Charles IV (Czech: Karel IV. The coat of arms of Luxembourg has its origins in the Middle Ages, and was derived from that of the Duchy of Limburg, in modern day Belgium Czech (ˈʧɛk čeština ˈʧɛʃcɪna in Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers it is the majority language in the , German: Karl IV, Hungarian: IV. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. Károly; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378), born Wenceslaus (Václav), was the eleventh king of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg, and Holy Roman Emperor. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the The House of Luxembourg was a mediæval Luxembourgian noble family The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states
He was the eldest son and heir of John the Blind, who died on 26 August 1346, thus Charles inherited the County of Luxembourg and the Kingdom of Bohemia. John the Blind ( Luxembourgish: Jang de Blannen; German: Johann der Blinde von Luxemburg Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. For other uses of Luxembourg see Luxembourg (disambiguation The territory of Luxembourg was ruled successively by Counts This is a list of rulers of Bohemia. Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia are territories which are or have On 2 September 1347 Charles was crowned as the king of Bohemia. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion.
On 11 July 1346 Prince-electors had elected him King of the Romans (rex Romanorum) in opposition to Emperor Louis IV. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. The Prince-Electors (or simply Electors) of the Holy Roman Empire ( German: Kurfürst ( pl King of the Romans ( Latin: Rex Romanorum) was the title used by the elected ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the Imperator futurus Louis IV ( 1 April[[ 282]] &ndash 11 October 1347) called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was the Duke of Bavaria Charles was crowned on 26 November 1346 in Bonn. Events 43 BC - The Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus ("Octavian" later "Caesar Augustus" Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia After his opponent had died, he in 1349 was again elected (17 June) and crowned (25 July) King of the Romans. Events 1462 - Vlad III the Impaler attempts to assassinate Mehmed II ( The Night Attack) forcing him to retreat Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler In 1355 he was also crowned King of Italy on 6 January and Holy Roman Emperor on 5 April. Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop With his coronation as King of Burgundy, delayed until 4 June 1365, he became the personal ruler of all the kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire. The following is a list of the Kings of Burgundy. Kings of the Burgundians The Burgundians had left Bornholm c Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in
When he was born, he was born to John and Elisabeth I of Bohemia in Prague as Wenceslaus (Václav), the name of her father, but later chose the name Charles at his confirmation after he went to France, at the court of his uncle, Charles IV of France, where he remained for seven years. Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. Wenceslaus II Premyslid (Václav II Wacław II Czeski September 27, 1271 &ndash June 21, 1305) was King of Bohemia (1278 - 1305 Confirmation is a Rite of initiation in many Christian Churches normally in the form of Laying on of hands and/or Anointing for Charles IV (18/ 19 June 1294 – 1 February 1328) was the King of France and of Navarre (as Charles I) and
Charles received a French education and was literate and fluent in five languages: Latin, Czech, German, French, and Italian. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Czech (ˈʧɛk čeština ˈʧɛʃcɪna in Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers it is the majority language in the The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. In 1331 he gained some experience of warfare in Italy with his father. From 1333 he administered the lands of the Bohemian Crown due to his father's frequent absence and later also deteriorating eye-sight. The " Czech lands " (České země is an auxiliary term used mainly to describe the combination of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia. In 1334, he was named Margrave of Moravia, the traditional title for the heirs to the throne. The March or Margraviate of Moravia, sometimes called the Bohemian march within the Holy Roman Empire, was a marcher state, sometimes de Two years later he undertook the government of Tirol on behalf of his brother John Henry, and was soon actively concerned in a struggle for the possession of this county. Tyrol is a region in Western Central Europe, which included the present day Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East John Henry of Luxembourg, Czech Jan Jindřich, German Johann Heinrich ( 12 February 1322, Mělník &ndash 12 November
In consequence of an alliance between his father and Pope Clement VI, the relentless enemy of the emperor Louis IV, Charles was chosen Roman king in opposition to Louis by some of the prince-electors at Rhens on 11 July 1346. Pope Clement VI (1291 &ndash December 6, 1352) born Pierre Roger, the fourth of the Avignon Popes, was Pope from May 1342 until his Louis IV ( 1 April[[ 282]] &ndash 11 October 1347) called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was the Duke of Bavaria An Antiking (Gegenkönig is a would-be King who due to succession disputes or simple political opposition declares himself king in opposition to a reigning monarch The Prince-Electors (or simply Electors) of the Holy Roman Empire ( German: Kurfürst ( pl Rhens is a municipality in the district Mayen-Koblenz, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. As he had previously promised to be subservient to Clement he made extensive concessions to the Pope in 1347. Confirming the papacy in the possession of wide territories, he promised to annul the acts of Louis against Clement, to take no part in Italian affairs, and to defend and protect the church.
Charles IV was initially in a very weak position in Germany. Owing to the terms of his election, he was derisively referred to by some as a "priest's king" (Pfaffenkönig). Many bishops and nearly all of the Imperial cities remained loyal to Louis the Bavarian. Worse yet, Charles backed the wrong horse in the Hundred Years' War, losing his father and many of his best knights at the battle of Crecy in August 1346, with Charles himself escaping wounded from the field.
Civil War in Germany was prevented, however, when Louis IV died on 11 October 1347, when he suffered a stroke during a bear-hunt. In January 1349 Wittelsbach partisans attempted to secure the election of Günther von Schwarzburg as king, but he attracted few supporters and died unnoticed and unmourned after a few months. The Wittelsbach family is a European Royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. Günther von Schwarzburg (1304 &ndash 1349 German king, was a descendant of the counts of Schwarzburg and the younger son of Henry VII count of Blankenburg Thereafter, Charles faced no direct threat to his claim to the Imperial throne.
Charles' initially worked to secure his power base. Bohemia had remained untouched by the plague. Prague became his capital, and he rebuilt the city on the model of Paris, establishing the New Town of Prague (Nové Město). The New Town ( Nové město) is a quarter in the city of Prague in the Czech Republic. In 1348, he founded the University of Prague, named after him, the first university in Central Europe. This served as a training ground for bureaucrats and lawyers. Soon Prague emerged as the intellectual and cultural center of central Europe.
|Holy Roman Empire|
Armorial of the Holy Roman Empire
Charles, having made good use of the difficulties of his opponents, was again elected and recrowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on 25 July 1349, and was soon the undisputed ruler of the Empire. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Since the Holy Roman Empire was big old and very divided internally it had many coats ( Ripuarian: Oche, Dutch: Aken, Spanish: Aquisgrán, Italian: Aquisgrana, French, Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler Gifts or promises had won the support of the Rhenish and Swabian towns; a marriage alliance secured the friendship of the Habsburgs; and that of Rudolf II of Bavaria, count palatine of the Rhine, was obtained when Charles, who had become a widower in 1348, married his daughter Anna. Swabia, Suabia, or Svebia ( German: Schwaben, Schwabenland or Ländle) is both a historic and linguistic Rudolf II "the blind" ( August 8 1306 in Wolfratshausen &ndash October 4 1353 in Neustadt) was Count Palatine
In 1350 the king was visited at Prague by the Roman tribune Cola di Rienzo, who urged him to go to Italy, where the poet Petrarch and the citizens of Florence also implored his presence. The History of the city of Rome spans 2800 years of the existence of a city that grew from a small Italian village in the 9th century BC into the center Cola di Rienzo or di Rienzi ( c 1313 – October 8, 1354) was an Italian medieval politician and popular leader Tribune Francesco Petrarca ( July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374) known in English as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Turning a deaf ear to these entreaties, Charles kept Cola in prison for a year, and then handed him as a prisoner to Clement at Avignon. Avignon (/aviɲɔ̃/ in French) ( Provençal: Avinhon in classical norm or Avignoun in Mistralian norm is a commune
Outside of Prague, Charles attempted to expand the Bohemian crown lands, using his imperial authority to acquire fiefs in Silesia, the Upper Palatinate, and Franconia. Etymology One theory claims that the name Silesia is derived from the Silingi, who were most likely a Vandalic (East Germanic people The Upper Palatinate (German Oberpfalz) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria Franconia (Franken is a historic region of Germany comprising the northern parts of the modern state of Bavaria and the area to its immediate west The latter regions comprised "New Bohemia", a string of possessions intended to link Bohemia with the Luxemburg territories in the Rhineland. The Bohemian estates were not, however, willing to support Charles in these ventures. When Charles sought to codify Bohemian law in the Majestas Carolina of 1355 he met with sharp resistance. After that point, Charles found it expedient to scale back his efforts at centralization.
In 1354 he crossed the Alps without an army, received the Lombard crown at Milan on January 1355, and was crowned emperor at Rome by a cardinal in the April in the same year. The Iron Crown of Lombardy ( Corona Ferrea) is both a reliquary and one of the most ancient royal insignia of Europe Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. His sole object appears to have been to obtain the imperial crown in peace, and in accordance with a promise previously made to Pope Clement he only remained in the city for a few hours, in spite of the expressed wishes of the Roman people. Having virtually abandoned all the imperial rights in Italy, the emperor recrossed the Alps, pursued by the scornful words of Petrarch but laden with considerable wealth. On his return Charles was occupied with the administration of the Empire, then just recovering from the Black Death, and in 1356 he promulgated the famous Golden Bull to regulate the election of the king. The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet Having given Moravia to one brother, John Henry, and erected the county of Luxemburg into a duchy for another, Wenceslaus, he was unremitting in his efforts to secure other territories as compensation and to strengthen the Bohemian monarchy. Wenceslaus (also Wenceslas, Wenzel Václav Venceslao February 26, 1361 – August 16 1419) called the Drunkard, was To this end he purchased part of the upper Palatinate of the Rhine in 1353, and in 1367 annexed Lower Lusatia to Bohemia and bought numerous estates in various parts of Germany. Upper and Lower Lusatia Upper Lusatia ( Oberlausitz or Hornja Łužica) is today part of the German state of Saxony except for a small part east of On the death in 1363 of Meinhard, duke of Upper Bavaria and count of Tirol, Upper Bavaria was claimed by the sons of the emperor Louis IV, and Tirol by Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria. Meinhard III ( February 9 1344 - January 13, 1363) was the son of Louis V of Bavaria with Countess Margarete Maultasch Rudolf IV der Stifter (the Founder ( November 1 1339 &ndash July 27 1365) was a member of the House of Habsburg and Both claims were admitted by Charles on the understanding that if these families died out both territories should pass to the house of Luxemburg. About the same time he was promised the succession to the Margravate of Brandenburg, which he actually obtained for his son Wenceslaus in 1373. The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg was a major Principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 He also gained a considerable portion of Silesian territory, partly by inheritance through his third wife, Anna, daughter of Henryk II of Świdnica. In 1365 Charles visited Pope Urban V at Avignon and undertook to escort him to Rome; and on the same occasion was crowned king of Burgundy at Arles. Blessed Arles (aʁl̥ Provençal Occitan: Arles in both classical and Mistralian norms is a City in the south of France,
His second journey to Italy took place in 1368, when he had a meeting with Pope Urban VI at Viterbo, was besieged in his palace at Siena, and left the country before the end of the year 1369. Pope Urban VI (c 1318 &ndash October 15, 1389) born Bartolomeo Prignano, was Pope from 1378 to 1389 Viterbo is an ancient city and Comune in the Lazio region of central Italy, the capital of the Province of Viterbo. Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Siena. During his later years the emperor took little part in German affairs beyond securing the election of his son Wenceslaus as king of the Romans in 1376, and negotiating a peace between the Swabian league and some nobles in 1378. After dividing his lands between his three sons, he died in November 1378 at Prague, where he was buried, and where a statue was erected to his memory in 1848.
Charles IV suffered of gout (metabolic arthritis) a painful disease quite common in that time. Gout (also called metabolic arthritis) is a disease created by a buildup of Uric acid.
His reign was characterised by a transformation in the nature of the Empire and is remembered as the golden age of Bohemia. He promulgated the Golden Bull of 1356 whereby the succession to the imperial title was laid down, which held for the next four centuries. The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet
He also organized the states of the empire into peace-keeping confederations. In these, the Imperial cities figured prominently. The Swabian Landfriede confederation of 1370 was made up almost entirely of Imperial Cities. At the same time, the leagues were organized and led by the crown and its agents. As with the electors, the cities which served in these leagues were given privileges to aid them in their efforts to keep the peace.
He assured his dominance over the eastern borders of the Empire through succession treaties with the Habsburgs and the purchase of Brandenburg. He also claimed imperial lordship over the crusader states of Prussia and Livonia.
He made Prague the imperial capital, refusing even at the insistence of Petrarch to move to Rome, and he was a great builder in that city, which bears his name in so many spots: Charles University, Charles Bridge, and Charles Square. Charles University in Prague (also simply Charles University; Univerzita Karlova v Praze Universitas Carolina Karls-Universität zu Prag is the oldest and largest Charles Bridge (Karlův most) is a famous historical Bridge that crosses the Vltava river in Prague, Czech Republic. Charles Square (Karlovo náměstí is a City square in the New Town of Prague, Czech Republic. Prague Castle and much of the cathedral of Saint Vitus, by Peter Parler, were completed under his patronage. Prague Castle (Pražský hrad is a Castle in Prague where the Czech kings Holy Roman Emperors and presidents of Czechoslovakia Saint Vitus's Cathedral (Katedrála svatého Víta is a Roman Catholic Cathedral in Prague, and the seat of the Archbishop of Prague. Peter Parler, (Petrus de Gemunden in Suevia Petr Parléř (1330(? Schwäbisch Gmünd &ndash July 13, 1399, Prague) was a German Finally, it is from the reign of Charles that dates the first flowering of manuscript painting in Prague. In the present Czech Republic, he is still regarded as Pater patriae (father of the country or otec vlasti), a title first coined by Adalbertus Ranconis de Ericinio at his funeral. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Pater Patriae (plural Patres Patriae) also seen as Parens Patriae, is a Latin Honorific meaning " Father Pater Patriae (plural Patres Patriae) also seen as Parens Patriae, is a Latin Honorific meaning " Father Adalbertus Ranconis de Ericinio (Vojtěch Raňkův z Ježova (circa 1320 &ndash August 15, 1388) was a Czech theologian and philosopher
Charles' imperial policy was focused on the dynastic sphere and abandoned the lofty ideal of the Empire as a universal monarchy of Christendom. In 1353, he granted Luxembourg to his nephew Jobst. Jobst (or Jost or Jodokus) of Moravia (Jošt Lucemburský Josse de Luxembourg) was born in 1351 as the eldest son of John Henry of He concentrated his energies chiefly on the economic and intellectual development of Bohemia, where he founded the university in 1348 and encouraged the early humanists. Renaissance Humanism was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century Indeed, he corresponded with Petrarch, whom he invited to visit his residence in Prague, but the great Italian hoped — to no avail — to see Charles move his residence to Rome and reawaken tradition of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
Charles's sister Bona, married the eldest son of Philip VI of France, the future John II of France, in 1335. Bonne of Luxemburg (also Bona ( May 20, 1315 &ndash September 11, 1349) was born Jutta the daughter of John the Blind of Luxemburg Philip VI (1293 &ndash 22 August 1350) known as the Fortunate ( French: le Fortuné) and of Valois, was the John II (16 April 1319 &ndash 8 April 1364 called John the Good (Jean le Bon was Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, and Duke of Normandy Thus, Charles was the maternal uncle of Charles V of France, who solicited his relative's advice at Metz in 1356 during the Parisian Revolt. Charles V ( 21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380) called the Wise, was King of France from 1364 to his death and a member Metz (mɛs in French) is a city in the northeast of France, capital of the Lorraine région and Préfecture The Jacquerie was a Popular revolt in late medieval Europe by peasants that took place in northern France in 1358, during the Hundred Years' War This family connection was celebrated publicly when Charles IV made a solemn visit to his nephew in 1378, just months before his death. A detailed account of the occasion, enriched by many splendid miniatures, can be found in Charles V's copy of the Grandes Chroniques de France. The Grandes Chroniques de France is a royal compilation of the history of France, its manuscripts remarkably illuminated
|Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor||Father:|
John I of Bohemia
Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry VI of Luxembourg
Margaret of Brabant
John I, Duke of Brabant
Margaret III, Countess of Flanders
Elisabeth I of Bohemia
Wenceslaus II of Bohemia
Ottokar II of Bohemia
Kunigunda of Slavonia
Judith of Habsburg
Rudolph I of Germany
Gertrude of Hohenburg
Charles was married four times. John the Blind ( Luxembourgish: Jang de Blannen; German: Johann der Blinde von Luxemburg Henry VII ( Heinrich; c 1275 (or 1279 &ndash 24 August 1313) was the King of Germany (or Rex Romanorum) from 1308 and Margaret of Brabant ( 4 October 1276 &ndash 14 December 1311, Genoa) was the daughter of John I Duke of Brabant and John I of Brabant, also called John the Victorious ( Leuven 1252/1253 &ndash May 3, 1294 in Leuven) was Duke of Brabant Margaret of Dampierre ( 13 April 1350 &ndash 16/ 21 March 1405) was Countess of Flanders (as Margaret III) Countess Wenceslaus II Premyslid (Václav II Wacław II Czeski September 27, 1271 &ndash June 21, 1305) was King of Bohemia (1278 - 1305 Ottokar II (Přemysl II Otakar c 1230 &ndash August 26, 1278) called The Iron and Golden King, was the King of Bohemia from 1253 until 1278 Kunigunda Rostislavna (1245 &ndash September 9 1285) ''Kunhuta'' was Queen consort of Bohemia and its Regent from 1278 until her death Rudolph I, also known as Rudolph of Habsburg ( German: Rudolf von Habsburg, Latin Rudolfus) May 1, 1218 &ndash Gertrude of Hohenburg (c 1225 &ndash 16 February, 1281, Vienna) was the first Queen consort of Rudolph I of Germany. His first wife was Blanche, (1316 - 1348), daughter of Charles, Count of Valois, a half-sister of Philip VI of France. She was a daughter of Charles of Valois and his third wife Mahaut of Chatillon. Charles of Valois ( March 12, 1270 &ndash December 16, 1325) was the fourth son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon The Valois, originally Val d'Ois, was a region in the valley of the Oise river in modern Picardy. Philip VI (1293 &ndash 22 August 1350) known as the Fortunate ( French: le Fortuné) and of Valois, was the They had two daughters:
His fourth wife was Elizabeth of Pomerania, 1345 or 1347–1393), daughter of Duke Bogislaw V of Hind Pomerania and Elisabeth, daughter of Casimir III of Poland. Elizabeth of Pomerania (1347 &ndash 15 April, 1393) was the fourth and final wife of Charles IV Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz Wielki April 30 1310 – November 5 1370 last King of Poland from the Piast dynasty (1333–1370 was the son of King Władysław They had six children:
Karel from Estonia. Several places have been named after Charles:
Charles IV, Holy Roman EmperorBorn: 14 May 1316 Died: 29 November 1378
|Count of Luxembourg|
|King of Bohemia|
(formally King of the Romans)
(until 1347 in opposition to
|King of Italy|
|King of Burgundy|
|Holy Roman Emperor|
|Margrave of Brandenburg|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Holy Roman Emperor|
|DATE OF BIRTH||14 May 1316|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Prague|
|DATE OF DEATH||29 November 1378|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Prague|