Champaran is a historic region, which now forms the East Champaran district, and the West Champaran district in Bihar, and parts of Chhattisgarh, where the Champaran village exists today. Bihar ( Hindi:बिहार Urdu: بہار bɪhaːr) is a state in eastern India. Chhattisgarh ( Chhattisgarhi / Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़ tʃʰət̪t̪iːsgəɽʰ, a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Champaran, formerly known as Champajhar, is a village in the Raipur District in state of Chhattisgarh, India, which lies about 60 km from
The name Champaran owes its origin to Champa-aranya or Champkatanys. Champa or Champaka means Magnolia and aranya means forest. Magnolia is a large Genus of about 210 Flowering plant Species in the subclass Magnolioideae of the family Hence, Champaranya means Forest of Magnolia (CHAMPA) trees. It is popularly believed that the nomenclature here was made while the west forest part was inhabited by solitary ascetics. It is needless to say that Purbi means Eastern Side Ancient History The history of Champaran is a part of the Champaran district. In the prehistoric period, Champaran constituted a part of the ancient kingdom of Videha. The Aryan Videhas were ordained to settle east of the Gandak or Narayani river. The Gandaki River also known as the Kali Gandaki, Narayani (after confluence with Trisuli in Nepal and the Gandak in India is a tributary of the Ganga or Among the greatest of the Videha kings was Sirdhwaj Janak an erudite scholar as well as lord temporal and lord spiritual for his subjects. In ancient India, Janaka ( Sanskrit: जनक janaka) or Raja Janaka (राजा जनक rājā janaka) were the Kings of Yajnavalkya was his chief priest who codified the Hindu law known as Yajnavalkya Smriti. Sage Yajnavalkya ( याज्ञवल्क्य) of Mithila was a legendary sage of Vedic India, credited with the authorship of the A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical The Yajnavalkya Smriti is one of the three main Smritis It was written by Sage Yajnavalkya of Mithila. Both of his wives Gargi and Maitreyi were renowned scholars. Gargi Vachaknavi was an ancient Indian female philosopher born in the family of Garga, circa 800 - 500 BCE. Maitreyi was a vedic philosopher from ancient India. She was the second wife of famous sage and philosopher Yajnavalkya, the first being Katyaayanee It is Gargi who is credited with composing some mantras. A mantra ( Devanāgarī मन्त्र (or mantram is a religious or mystical syllable or poem typically from the Sanskrit language After the fall of Videhan empire Champaran was ceded to the oligarrochial republic of Vrijjan confederacy, with Oligarchcal Vaishali as its capital of the Vriggian confederacy. Lichohavis were the most powerful and prominent. For a true imperialist Ajatshatru, the emperor of Magadh the power and fame of Vaishali was an eyesore. Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude Ajātashatru ( Sanskrit अजातशत्रु ruled 491- 461 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire that ruled north India Magadha (मगध formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas ( Sanskrit, "great countries" or regions in ancient India. Vaishali District is a District in Bihar State, India. It is named after the Vaishali (ancient city. By tact and force he annexed Lichhavis and occupied its capital, Vaishali. He extended his way over the present district of Champaran which lasted for nearly a hundred years. After the Mauryas , the Sungas and the kanvas ruled over Magadh and its vast territories. The Maurya Empire ( 322 – 185 BCE) ruled by the Mauryan dynasty was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha For the Indian dynasty see Kanva dynasty Kanva ( Sanskrit: कण्व káṇva) is a renowned Rishi Archaeological evidence found in Champaran bear testimony of Sunga and Kanva rules here. The Kushans, who were migrant Turks, overran the entire north of India in the first century AD. The Kushan Empire (c 1st &ndash 3rd centuries) was a Bactrian state that at its cultural zenith Circa 105 &ndash 250 Probably Champaran was a part of the Kushan empire at that time. Banphar Rajputs in the 3rd century AD got by the Kushans . Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India Champaran later become a part of the Gupta empire. The Gupta Empire ( Hindi: गुप्त राजवंश was ruled by members of the Gupta dynasty from around 320 to 550 C Along with Tirhut, Champaran was possibly annexed by Harsha during whose reign Huen- Tesang, the famous Chinese pilgrim, visited India. Historically Tirhut refers to the Indo-Gangetic plains lying north of the Ganga River, in the Indian state of Bihar. Harsha or Harshavardhana (हर्षवर्धन or "Harsha vardhan" ( 590 &ndash 647) was an Indian emperor who ruled Northern India During 750 to 1155 AD Palas were in the possession of Eastern India and Champaran formed a part of their territories. Towards the close of the 10th century Gangaya Deva of the Kalacheeri dynasty conquered Champaran. He gave way to Vikramaditya of the Chalukya dynasty, who was accompanied by adventurers from the Carnatic . For the Gupta king see Chandragupta II Vikramāditya Vikramaditya ( Sanskrit: विक्रमादित्य The Chalukya dynasty ( Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು ʧaːɭukjə was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and Central It is believed that one of the adventurers encounterd the Saka dynasty of Bangal another, Nanyadeva, founded the Carnatic dynasty of Mithila with its capital at Siaraon on the Indo- Nepal border. The Sakas ( English form of Old Iranian Sakā, Nominative plural masculine case; Ancient Greek Σάκαι, Bangal is a term used to refer to the people of East Bengal (usually from regions around Dhaka and Barisal) now in Bangladesh (as opposed to Mithila ( Sanskrit: मिथिला mithilā) was a city in Ancient India, the capital of the Videha Kingdom
During 1211 and 1226 the first Muslim influence was experienced when Ghyasuddin Iwaz the Muslim governor of Bangal extended his sway over Tribhukti or Tirhut. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Historically Tirhut refers to the Indo-Gangetic plains lying north of the Ganga River, in the Indian state of Bihar. It was however, not a complete conquest and he was only able to have Tirhut from Narsinghdeva a Simyaon king. It was about 1323 that Gnyas-Uddip. Tughiar annexed Irabhuk and placed it under Kameshwar Thakur established Sugaon or Thakur dynasty, As Harsinghdeo the last Simraon king had taken shelter in Nepal Kameshwar Thakur a Brahmin Rajpandit was installed in regal status. Brahmin ( Brāhmaṇa, sa ब्राह्मणः is the class of educators scholars and preachers in Brahminical Hinduism. A royal family is the extended family of a monarch. Generally the head of a royal family is a king or queen regnant The sugaon dynasty hold Trabhukti as a tributary province for about a century after the capture of Harsinghdeo . The most famous of the dynasty was Raja Shiva Singh who was adorned by the immortal poet laureate Vidyapati, during the period of Lakshmi Nath Deva Tirabhukti was attached by Sultan Alleuddin Hussain Shah of Bengal and Sikender Lodi of Delhi . A Poet Laureate is a Poet officially appointed by a government and is often expected to compose poems for State occasions and other government events Vidyapati Thakur (1352? - 1448? also known by the sobriquet Maithil Kavi Kokil (the poet Cuckoo of Maithili) was a Maithili poet and a Delhi (दिल्ली ਦਿੱਲੀ دلی d̪ɪlːiː sometimes referred to as Dilli) is the second largest metropolis of India, with a population A treaty was concluded in 1499 according to which 'Tirahukti , left to Sikandar Lodi subsequently, Sikander Lodi attacked Tirabhukti and made the prince a tributary chief. Prince, from the Latin root Princeps, is a general term for a Monarch, for a member of a monarch's or former monarch's family and is a However, in contravention of the treaty conducted by his father ,Nasrat Shah, son of Allauddin Shah attacked Tirbhukti in 1530 annexed the territory, killed the Raja and thus put an end to the Thakur dynasty . For other uses see Raja (disambiguation and Rajah (disambiguation. Nasrat Shah appointed his son -in -law as viceroy of Tirhut and the coformard it was governed by Muslim Governor . A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the Monarch. In 1526 Babar deposed Sikandar Lodi but Champaran could not come to prominence till the last days of the Muslim rule. Babur ( February 14 1483 - December 26 1530) was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who following a series of setbacks Sikandar Lodhi (born Nizam Khan died November 21, 1517) was the second ruler of the Pashtun Lodhi Dynasty. During the close of the Mughal empire, Champaran witnessed ravages of contending armies. The Mughal Empire ( Persian and self-designation گورکانی; مغلیہ سلطنت) was an Islamic imperial power which ruled most Prince Al Gauhar later known as Shah Alam invaded Bihar in 1760 and Khadin Hussain, the Governor of Purnit was invited with his army to join him. Shah Alam II (1728&ndash1806 also known as Ali Gauhar was a Mughal emperor of India. In the mean time, Nawab Sirajudaulla of Bengal had already been defeated and killed as a result of the joint conspiracy of Mir Jagarkhan and the British, in June, 1757 . Before Khadim Hussain could meet Shah Alam's forces captain Knox led a British force and defeated him at Hajipur. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Hajipur 'a very famous city for it's culture There after he fled to Bettiah. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Bettiah is the headquarters of West Champaran district in the state of Bihar, near Indo-Nepal
With the rest of Bengal Champaran passed into the hands of East India Company in 1764 but military expeditions were still necessary to curb the independent spirit of the chiefs. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or In 1766, Robert Barkar easily defeated the local chiefs and forced them to pay tribute or revenue which they had destined till them. however , the Raja of Bettiah did not pay revenues regularly and revolted but was crushed. He fled to Bundelkhand and his estate was consequently confiscated. Geography Bundelkhand lies between the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the north and the Vindhya Range to the south But to the British it was difficult to manage the affairs of the estate in the wake of strong popular resentment. At the time of uprising the estate was restored by the Raja in 1771 .
In the meantime far-reaching consequences were taking place in neighboring Nepal. A confrontation was going on between the Gurkhas, under Prithvi Narayan of Newar line, and British forces. Prithvi Naraya Shahdev and Sri Teen Maharaja Jung Bahadur The Way of Sacrifice The Rajputs Pages 28-30 Graduate Thesis South Asian Studies Department Dr The Newa ( Nepal Bhasa:नेवाः Newa or Newah, Old Nepal Bhasa नेवार Newar, नेवाल Newal) are the The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Ultimately a treaty was concluded at Sugauli. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Sugauli is a city and a Notified area in East Champaran district in the Indian There remained peace for 25 years followed by treaty, but trouble started after 1840 when a Gurkha troops entered the estate of Raja Ramnagar and extended their claim over his territory. However, Gurkha troops had to retreat due to determined resistance. Later the Nepalese proved faithful allies of the British in suppressing the National Movement of 1857.
The repression of the Wahabi movement at Patna furthered seething discontent of tenants against the activities of the administration as well as the Indigo Planters. Wahhabism ( Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية or Wahabism is a conservative reformist call of Sunni Islam attributed to Paṭnā ( Hindi: पटना is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited The cultivators were forced to grow indigo even in the face of recurring losses in this account . More over many kinds of illegal realization were effected by the landlords. The administration was the cut do - sac of the oppressions.
In the beginning of the 1857 movement the position of Britishers was precarious. Major Hoimes who was commanding the 12th Irregular cavalry, stationed at sugauli had apparently panicked and proclaimed martial law on his own authority. Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice This measure had not attracted whole-hearted support of higher authorities. Major Holmes led repressive measures and executed some spys. Consequently members of the cavalry revolted against his authority. The Major his wife and other members of his family were strained. The Soldiers proceeded towards Siwan to join other forces who had risen against the British authority. Siwan Also known as( Bombay of Bihar)is one of the districts of Bihar state, India, and Siwan town is the administrative The revolt was, however calmed down to enlist support from the Honorary Magistrates from among the indigo planters were appointed and also authorized them to recruit local police. Some of the big estate holders like the Raja of Bettiah even gave support to the British Gurukha troops of the British were asset to them.
The later history of the district is interwoven with the saga of exploitation of the indigo planters. Britain used to get supplies of indigo from her American colonies which ceased after war The War of Independence fought in 1776 leading to their freedom. Britain had to depend upon India for supplies of Indigo. Indigo is the Color on the Electromagnetic spectrum between about 420 and 450 nm in Wavelength, placing it between Blue and violet Europeans steered many factories in the indigo producing areas of Bengal and Bihar.
Estate of Bettiah and Ramnagar gave leased land to them on easy terms for cultivation of indigo. The arrangements made for the cultivation of indigo were (1) Zirat and (2)Tenkuthiya. Apparently, nothing went wrong by the introduction of systems. But actually, the peasants suffered a lot due to both systems. The wages paid to laborers were extremely low and entirely inadequate. They were forced to labor hard and were severely punished for alleged slackness on their part. Sri Raj Kumar Shukla, an indigo cultivator of the district, having heard about the Noncooperation movement had met Mohandas K. Gandhi and appraised him about the miserable plight of indigo cultivators in the Champaran district. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January He persuaded him to visit the district. At almost the same time the Indian National Congress in December 1916 passed at Lucknow a resolution requesting the Government to appoint a committce of both officials and non-officials to inquire into the agrarian trouble facing the district. Indian National Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major Political party in India. Lucknow is also a mansion in New Hampshire Lucknow ( लखनऊ لکھنؤ Lakhnaū) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh
Gandhi paid an historic visit to Champaran. His visit was stoutly opposed by the British rulers. An order asking him to leave Champaran was served upon him as soon as he arrived at Motihari. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Motihari is the headquarters of Poorvi Champaran ( East Champaran) district in the Gandhi defied the order of the several prominent persons who rallied round him; mention may be made of Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Ramarshi Deo Trivedi "Rishi ji", Acharya Kriplani, Mahadeo Desai, C. F. Andrews, H. Dr Rajendra Prasad (डा॰ राजेन्द्र प्रसाद ( December 3, 1884 &ndash February 28, 1963) was the Acharya (scholar Jivatram Bhagwandas Kripalani ( 1888 - 1982) was an Indian politician noted particularly for holding the presidency of the Indian National S. Pollock, Anugrah Narayan Singh, Raj Kishore Prasad, Ram Nawami Prasad and Dharnidhar Prasad. After considerable struggle the Government was compelled to lift the ban on Gandhi's stay here. For the first time on Indian soil Satyagraha (Non-Violence) was successfully put to the test. Satyagraha ( Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of Nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas Eventually a committee of inquiry was appointed by the Government under the chairmanship of Sri Frank Shy. Gandhi was also made one of the members of the committee. On the basis of valued recommendations of the committee, the Champaran Agraria Law (Bihar and Orissa Act I of 1918) was passed. In course of time, the development of synthetic dyes made the cultivation of indigo redundant. A dye can generally be described as a Colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied
In 1920 Gandhi made an extensive tour of Bihar before launching the non-co-operation movement, which earned full support in the district as well. In 1929 a group of volunteers from Champran district came to demonstrate against the Simon Commission in the same year the 21st session of the Bihar students conference was held at Motihari. As a reaction against the failure of a Round table conference held in 1932 there was a popular gathering at Motihari to take a pledge for Independence. The Round Table is King Arthur 's famed table in the Arthurian legend, around which he and his Knights congregate Police laid charges and fired upon the gatherings. The people of Champaran will be remembered for their active and significant participation in the National movement
…Champaran of Chattisgarh, formerly known as Champajhar, is a village in the state of Chattisgarh, India. Chhattisgarh ( Chhattisgarhi / Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़ tʃʰət̪t̪iːsgəɽʰ, a state in central India, formed when the sixteen India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country It is about 60 km from the state capital of Raipur.
It has religious significance as the birth place of the Saint Vallabhacharya, the reformer and founder of the Vallabh Sect. Sri Vallabhacharya (1479 &ndash 1531 was a devotional Philosopher, who founded the Pushti sect in India, following the philosophy of Shuddha A beautiful temple has been constructed in his honour. Near this is a temple of Champakeshwara Mahadeva.