Chapbook is a generic term to cover a particular genre of pocket-sized booklet, popular from the sixteenth through to the later part of the nineteenth century. No exact definition can be applied. Chapbook can mean anything that would have formed part of the stock of chapmen, a variety of pedlar. A Chapman (plural chapmen) was an itinerant dealer or hawker in Early modern Britain. The word chapman probably comes from the Anglo-Saxon word for barter, buy and sell.
The term chapbook was formalised by bibliophiles of the nineteenth century, as a variety of ephemera (disposable printed material. Bibliophilia is the love of Books Accordingly a bibliophile loves books but especially "for Qualities of Format. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Ephemera is transitory written and printed matter not intended to be retained or preserved ) It includes many kinds of printed material, such as pamphlets, political and religious tracts, nursery rhymes, poetry, folk tales, children's literature and almanacs. A pamphlet is an unbound Booklet (that is without a hard cover or binding) A tract is a literary work, and in current usage usually Religious in nature A nursery rhyme is a traditional Song or Poem taught to young children originally in the nursery. History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological Where there were illustrations, they would be popular prints. Popular Prints is a term for printed images of generally low artistic quality which were sold cheaply in Europe and later the New World from the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries often
There are records from Cambridgeshire as early as in 1553 of a man offering a scurrilous ballad "maistres mass" at an alehouse, and a pedlar selling "lytle books" to people, including a patcher of old clothes in 1578. History Cambridgeshire is noted as the site of some of the earliest known Neolithic permanent settlement in the United Kingdom, along with sites at Fengate These sales are probably characteristic of the market for chapbooks.
Broadside ballads were popular songs, sold for a penny or halfpenny in the streets of towns and villages around Britain between the sixteenth and early twentieth centuries. Printed lyrics of popular songs were extremely popular from the 16th century until the early 20th century A penny (pl pence or pennies) is a Coin or a unit of Currency used in several English -speaking countries They preceded chapbooks, but had similar content, marketing and distribution systems.
Chapbooks gradually disappeared from the mid nineteenth century in the face of competition from cheap newspapers and, especially in Scotland, religious tract societies that regarded them as "ungodly. "
Although the form originated in Britain, many were made in the U. S. during the same period. Chapbooks are published in South America even today.
Because of their flimsy nature such ephemera rarely survive as individual items. Ephemera is transitory written and printed matter not intended to be retained or preserved They were aimed at buyers without formal libraries, and, in an era when paper was expensive, were used for wrapping or baking. Paper has also always had hygienic uses and there are contemporary references to the use of chapbooks as bum fodder (i. e. toilet paper).
Many of the surviving chapbooks come from the collections of Samuel Pepys between 1661 and 1688 which are now held at Magdalene College, Cambridge. Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703 was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for Magdalene College redirects here see also Magdalen College Oxford Magdalene College (ˈmɔːdlɪn was founded in 1428 as a Benedictine hostel in time The city of Cambridge (ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒ is a university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, England Anthony Wood also collected 65 chapbooks, (including 20 from before 1660), which are now at The Bodleian Library. Anthony Wood or Anthony à Wood ( 17 December 1632 &ndash 28 November 1695) was an English antiquary. The Bodleian Library ( the main Research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in England There are also significant Scottish collections.
Modern collectors, such as Peter Opie, have chiefly a scholarly interest in the form. Peter Mason Opie (1918 &ndash 1982 and Iona Archibald Opie (born Iona Archibald, 1923 -) were a husband-and-wife team of Folklorists who applied modern
Chapbooks are mostly small paper-covered booklets, usually printed on a single sheet folded into books of 8, 12, 16 and 24 pages, often illustrated with crude woodcuts, which sometimes bear no relation to the text. Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging For the origins of the technique and non-artistic use see Woodblock printing; for the related technique invented in the 18th century see Wood engraving They were produced cheaply. One collector, Harry Weiss, wrote: "the printing in many cases was execrable, the paper even worse, and the woodcut illustrations, some of which did duty for various tales regardless of their fitness, were sometimes worse than the paper and presswork combined". However, the category has no real limits: some chapbooks were long, some well produced, and some even historically accurate.
The centre of chapbook and ballad production was London, and until the Great Fire of London the printers were based around London Bridge. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. This article is about the Great Fire of 1666 For other great fires in London see Early fires of London or Second Great Fire of London. London Bridge is a Bridge between the City of London and Southwark in London, England, over the River Thames. However, a feature of chapbooks is the proliferation of provincial printers, especially in Scotland and Newcastle upon Tyne.
Chapbooks were an important medium for the dissemination of popular culture to the common people, especially in rural areas. They were a medium of entertainment, information and (generally unreliable) history. They are now valued as a record of popular culture, preserving cultural artifacts that may not survive in any other form.
Chapbooks were priced for sales to workers, although their market was not limited to the working classes. Broadside ballads were sold for a halfpenny, or a few pence. A penny (pl pence or pennies) is a Coin or a unit of Currency used in several English -speaking countries Prices of chapbooks were from 2d. to 6d. , when agricultural labourers wages were 12d. per day. It needs to be remembered that in early modern England literacy was not uncommon, and in Scotland probably more so. Many working people were readers, even if not writers, and pre-industrial working patterns provided periods during which they could read. Chapbooks were undoubtedly used for reading to family groups or groups in alehouses.
They even contributed to the development of literacy. Francis Kirkman, the author and publisher, wrote about how they fired his imagination and his love of books. Francis Kirkman (1632 - c 1680 appears in many roles in the English literary world of the second half of the seventeenth century as a publisher bookseller librarian author & bibliographer There is other evidence of their use by autodidacts.
Nevertheless, the numbers printed are astonishing. In the 1660s as many as 400,000 almanacs were printed annually, enough for one family in three in England. ALMANAC is the name of a major Breast cancer trial The Acronym stands for "Axillary Lymphatic Mapping Against Nodal Axillary Clearance One seventeenth century publisher of chapbooks in London had in stock one book for every 15 families in the country. In the 1520s the Oxford bookseller, John Dorne, noted in his day-book selling up to 190 ballads a day at a halfpenny each. Oxford is currently bidding for the 2010 Wikimania Conference Oxford () is a city, and the County town of Oxfordshire, A ballad is a Poem usually set to Music; thus it often is a story told in a Song. The probate inventory of the stock of Charles Tias, of The sign of the Three Bibles on London Bridge, in 1664 included books and printed sheets to make c. 90,000 chapbooks (inc. 400 reams of paper) and 37,500 ballad sheets. Tias was not regarded as an outstanding figure in the trade. The inventory of Josiah Blare, of The Sign of the Looking Glass on London Bridge, in 1707 listed 31,000 books, plus 257 reams of printed sheets. Year 1707 ( MDCCVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a A conservative estimate of their sales in Scotland alone in the second half of the eighteenth century was over 200,000 per year.
These printers provided chapbooks to chapmen on credit, who carried them around the country, selling from door to door, at markets and fairs, and returning to pay for the stock they sold. A Chapman (plural chapmen) was an itinerant dealer or hawker in Early modern Britain. This facilitated wide distribution and large sales with minimum outlay, and also provided the printers with feedback about what titles were most popular. Popular works were reprinted, pirated, edited, and produced in different editions. Francis Kirkman, whose eye was always on the market, wrote two sequels to the popular Don Bellianus of Greece, first printed in 1598. Francis Kirkman (1632 - c 1680 appears in many roles in the English literary world of the second half of the seventeenth century as a publisher bookseller librarian author & bibliographer A sequel is a work in Literature, Film, or other media that portrays events following those of a previous work
Publishers also issued catalogues, and chapbooks are found in the libraries of provincial yeomen and gentry. Yeoman is noun used to indicate a variety of positions or Social classes In the 16th century a yeoman was also a Farmer of middling social status who owned Gentry generally refers to people of high Social class, especially in the past John Whiting, a Quaker yeoman imprisoned at Ilchester, Somerset in the 1680s had books sent by carrier from London, and left for him at an inn. Ilchester is a Village and Civil parish, situated on the River Yeo five Miles north of Yeovil, in the English county of Somerset ( or) is a county in south west England The County town is Taunton, which is in the south of the county
Pepys had a collection of ballads bound into volumes, under the following classifications, into which could fit the subject matter of most chapbooks:
The stories in many of the popular chapbooks can be traced back to much earlier origins. Bevis of Hampton, was an Anglo-Norman romance of thirteenth century, which probably drew on earlier themes. The structure of The Seven Sages of Rome was from the orient, and was used by Chaucer. The Seven Wise Masters (also called The Seven Sages or The Seven Sages of Rome) is a cycle of stories of Sanskrit, Persian or Hebrew Geoffrey Chaucer (c 1343 – 25 October 1400? was an English author poet Philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier and Diplomat. Many jests about ignorant and greedy clergy in chapbooks were taken from The Friar and the Boy printed about 1500 by Wynkyn de Worde, and The Sackfull of News, (1557). Wynkyn de Worde (also Wynken; originally Jan van Wynkyn) (d 1534 was a printer and publisher known for his work with William Caxton, and is recognized
Historical stories set in a mythical and fantastical past were popular. The selection is interesting. Charles I, and Oliver Cromwell do not appear as historical figures in the Pepys collection, and Elizabeth I only once. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known The Wars of the Roses and the English Civil War do not appear at all. The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485 were a series of dynastic Civil wars fought in England between supporters of the Houses of Lancaster and York The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. Henry VIII & Henry II appear in disguise, standing up for the right with cobblers & millers and then inviting them to Court and rewarding them. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of There was a pattern of high born heroes overcoming reduced circumstances by valour, such as St George, Guy of Warwick, Robin Hood (who at this stage has yet to give to the poor what he was stealing from the rich), and heroes of low birth who achieve status through force of arms, such as Clim of Clough, and William of Cloudesley. In Christian hagiography Saint George is one of the most venerated saints in the Anglican Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Guy of Warwick is a legendary English hero of Romance popular in England and France from the 13th to the 17th century Robin Hood is an archetypal figure in English folklore, whose story originates from medieval times but who remains significant in popular culture where Clergy often appear as figures of fun, and stupid countrymen were also popular (e. g. , The Wise Men of Gotham). Wise Men of Gotham, the early name given to the people of the village of Gotham Nottinghamshire, in allusion to their reputed simplicity Other works were aimed at regional and rural audience (e. g. , The Country Mouse and the Town Mouse).
From 1597 works appeared aimed at specific trades, such as clothiers, weavers and shoemakers. The latter were commonly literate. Thomas Deloney, a weaver, wrote Thomas of Reading, about six clothiers from Reading, Gloucester, Worcester, Exeter, Salisbury & Southampton, travelling together and meeting at Basingstoke their fellows from Kendal, Manchester and Halifax. Reading (ˈrɛdɪŋ as Redding) is a town in England, located at the confluence of the River Thames and River Kennet, midway between Reading (ˈrɛdɪŋ as Redding) is a town in England, located at the confluence of the River Thames and River Kennet, midway between Gloucester (ˈɡlɒstɚ) is a city, district and County town of Gloucestershire in the South West region of England. Worcester (ˈwʊstə is a city and County town of Worcestershire, in the West Midlands of England. Exeter ( (IPA ˈeksɪtər is a city, district and County town of Devon, England. Salisbury (ˈsɒlzbri ˈsɔːlzbri ('Solzbry' or ˈzɔːwzbri ('Zawzbry' — moving from RP to local dialect) is a cathedral city in the Southampton ( IPA /ˌsaʊθˈhæmptən/ is the largest city in the county of Hampshire, on the south coast of England Basingstoke is a town in northeast Hampshire, England It lies across a Valley at the source of the River Loddon. Kendal is a Market town and Civil parish within the South Lakeland district of Cumbria, England. Halifax is a large Market town within the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale, in West Yorkshire, England, with a population of 82056 in the In his, Jack of Newbury, 1600, set in Henry VIII's time, an apprentice to a broadcloth weaver takes over his business and marries his widow on his death. Newbury is a Civil parish and the principal Town in the west of the County of Berkshire in England. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Broadcloth is a dense Woolen cloth. Modern broadcloth can be composed of Cotton, Silk, or Polyester, but traditionally broadcloth On achieving success, he is liberal to the poor and refuses a knighthood for his substantial services to the king.
Other examples from the Pepys collection include The Countryman's Counsellor, or Everyman his own Lawyer, and Sports and Pastimes, written for schoolboys, including magic tricks, like how to "fetch a shilling out of a handkerchief", write invisibly, make roses out of paper, snare wild duck, and make a maid-servant fart uncontrollably.
The provinces and Scotland had their own local heroes. Robert Burns commented that one of the first two books he read in private was the history of Sir William Wallace that poured a Scottish prejudice in my veins which will boil along there till the flood-gates of life shut in eternal rest
They had a wide and continuing influence. Robert Burns (25 January 1759 – 21 July 1796 (also known as Rabbie Burns, Scotland's favourite son, the Ploughman Poet, the Bard of Ayrshire Sir William Wallace ( Scottish Gaelic: Uilleam Uallas; c 1272 – 23 August 1305 was a Scottish Knight, Landowner, and Patriot 80% of English folk songs collected by early twentieth century collectors have been linked to printed broadsides, including over 90 of which could only be derived from those printed before 1700. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous It has been suggested the majority of surviving ballads can be traced to 1550-1600 by internal evidence.
One of the most popular and influential chapbooks was Richard Johnson's Seven Champions of Christendom (1596), believed to be the source for the introduction of the character St George into English folk plays. In Christian hagiography Saint George is one of the most venerated saints in the Anglican Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Folk plays such as Hoodening, Guising, Mumming and Soul Caking are generally verse sketches performed in countryside pubs private houses or
Robert Greene's novel, Dorastus and Fawnia, (originally Pandosto) (1588), the basis of Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale was still being published in cheap editions in the 1680s. The Winter's Tale is a play by William Shakespeare, first published in the First Folio in 1623 Some stories were still being published in the nineteenth century, (e. g. , Jack of Newbury, Friar Bacon, Dr Faustus and The Seven Champions of Christendom). The Seven Champions of Christendom is a moniker referring to St
Chapbook is also a term currently used to denote low-cost hard copy production, particularly of poetry. Poetry chapbooks tend to focus on a specific theme, story, or form to unify the entire book.
The genre has been revitalized in the past 20 years by the widespread availability of low-cost copy centers and the cultural revolutions spurred by both zines and poetry slams, the latter generating hundreds upon hundreds of self-published chapbooks that are used to fund tours. A zine (an abbreviation of the word Fanzine, or magazine ziːn "zeen" is most commonly a small circulation non-commercial Publication A poetry slam is a competition at which poets read or recite original work (or more rarely that of others