15 May 1829 - 17 October 1884) was an Irish Politician, Lawyer and Journalist P. Roydane
|MP for Cork|