Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region it refers to the Ground cover provided by plants Charcoal is usually produced by heating wood, sugar, bone char, or others substances in the absence of oxygen (see char). Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Bone char, also known as bone black or animal Charcoal, is a granular Material produced by charring animal Bones the bones are heated Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Charring is a process of incomplete Combustion that often occurs when Biological tissue (living or dead is subjected to Heat. The soft, brittle, lightweight, black, porous material resembles coal and is 85% to 98% carbon with the remainder consisting of volatile chemicals and ash. Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6
The first part of the word is of obscure origin, but the first use of the term "coal" in English was as a reference to charcoal. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States In this compound term, the prefix "chare-" meant "turn", with the literal meaning being "to turn to coal". The independent use of "char", meaning to scorch, to reduce to carbon, is comparatively recent and is assumed to be a back-formation from the earlier charcoal. In Etymology, back-formation refers to the process of creating a new Lexeme (less precisely a new "word" by removing actual or supposed Affixes It may be a use of the word charren or churn, meaning to turn; i. e. wood changed or turned to coal, or it may be from the French charbon. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people A person who manufactured charcoal was formerly known as a collier (also as a wood collier). The word "collier" was also used for those who mined or dealt in coal, and for the ships that transported it.
Historically, production of wood charcoal in districts where there is an abundance of wood dates back to a very remote period, and generally consists of piling billets of wood on their ends so as to form a conical pile, openings being left at the bottom to admit air, with a central shaft to serve as a flue. Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five A flue is a duct, Pipe, or Chimney for conveying Exhaust gases from a Fireplace, Furnace, Water heater, The whole pile is covered with turf or moistened clay. Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and The firing is begun at the bottom of the flue, and gradually spreads outwards and upwards. The success of the operation depends upon the rate of the combustion. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of Under average conditions, 100 parts of wood yield about 60 parts by volume, or 25 parts by weight, of charcoal; small scale production on the spot often yields only about 50%, large scale was efficient to about 90% even by the 17th century. The volume of any solid plasma vacuum or theoretical object is how much three- Dimensional space it occupies often quantified numerically In the Physical sciences weight is a Measurement of the gravitational Force acting on an object The operation is so delicate that it was generally left to colliers (professional charcoal burners), who often worked in isolated groups in the woods and had a rather bad social reputation.
The massive production of charcoal (at its height employing hundreds of thousands, mainly in Alpine and neighbouring forests) was a major cause of deforestation, especially in Central Europe. Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. Deforestation is the conversion of Forested areas to non-forest land for use such as Arable land, Pasture, urban use logged area or wasteland Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and In England, many woods were managed as coppices, which were cut and regrew cyclically, so that a steady supply of charcoal would be available (in principle) forever; complaints (as early as the Stuart period) about shortages may relate to the results of temporary over-exploitation or the impossibility of increasing production. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Coppicing is a traditional method of Woodland management in which young tree stems are cut down to near ground level Significant events of the period English civil war The English Civil War (s took place during the reign of Charles I, the second Stuart monarch The increasing scarcity of easily harvested wood was a major factor for the switch to the fossil fuel equivalents, mainly coal and brown coal for industrial use. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere
The modern process of carbonizing wood, either in small pieces or as sawdust in cast iron retorts, is extensively practiced where wood is scarce, and also for the recovery of valuable byproducts (wood spirit, pyroligneous acid, wood tar), which the process permits. Sawdust is composed of fine particles of Wood. This material is produced from cutting with a Saw, hence its name Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but identifies a large group of Ferrous Alloys which solidify with a Eutectic. In a Chemistry laboratory a retort is a glassware device used for Distillation or Dry distillation of substances Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound Pyroligneous acid, also called wood vinegar, is a dark liquid produced by the destructive Distillation of Wood. Tar is a viscous black Liquid derived from the Destructive distillation of organic matter The question of the temperature of the carbonization is important; according to J. Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature Carbonization or Carbonisation is the term for the conversion of an Organic substance into Carbon or a carbon-containing residue through Pyrolysis Percy, wood becomes brown at 220 °C, a deep brown-black after some time at 280°, and an easily powdered mass at 310°. Charcoal made at 300° is brown, soft and friable, and readily inflames at 380°; made at higher temperatures it is hard and brittle, and does not fire until heated to about 700°.
In Finland and Scandinavia, the charcoal was considered the by-product of wood tar production. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well Tar is a viscous black Liquid derived from the Destructive distillation of organic matter The best tar came from pine, thus pinewoods were cut down for tar pyrolysis. This article is about the tree For other uses of the term "pine" see Pine (disambiguation. Tar is a viscous black Liquid derived from the Destructive distillation of organic matter Pyrolysis is the Chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of Oxygen or any other reagents except possibly Steam The residual charcoal was widely used as substitute for metallurgical coke in blast furnaces for smelting. Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their Coke is a solid Carbonaceous material derived from Destructive distillation of low-ash low-sulfur Bituminous coal. A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical Furnace used for Smelting to produce metals generally Iron. Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of Extractive metallurgy. Tar production led to rapid deforestation: it has been estimated all Finnish forests are younger than 300 years by their age. Deforestation is the conversion of Forested areas to non-forest land for use such as Arable land, Pasture, urban use logged area or wasteland The end of tar production in the end of the 19th century meant also rapid re-forestation.
The charcoal briquette, first invented by Henry Ford, was first made using wood and sawdust scraps from his automotive assembly plant. A briquette (or briquet) is a block of flammable Matter which is used as Fuel to start and maintain a Fire. Henry Ford ( July 30, 1863 &ndash April 7, 1947) was the American founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of This article is about the History of the Ford Motor Company. For more general information about the company see Ford Motor Company Ford Motor Company is 
Commercial charcoal is found in either lump, briquette or extruded forms:
The characteristics of charcoal products (lump, briquette or extruded forms) vary widely from product to product. A briquette (or briquet) is a block of flammable Matter which is used as Fuel to start and maintain a Fire. Thus it is a common misconception to stereotype any kind of charcoal, saying which burns hotter, etc.
Charcoal is sometimes used to power commercial road vehicles—usually buses—in countries where oil is scarce or completely unavailable. An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is In the years immediately after the second world war, charcoal buses were in regular use in Japan and are still used today in North Korea. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, 
One of the most important historical applications of wood charcoal was as a constituent of gunpowder. Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes It was also used in metallurgical operations as a reducing agent, but its application has been diminished by the introduction of coke, anthracite smalls, etc. Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their Coke is a solid Carbonaceous material derived from Destructive distillation of low-ash low-sulfur Bituminous coal. Anthracite ( Greek Ανθρακίτης literally "a type of coal" from Anthrax, coal is a hard compact variety of mineral Coal that has a high A limited quantity is made up into the form of drawing crayons; but the greatest amount is used as a fuel, which burns hotter and cleaner than wood. A crayon is a stick of colored Wax, Charcoal, Chalk, or other materials used for writing and Drawing. Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Charcoal is often used by blacksmiths, for cooking, and for other industrial applications. blacksmith is a person who creates objects from Iron or Steel by Forging the Metal; i
Charcoal briquettes are widely used for outdoor grilling and barbecues in backyards and on camping trips. A briquette (or briquet) is a block of flammable Matter which is used as Fuel to start and maintain a Fire. barbeque block party Kansas cityjpg|thumb|right|275px|A barbecue on a trailer at a Block party in Kansas City. Definition Camping describes a range of activities Survivalist campers set off with little more than their boots whereas Recreational vehicle travelers arrive equipped
In many non-industrialized countries, for instance in Africa, charcoal is used for everyday cooking by a large portion of the population. This is potentially a serious health problem when used indoors since carbon monoxide (CO) is a combustion product. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of 
Historically, charcoal was used in great quantities for smelting iron in bloomeries and later blast furnaces and finery forges. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 A bloomery is a type of Furnace once widely used for Smelting Iron from its oxides. A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical Furnace used for Smelting to produce metals generally Iron. Iron tapped from the Blast furnace is Pig iron, and contains significant amounts of Carbon and Silicon. This use was replaced by coke during the Industrial Revolution. Coke is a solid Carbonaceous material derived from Destructive distillation of low-ash low-sulfur Bituminous coal. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the For this purpose, charcoal in England was measured in dozens (or loads) consisting of 12 sacks or shems or seams, each of 8 bushels. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Shem (; Greek: Σημ, Sēm; Arabic: ar سام; Ge'ez: ሴም Sēm; "renown prosperity name" A bushel is a unit of dry volume, usually subdivided into eight local Gallons in the systems of Imperial units and U
In times of scarce petroleum, automobiles and even buses have been converted to burn wood gas (gas mixture containing primarily carbon monoxide) released by burning charcoal or wood in a wood gas generator. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. A wood gas generator often known as a gasifier is a wood-fueled Gasification reactor mounted on an Internal combustion engine, to provide a Wood gas 1931 Tang Zhongming developed an automobile powered by charcoal, and these cars were popular in China until 1950s. Tang Zhongming (Simplified Chinese 汤[[wikt 仲|仲]] 明, Hanyu pinyin Tāng Zhòngmíng (1879–1980 was a chinese Engineer and Inventor In occupied France during World War II, wood and wood charcoal production for such vehicles (called gazogènes) increased from pre-war figures of approximately fifty thousand tons a year to almost half a million tons in 1943. The German occupation of France in World War II occurred during the period between May 1940 to December 1944 World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including 
The porosity of activated charcoal accounts for its ability to readily adsorb gases and liquids; charcoal is often used to filter water or adsorb odors. Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a form of Carbon that has been processed to make it extremely porous and thus to Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid Solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or a liquid (adsorbent forming a film of molecules or atoms (the Its pharmacological action depends on the same property; it adsorbs the gases of the stomach and intestines, and also liquids and solids (hence its use in the treatment of certain poisonings). Pharmacology (from Greek grc φάρμακον pharmakon, "drug" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of how Drugs Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid Solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or a liquid (adsorbent forming a film of molecules or atoms (the In Human anatomy, the stomach is a J-shaped hollow muscular organ of the Gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of Digestion, following In Anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the Stomach to the Anus and in humans and other mammals consists A toxin ( Greek:, toxikon, lit (poison for use on arrows is a Poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms that is active at very low Charcoal filters are used in some types of gas mask to remove poisonous gases from inhaled air. A gas mask is a Mask worn over the face to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne Pollutants and Toxic materials Wood charcoal also to some extent removes coloring material from solutions, but animal charcoal is generally more effective.
Animal charcoal or bone black is the carbonaceous residue obtained by the dry distillation of bones; it contains only about 10% carbon, the remainder being calcium and magnesium phosphates (80%) and other inorganic material originally present in the bones. Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 It is generally manufactured from the residues obtained in the glue and gelatin industries. An animal glue is an Adhesive that is created by prolonged boiling of Animal Connective tissue. Gelatin (also gelatine, from French gélatine) is a translucent colourless brittle nearly tasteless solid substance, extracted from the Its decolorizing power was applied in 1812 by Derosne to the clarification of the syrups obtained in sugar refining; but its use in this direction has now greatly diminished, owing to the introduction of more active and easily managed reagents. In Cooking, a syrup (from Arabic' ar شراب sharab, beverage via Latin siropus) is a thick Viscous Liquid Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. It is still used to some extent in laboratory practice. A laboratory (informally lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific Research, Experiments and The decolorizing power is not permanent, becoming lost after using for some time; it may be revived, however, by washing and reheating.
Charcoal is used in art for drawing, making rough sketches in painting, and is one of the possible media for making a parsemage. Drawing is a Visual art that makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Surrealism in Art, Poetry, and Literature utilizes numerous unique techniques and games to provide inspiration It must usually be preserved by the application of a fixative. Artists generally utilize charcoal in three forms:
One additional use of charcoal rediscovered recently is in horticulture. Horticulture is the art and science of plant cultivation Horticulturists (or horticuluralists) work and conduct research in the fields of Plant propagation Although American gardeners have been using charcoal for a short while, research on Terra preta soils in the Amazon has found the widespread use of biochar by pre-Columbian natives to turn otherwise unproductive soil into very rich soil. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A garden is a planned space usually outdoors set aside for the display cultivation and enjoyment of Plants and other forms of Nature. Research is defined as Human activity based on Intellectual application in the investigation of Matter. Terra preta (“dark soil” in Portuguese) refers to expanses of very dark fertile Anthropogenic Soils found in the Amazon Basin. Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel Biochar is a Charcoal produced from Biomass that can store carbon The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel The technique may find modern application, both to improve soils and as a means of carbon sequestration.