The kingdom of Champa (Chăm Pa in Vietnamese or Chiêm Thành in Hán Việt records) was an Indianized kingdom and controlled what is now southern and central Vietnam from approximately the 7th century through to 1832. Vietnamese ( tiếng Việt, or less commonly Việt ngữ) formerly known under French colonization as Annamese ( see Annam) Sino-Vietnamese ( Hán Việt; 漢越) are the elements in the Vietnamese language derived from Chinese. The concept of the Indianized kingdom, first described by George Coedès, is based upon the Hindu and Buddhist cultural and economic influences in Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Year 1832 ( MDCCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Champa was preceded in the region by a kingdom called Lin-yi or Lâm Ấp (in existence since 192 A. D. ), but the historical relationship between Lin-yi and Champa is not clear. Champa reached its apogee in the 9th and 10th centuries A. D. Thereafter began a gradual decline under pressure from the Dai Viet of what is now northern Vietnam. The history of Vietnam begins around 2700 years ago Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 In 1471, Viet troops sacked the northern Cham capital of Vijaya, and in 1697 the southern principality of Panduranga became a vassal of the Vietnamese emperor. In 1832, the Vietnamese emperor Minh Mang annexed the remaining Cham territories. Year 1832 ( MDCCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Minh Mạng ( Hán tự: 明[[wikt 命|命]] 1791-1841 born Nguyễn Phúc Đảm 阮[[wikt 福|福]] 膽, also known as Nguyễn
Between the 7th and the 15th century A. D. , Champa at times included the modern Vietnamese provinces of Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Bình Định, Phú Yên, Khánh Hòa, Ninh Thuận, and Bình Thuận. Quang Nam ( Quảng Nam;) is a province on the South Central Coast of Vietnam. Quang Ngai ( Vietnamese Quảng Ngãi; Hán Tự: 廣[[wikt 義|義]] is a province in the South Central Coast region of Binh Dinh (in Vietnamese Bình Định; Han Tu: 平[[wikt 定|定]] is a province of Vietnam. Phu Yen (in Vietnamese Phú Yên;; Hán Tự: 富[[wikt 安|安]] is a sea- province in the South Central Coast of Khánh Hòa Province ( Hán tự: 慶[[wikt 和|和]] is a province of Vietnam, located in the South Central Coast. Ninh Thuận Province ( Hán tự: 寧[[wikt 順|順]] is a province in the southeastern region of Vietnam. Bình Thuận ( Han Tu: 平[[wikt 順|順]] is a province of Vietnam. Though Cham territory included the mountainous zones west of the coastal plain and (at times) extended into present-day Laos, for the most part the Cham remained a seafaring people dedicated to trade, and maintained few settlements of any size away from the coast. Laos (ˈlɑːoʊs or /ˈlaʊs/ officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a Landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma
Historical Champa was a confederation of up to five principalities, each named after a historic region in India:
Within the four principalities there were two main groups: the Dua and the Cau. The Dua lived in Amarvati and Vijaya while the Cau lived in Kauthara and Pandaranga. The two clans differed in their customs and habits and conflicting interests led to many clashes and even war. But they usually managed to settle disagreements through intermarriage. 
Modern scholarship has been guided by two competing theories in the historiography of Champa. Scholars agree that historically Champa was divided into some five regions or principalities (Panduranga, Kauthara, Amaravati, Vijaya, Indrapura) spread out from South to North along the coast of modern Vietnam and united by a common language, culture and heritage. However, scholars have disagreed on whether the five regions belonged to a single political unit, or whether they were politically independent of one another. It is acknowledged that the historical record is not equally rich for each of the five regions in every historical period. For example, in the 10th century, the record is richest for Indrapura; in the 12th century, it is richest for Vijaya; following the 15th century, it is richest for Panduranga. Some scholars have taken these shifts in the historical record to reflect the movement of the Cham capital from one location to another. According to such scholars, if the 10th century record is richest for Indrapura, it is so because at that time Indrapura was the capital of Champa. Other scholars have disputed this contention, holding that Champa was never a united country, and arguing that the presence of a particularly rich historical record for a given region in a given period is no basis for claiming that the region functioned as the capital of a united Champa during that period. 
Through the centuries, Cham culture and society were influenced by forces emanating from China, from India, from Cambodia, as well as from other sources. Initially, the culture of Champa was closely tied to Chinese cultural and religious traditions. In the 4th century, wars with the neighboring kingdom of Funan in Cambodia and the acquisition of Funanese territory led to the infusion of Indian culture into Cham society. Funan (Old Khmer Bnam, Modern Khmer Phnom, Khmer script នគរភ្នំ (i India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Sanskrit was adopted as a scholarly language, and Hinduism, especially Shaivism, became the state religion. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Shaivism, also spelled "Saivism" names the oldest of the four sects of Hinduism. From the 10th century onwards Arab maritime trade in the region brought increasing Islamic cultural and religious influences. Champa came to serve as an important link in the Spice Route which stretched from the Persian Gulf to southern China and later in the Arab maritime routes in Indo-China as a supplier of aloe. Spice trade is a commercial activity of ancient origin which involves the merchandising of Spices and Herbs. The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. Despite the frequent wars between Champa and Cambodia the two countries also traded and cultural influences moved in both directions. Royal families of the two countries intermarried frequently. Champa also had close trade and cultural relations with the powerful maritime empire of Srivijaya and later Majapahit of the Malay Archipelago. Srivijaya or Sriwijaya was an ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra, Southeast Asia which influenced much of the Malay Archipelago. Majapahit was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. The Malay Archipelago is a name given to the Archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia ( Indochina) and Australia.
The people of Champa were descended from Malayo-Polynesian settlers who appear to have reached the Southeast Asian mainland from Borneo about the time of the Sa Huynh culture in the 1st and 2nd centuries B. The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 351 million speakers Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. The Sa Huỳnh culture (Vietnamese Văn hóa Sa Huỳnh was a culture in central and southern Vietnam that flourished between 1000 BC and 200 AD The 1st century BC started the first day of 100 BC and ended the last day of 1 BC. The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC. C. There are pronounced ceramic, industrial and funerary continuities with sites such as the Niah Caves in Sarawak, East Malaysia. Niah Caves is located within the district of Miri in Sarawak, Malaysia. Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the Island of Borneo. Sa Huynh sites are rich in iron artifacts, by contrast with the Dong Son culture sites found in northern Vietnam and elsewhere in mainland Southeast Asia, where bronze artifacts are dominant. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 The Đông Sơn culture was a prehistoric Iron Age culture that was centered at the Red River Valley of northern Vietnam. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus The Cham language is part of the Austronesian family. Cham is the language of the Cham people of Southeast Asia, and formerly the language of the kingdom of Champa in central Vietnam
The Sa Huynh culture is a late prehistoric metal age society on the central coast of Viet Nam. In 1909, about 200 jar burials were uncovered at Sa Huynh, a coastal village located south of Da Nang. This article is about the city of Đà Nẵng For the Vietnam War era air base see Da Nang Air Base or Đà Nẵng International Airport. Since then, many more burials have been found, at some 50 sites. The Sa Huynh shows a distinct regional Bronze Age culture, with its own styles of axes, daggers, and ornaments. Carbon dating has placed the Sa Huynh culture roughly the same time line with the Dong Son culture, that is about the first millennium BC. From about 200 AD, the central coast of Viet Nam was inhabited by the Chams, who had adopted elements of Indian political and religious culture. Recent researches by Vietnamese archaeologists has shown that the Chams are linguistic and cultural descendants of the Sa Huynh people. The uncovered artifacts show the Sa Huynh people were highly skilled craftsmen in the production of jewelry and ornaments made with hard stones and glass. Sa Huynh styled ornaments were also found in Thailand, Taiwan and Philippines suggesting they were traded with South East Asian neighbors, over land and maritime routes. Archaeologists also observe that iron seems to have been used by the Sa Huynh peoples when their Dong Son neighbors were still mostly using bronze.
To the Chinese, the country of Champa was known as Linyi and to the Vietnamese, Lâm Ấp. It had been founded in 192 A. D. in the region of modern Hue by a local leader rebelling against the Han Chinese. Hue is one of the main properties of a Color described with names such as " Red " " Yellow " etc Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. Over the next several centuries, Chinese forces made repeated unsuccessful attempts to retake the region. 
From its neighbor Funan to the west, Lâm Ấp soon received the gift of Indian civilization. Funan (Old Khmer Bnam, Modern Khmer Phnom, Khmer script នគរភ្នំ (i  Scholars locate the historical beginnings of Champa in the 4th century A. D. , when the process of Indianization was well underway. It was in this period that the Cham people began to create stone inscriptions in both Sanskrit and in their own language, for which they created a unique script. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical 
The first king acknowledged in the inscriptions is Bhadravarman, who reigned from 349 to 361 A. D. At My Son, King Bhadravarman established a god named Bhadresvara, whose name was a combination of the king’s own name and that of the Hindu god of gods Shiva. Mỹ Sơn (mi sɤn is a Hindu Temple complex located in the village of Duy Phú in the administrative district of Duy Xuyên in Quảng Nam province A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Shiva:(pronunciation; Sanskrit: शिव Śiva, lit "Auspicious one" One of the Trimurtis Shiva is the supreme God in the Shaiva  The worship of the original god-king under the name Bhadresvara and other names continued through the centuries that followed. 
The capital of Lâm Ấp at the time of Bhadravarman was the the citadel of Simhapura ("Lion City"), which was located along two rivers and had a wall eight miles in circumference. A Chinese writer described the people of Lâm Ấp as both warlike and musical, with "deep eyes, a high straight nose, and curly black hair. "
According to Chinese records, Sambhuvarman (Fan Fan Tche) was crowned king of Lâm Ấp in 529 A. D. Inscriptions credit him with rehabilitating the temple to Bhadresvara after a fire. Sambhuvarman also sent delegations and tribute to China, and unsuccessfully invaded what is now northern Vietnam.  In 605 A. D. , a general Liu Fang of the Sui dynasty invaded Lâm Ấp, won a battle by luring the enemy war-elephants into an area booby-trapped with camouflaged pits, massacred the defeated troops, and captured the capital. The Sui Dynasty ( 581 - 618 AD and in the undertaking of other construction projects including the reconstruction of the Great Wall.  In the 620’s, the kings of Lâm Ấp sent delegations to the court of the recently established Tang Dynasty and asked to become vassals of the Chinese court. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by 
Chinese records report the death of the last king of Lâm Ấp as falling in 756 A. D. Thereafter for a time, the Chinese referred to Champa as "Hoan Vuong" or "Huanwang".  The earliest Chinese records using a name related to "Champa" are dated 877 A. D. ; however, such names had been in use by the Cham themselves since at least 629 A. D. , and by the Khmer since at least 657 A. D. 
From the 7th to the 10th century A. D. , the Cham controlled the trade in spices and silk between China, India, the Indonesian islands, and the Abbassid empire in Baghdad. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous They supplemented their income from the trade routes not only by exporting ivory and aloe, but also by engaging in piracy and raiding. 
By the second half of the 7th century A. D. , royal temples were beginning to make their appearance at My Son. Mỹ Sơn (mi sɤn is a Hindu Temple complex located in the village of Duy Phú in the administrative district of Duy Xuyên in Quảng Nam province The dominant religious cult was that of the Hindu god Shiva, but temples were also dedicated to Vishnu. Shiva:(pronunciation; Sanskrit: शिव Śiva, lit "Auspicious one" One of the Trimurtis Shiva is the supreme God in the Shaiva For other meanings see Vishnu (disambiguation. Vishnu ( IAST viṣṇu Devanagari विष्णु (honorific Scholars have called the architectural style of this period My Son E1, in reference to a particular edifice at My Son that is regarded as emblematic of the style. Champa was an Indic civilization that flourished along the coasts of what is now central and southern Vietnam for roughly a one thousand year period between 500 A Important surviving works of art in this style include a pedestal for a linga that has come to be known as the My Son E1 Pedestal and a pediment depicting the birth of Brahma from a lotus issuing from the navel of the sleeping Vishnu. Brahma is the Hindu god ( deva) of creation and one of the Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. For other meanings see Vishnu (disambiguation. Vishnu ( IAST viṣṇu Devanagari विष्णु (honorific 
In an important stone inscription dated 657 A. D. and found at My Son, King Prakasadharma, who took on the name Vikrantavarman I at his coronation, claimed to be descended through his mother from the Brahman Kaundinya and the serpent princess Soma, the legendary ancestors of the Khmer of Cambodia. This inscription thus underlines the ethnic and cultural connection of Champa with the Khmer Empire, its perennial rival to the west. It also commemorates the king’s dedication of a monument, probably a linga, to Shiva. Shiva:(pronunciation; Sanskrit: शिव Śiva, lit "Auspicious one" One of the Trimurtis Shiva is the supreme God in the Shaiva  Another inscription documents the king’s almost mystical devotion to Shiva, "who is the source of the supreme end of life, difficult to attain; whose true nature is beyond the domain of thought and speech, yet whose image, identical with the universe, is manifested by his forms. Shiva:(pronunciation; Sanskrit: शिव Śiva, lit "Auspicious one" One of the Trimurtis Shiva is the supreme God in the Shaiva " 
In the 8th century, the political center of Champa shifted temporarily from My Son southward to the regions of Panduranga and Kauthara, centered around the temple complex of Po Nagar near modern Nha Trang that was dedicated to the indigenous Earth goddess Yan Po Nagar. Po Nagar is a Cham temple tower founded sometime before 781 A Nha Trang is a coastal city and capital of Khánh Hòa province, on In 774 A. D. raiders from Java disembarked in Kauthara, burned the temple of Po Nagar, and carried off the image of Shiva. Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. The Cham king Satyavarman pursued the raiders and defeated them in a naval battle. In 781 A. D. , Satyavarman erected a stele at Po Nagar, declaring that he had regained control of the area and had restored the temple. A stele (from Greek:, stēlē, ˈstiːli plural stelae,, stēlai, ˈstiːlaɪ also found Latinised singular stela In 787 A. D. , Javanese raiders destroyed a temple dedicated to Shiva near Panduranga. 
In 875 A. D. , King Indravarman II founded a new northern dynasty at Indrapura (Dong Duong near Da Nang in modern Vietnam). This article is about the city of Đà Nẵng For the Vietnam War era air base see Da Nang Air Base or Đà Nẵng International Airport. Eager to claim an ancient lineage, Indravarman declared himself the descendant of Bhrigu, the venerable sage whose exploits are detailed in the Mahabharata, and asserted that Indrapura had been founded by the same Bhrigu in ancient times. Maharishi Bhrigu was one of the seven great sages one of the Saptarshis in ancient India one of many Prajapatis (the facilitators of Creation created by Brahma 
Indravarman was the first Cham monarch to adopt Mahayana Buddhism as an official religion. Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for At the center of Indrapura, he constructed a Buddhist monastery (vihara) dedicated to the bodhisattva Lokesvara. In the Buddhist context a bodhisattva (बोधिसत्त्व bodhisattva;; Vietnamese Bồ Tát; बोधिसत्त bodhisatta Avalokiteśvara ( Nepali: अवलोकितेश्वर, lit The foundation, regrettably, was devastated during the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Thankfully, some photographs and sketches survive from the prewar period. In addition, some stone sculptures from the monastery are preserved in Vietnamese museums. Scholars have called the artistic style typical of the Indrapura the Dong Duong Style. Champa was an Indic civilization that flourished along the coasts of what is now central and southern Vietnam for roughly a one thousand year period between 500 A The style is characterized by its dynamism and ethnic realism in the depiction of the Cham people. Surviving masterpieces of the style include several tall sculptures of fierce dvarapalas or temple guardians that were once positioned around the monastery. A dvarapala is a Door or Gate guardian Statue (either Human or Demonic in Buddhism. The period in which Buddhism reigned as the principal religion of Champa came to an end in approximately 925, at which time the Dong Duong Style also began to give way to subsequent artistic styles linked with the restoration of Shaivism as the national religion. Shaivism, also spelled "Saivism" names the oldest of the four sects of Hinduism. 
Kings belonging to the dynasty of Indrapura built a number of temples at My Son in the 9th and 10th centuries A. D. Their temples at My Son came to define a new architectural and artistic style, called by scholars the My Son A1 Style, again in reference to a particular foundation at My Son regarded emblematic for the style. Champa was an Indic civilization that flourished along the coasts of what is now central and southern Vietnam for roughly a one thousand year period between 500 A With the religious shift from Buddhism back to Shaivism around the beginning of the 10th century, the center of Cham religion also shifted from Dong Duong back to My Son. 
Champa reached its peak in the civilization of Indrapura centered in the region of Dong Duong and My Son. Factors contributing to the decline of Champa over the next several centuries include its enviable position along the trade routes, its relatively small population base, and its frequently antagonistic relations with its closest neighbors: the Viet to the north and the Khmer to the west.
Interesting parallels may be observed between the history of northern Champa (Indrapura and Vijaya) and that of its neighbor and rival to the west, the Khmer civilization of Angkor, located just to the north of the great lake Tonle Sap in what is now Cambodia. Angkor is a name conventionally applied to the region of Cambodia serving as the seat of the Khmer empire that flourished from approximately the 9th century to The Tonlé Sap ( Khmer: ទន្លេសាប ie large body of water (Cambodian meaning "Large Fresh Water River" but more commonly translated as The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East The foundation of the Cham dynasty at Indrapura in 875 A. D. was followed just two years later by the foundation at Roluos in 877 of the Khmer empire by King Indravarman I, who united two previously independent regions of Cambodia. Angkor is a name conventionally applied to the region of Cambodia serving as the seat of the Khmer empire that flourished from approximately the 9th century to The parallels continued as the two peoples flourished from the 10th through the 12th centuries, then went into gradual decline, suffering their ultimate defeat in the 15th century. In 1238 A. D. , the Khmer lost control of their western possessions around Sukhothai as the result of a Thai revolt. The successful revolt not only ushered in the era of Thai independence, but also foreshadowed the eventual abandonment of Angkor in 1431 A. D. following its sack by Thai invaders from the kingdom of Ayutthaya, which had absorbed Sukhothai in 1376. The kingdom of Ayutthaya (อาณาจักรอยุธยา was a Thai kingdom that existed from 1351 to 1767 The decline of Champa was roughly contemporaneous with that of Angkor, and was precipitated by pressure from the Dai Viet of what is now northern Vietnam, culminating in the conquest and obliteration of Vijaya in 1471 A. D.
In 944 and 945 A. D. , Khmer troops from Cambodia invaded the region of Kauthara.  Around 950, the Khmer pillaged the temple of Po Nagar and carried off the statue of the goddess. Po Nagar is a Cham temple tower founded sometime before 781 A In 960, the Cham King Jaya Indravaman I sent a delegation with tribute to the first king of the Chinese Song Dynasty, which had been established in Kaifeng around 960. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Kaifeng ( formerly known as Bianliang ( Bianjing ( Daliang ( or simply Liang ( is a Prefecture-level city in eastern In 965, the king restored the temple at Po Nagar and reconstructed the statue of the goddess to replace the one stolen by the Khmer. 
In the latter half 10th century, the kings of Indrapura waged war against the Dai Viet of what is now northern Vietnam. The history of Vietnam begins around 2700 years ago Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 The Viet had spent the better part of the century securing their independence from Chinese rule. Following the defeat of the Chinese fleet by Ngo Quyen in the Battle of Bach Dang in 938 A. Ngô Quyền ( Hán tự: 吳[[wikt 權|權]] March 12, 897 - 944) (r At the Battle of Bạch Đằng River in 938 the Vietnamese forces led by Ngô Quyền, defeated the Chinese invaders and put an end to Chinese imperial D. , the country had gone through a period of internal turmoil until its final reunification by the Dinh Dynasty in 968 under the name Dai Co Viet, and the establishment of a capital at Hoa Lu near modern Hanoi. Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam 
In 979 A. D. , the Cham King Parameshvaravarman I (Phê Mi Thuê to the Viet) sent a fleet to attack Hoa Lu. The ill-fated expedition was however scuttled by a tempest. In 982, King Le Hoan of the Dai Viet sent three ambassadors to Indrapura. Lê Hoàn (941–1005 Hán tự: 黎[[wikt 桓|桓]] Posthumous name Lê Đại Hành, was a king of Vietnam under the Anterior Lê Dynasty When the ambassadors were detained, Le Hoan decided to go on the offensive. Viet troops sacked Indrapura and killed King Phê Mi Thuê. They carried off Cham dancers and musicians who subsequently came to influence to development of the arts in Dai Viet. As a result of these setbacks, the Cham abandoned Indrapura around 1000 A. D. The center of Champa was relocated south to Vijaya in modern Binh Dinh. 
Conflict between Champa and Dai Viet did not end, however, with the abandonment of Indrapura. Champa suffered further Viet attacks in 1021 and 1026 A. D. In 1044 A. D. , a catastrophic battle resulted in the death of the Cham King Sa Dau and the sack of Vijaya by the Dai Viet under Lý Thái Tông. Lý Thái Tông ( chữ Hán: 李[[wikt 太|太]] 宗; 1000 - 1054 was the posthumous title of Lý Phật Mã ( 李[[wikt 佛|佛]] 瑪 The invaders captured elephants and musicians and even the Cham queen Mi E, who preserved her honor by throwing herself into the waves as her captors attempted to transport her to their country. Champa began to pay tribute to the Viet kings, including a white rhino sent in 1065. In 1068 A. D. , however, the King of Vijaya Rudravarman (Che Cu) attacked Dai Viet in order to reverse the setbacks of 1044. Again the Cham were defeated, and again the Dai Viet captured and burned Vijaya. These events were repeated in 1069, when the Viet general Ly Thuong Kiet took a fleet to Champa and occupied Vijaya. The Lý Dynasty ( Vietnamese: nhà Lý, IPA: /ɲa˨˩ li˦˥/ pronounced like Lee) sometimes known as the Posterior Lý Dynasty ( Rudravarman was taken into captivity, eventually purchasing his freedom in exchange for three northern districts of his realm.  Taking advantage of the debacle, a leader in southern Champa rebelled and established an independent kingdom. The northern kings were not able to reunite the country until 1084. 
In 1074 A. D. , King Harivarman IV took the throne, restoring the temples at My Son and ushering in a period of relative prosperity. Harivarman made peace with the Dai Viet, but provoked war with the Khmer of Angkor. Angkor is a name conventionally applied to the region of Cambodia serving as the seat of the Khmer empire that flourished from approximately the 9th century to In 1080, a Khmer army attacked Vijaya and other centers in northern Champa. Temples and monasteries were sacked; cultural treasures were carried off. After much misery, Cham troops under King Harivarman were able to defeat the invaders and restored the capital and temples. 
Around 1080 A. D. , a new dynasty from the Korat Plateau in modern Thailand occupied the throne of Angkor in Cambodia. For the city Korat in Thailand see Nakhon Ratchasima Korats are a slate blue-grey shorthair domestic cat with a small to medium build The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Soon enough, the kings of the new dynasty embarked on a program of empire-building. Rebuffed in their attempts to conquer Dai Viet in the 1130’s, they turned their attention to Champa. In 1145 A. D. , a Khmer army under King Suryavarman II, the founder of Angkor Wat, occupied Vijaya and destroyed the temples at My Son. Suryavarman II ( Khmer:) (posthumous name Paramavishnuloka) was king of the Khmer Empire from 1113 A Angkor Wat (or Angkor Vat) (អង្គរវត្ត is a Temple complex at Angkor, Cambodia, built for King Suryavarman II The Khmer king then proceeded to attempt the conquest of all of northern Champa. In 1149 A. D. , however, the ruler of the southern principality of Panduranga, King Jaya Harivarman, defeated the invaders and had himself consecrated king of kings in Vijaya. He spent the rest of his reign putting down rebellions in Amaravati and Panduranga. 
In 1167 A. D. , King Jaya Indravarman IV ascended to the throne in Champa. An inscription characterized him as brave, well-versed in weapons, and knowledgeable of philosophy, Mahayana theories and the Dharmasutra. Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for Kalpa is one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, treating Ritual.  After securing peace with the Dai Viet in 1170, Jaya Indravarman invaded Cambodia with inconclusive results. In 1177, however, his troops launched a surprise attack against the Khmer capital of Yasodharapura from warships piloted up the Mekong River to the great lake Tonle Sap in Cambodia. Yaśodharapura was the first capital of the Khmer empire to be built at the Angkor site The Mekong is one of the world’s major Rivers It is the 11th-longest river in the world and 7th longest in Asia The Tonlé Sap ( Khmer: ទន្លេសាប ie large body of water (Cambodian meaning "Large Fresh Water River" but more commonly translated as The invaders sacked the capital, killed the Khmer king, and made off with much booty. 
The Khmer were rallied by a new king, Jayavarman VII, who drove the Cham from Cambodia in 1181 A. Jayavarman VII (1125 - 1215 was a king of the Khmer Empire (c D. When Jaya Indravarman IV launched another attack against Cambodia in 1190, Jayavarman VII appointed a Cham prince named Vidyanandana to lead the Khmer army. Vidyanandana defeated the invaders and proceeded to occupy Vijaya and to capture Jaya Indravarman, whom he sent back to Angkor a prisoner.
Following the conquest of Vijaya, the Khmer king installed his own brother-in-law, Prince In, as a puppet king in Champa. Civil war broke out, however, between several factions. In the end, Prince In prevailed, but declared his independence from Cambodia.  Khmer troops attempted unsuccessfully to regain control over Champa throughout the 1190’s. In 1203 A. D. , finally, Jayavarman VII’s generals took Vijaya, and Champa effectively became a province of Angkor, not to regain its independence until 1220.  Thereafter, Vijaya went into a period of gradual decline that lasted for more than two centuries. This period ended in a total defeat at the hands of the Dai Viet, and was briefly interrupted by a period of astounding military success under the warrior king Che Bong Nga.
In 1283 A. D. , Mongol troops under General Sogetu invaded Champa and occupied Vijaya. In the 1270’s, Kublai Khan had established his capital and dynasty at Beijing, had received the visit of Marco Polo, and had toppled the southern Chinese Song Dynasty. Early years Kublai Khan studied Chinese culture and became enamoured of it Marco Polo ( September 15 1254 – January 9 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325 was a Venetian trader and explorer The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms By 1280, he would turn his attention to the Cham and Viet kingdoms located in the territory of modern Vietnam. A series of Mongol assaults on Dai Viet were, however, unsuccessful, resulting in severe setbacks such as the Battle of Bach Dang. Similarly, the invasion of Champa had little lasting effect. Rather than engage the invaders directly, the Cham king and his troops retreated from the coast to the mountains and fought as guerrillas. Two years later, the Mongols left of their own accord. Sogetu was soon killed in another botched invasion of Dai Viet. 
In 1307 A. D. , the Cham King Jaya Simhavarman III (Che Man), the founder of the still extant temple of Po Klaung Garai in Panduranga, ceded two northern districts to the Dai Viet in exchange for the hand in marriage of a Viet princess. Po Klaung Garai is a Cham temple tower located in the medieval Cham principality of Panduranga near the town of Phan Rang in what is now southern Vietnam. Not long after the nuptials, the king passed away, and the princess returned to her northern home in order to avoid a Cham custom that would have required her to join her husband in death. However, the lands that Che Man had rashly ceded were not returned. In order to regain these lands, and encouraged by the decline of Dai Viet in the course of the 14th century, the troops of Champa began to make regular incursions into the territory of their neighbor to the north. 
The last strong king of the Cham was Che Bong Nga or Che Bunga, who ruled from 1360 until 1390. Chế Bồng Nga, Che Bunga, or Binasuor ruled Champa from 1360 - 1390 CE ( Bunga is the Malay word for 'flower' and "Chế" is Chế Bồng Nga, Che Bunga, or Binasuor ruled Champa from 1360 - 1390 CE ( Bunga is the Malay word for 'flower' and "Chế" is In Vietnamese stories he is called The Red King. Che Bong Nga apparently managed to unite the Cham lands under his rule and by 1372 he was strong enough to attack and almost to conquer Dai Viet from the sea.
Cham forces sacked Thang Long, the capital city of Dai Viet located at the site of modern Hanoi, in 1372 and then again in 1377. Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam A last attack in 1388 was checked by the Vietnamese General Ho Quy Ly, future founder of the Ho Dynasty. The Hồ Dynasty ( Vietnamese: Nhà Hồ; Hán Việt: Hồ Triều) in Vietnam was a short-lived seven-year reign of two emperors Che Bong Nga died two years later in 1390. This was the last serious offensive by the Cham against Dai Viet, but it helped spell the end of the Tran Dynasty, which had forged its reputation in the wars against the Mongols a century earlier, but which now revealed itself as weak and ineffective in the face of the Cham invasions. The Trần Dynasty ( Vietnamese: Nhà Trần, Hán Việt: Trần Triều, 陳朝 was a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled Vietnam (at that 
In 1446, the Dai Viet under the leadership of Trinh Kha launched an invasion of Champa. Trịnh Khả (? - 1451 close advisor to Lê Lợi, chief ruler of Vietnam during the 1440s and founder of the powerful Trịnh family The attack was successful and Vijaya fell to the invaders. A year later, however, a counter-attack drove the Viet from the city.
In 1470, the Dai Viet, led by the great emperor Le Thanh Tong, again invaded Champa. Lê Thánh Tông ( Hán tự: 黎[[wikt 聖|聖]] 宗; 1442&ndash1497 was emperor of Đại Việt from 1460 until his death Le Thanh Tong was an extraordinary administrator and leader. The Dai Viet army was very powerful and well organized. By contrast the Cham were disorganized and weak. Vijaya was captured after four days of fighting on March 21, 1471. Events 630 - Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem. The Cham king Tra-Toan was captured and died not long thereafter. At least 60,000 Cham people were killed and 30,000 were taken as slaves by the Vietnamese army. The capital of Vijaya was obliterated. As a result of the victory, Le Thanh Tong annexed the principalities of Amaravati and Vijaya. This defeat caused the first major Cham emigration, particularly to Cambodia and Malacca. 
What remained of historical Champa was the southern principality of Panduranga. Moreover, under the protection of Dai-Viet, it preserved some of its independence. This was the starting point of the modern Cham Lords in the principality of Panduranga (Phan Rang, Phan Ri and Phan Thiet).
In 1594 the Cham Lord Po At sent forces to assist the Sultanate of Johor's attack on Portuguese Malacca. This article concerns the Sultanate of Johor For office of the sultan see Sultan of Johor. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Malacca Town ( Malay: Bandar Melaka) is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Malacca.
In 1692, the Cham Lord Po Sot rebelled against Nguyễn Phúc Trần who ruled southern Vietnam. The revolt was at first unsuccessful and the aftermath was exacerbated by an outbreak of plague in Panduranga. However, a Cham aristocrat Oknha Dat obtained the help of the general A Ban, a Lauw (Orang Laut? Overseas Chinese?) leader. They defeated the Nguyễn forces of Nguyễn Phúc Chu in 1695. Nguyễn Phúc Chu 1675 - 1725 ruled the southern provinces of Vietnam from 1691 - 1725 After the victory, new king Po Saktiray Da Patih (younger brother of Po Sot) signed a peace treaty with Nguyễn Phuc Chu. As a result of the treaty, the Cham lords were called as Trấn Vương (local lord) of Thuận Thành(Panduranga) by the Nguyễn Lords, and they were closely supervised by Nguyễn officials.
Although the Cham lords had authority to the Cham people, "Archives du Panduranga" supplied some evidences about their limited authority over Vietnamese settlers. The Cham lords often played the role of the judge for Kinh-Cham conflict cases.
17 years later, in 1712, the Nguyễn Lord Nguyễn Phúc Chu made new treaty called "the treaty with 5 articles"(Ngũ điều Nghị định) with the Cham Lord Po Saktiray Da Patih and clarified the right (included the trial right of the Cham lords and Cham people) and the obligation of the Cham Lords and the Nguyen Lords. This new treaty was kept until 1832 by the Cham Lords, Nguyễn Lords, Tây Sơn Lords and Nguyễn Emperors.
As a result of the war between the Tây Sơn, under Nguyễn Nhạc, and Nguyễn Ánh, in 1786, the Cham Lord Chei Krei Brei and his court fled to Cambodia. The name of Tây Sơn ( 西[[wikt 山|山]] is used in many ways referring back to the period of Peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between Emperor Gia Long ( Hán tự: 嘉[[wikt 隆|隆]] 1762 &ndash 1820) born Nguyễn Phúc Ánh ( Hán tự: 阮[[wikt Year 1786 ( MDCCLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The assumption behind this flight is that they supported the Nguyễn Lords and the Tây Sơn Lords seemed to have won the war. The Nguyễn Lords ( Vietnamese: Chúa Nguyễn; 1558 - 1775 were a series of rulers of Southern Vietnam (then called Đàng Trong) From then on, the Cham Lords' title was downgraded to prefect.
In 1796, during the last years of the Tây Sơn, Tuen Phaow, a noble from Makah (Kelantan), headed a major revolt against the new Cham leaders (Po Ladhwan Paghuh, Po Chơng Chơn and Po Klan Thu) and claimed Kelantan's support but the revolt was defeated. Year 1796 ( MDCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The name of Tây Sơn ( 西[[wikt 山|山]] is used in many ways referring back to the period of Peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between The Cham leaders regained their special rights once Nguyễn Ánh (the Emperor Gia Long) regained control over Vietnam in 1802. Year 1802 ( MDCCCII) was a Common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting on Wednesday of the But even the limited Cham rule in Panduranga officially came to an end in 1832, when the Emperor Minh Mạng annexed the area. Year 1832 ( MDCCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Minh Mạng ( Hán tự: 明[[wikt 命|命]] 1791-1841 born Nguyễn Phúc Đảm 阮[[wikt 福|福]] 膽, also known as Nguyễn
Before the conquest of Champa by the Vietnamese king Lê Thánh Tông in 1471, the dominant religion of the Cham people was Hinduism, and the culture was heavily influenced by that of India. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Hinduism of Champa was overwhelmingly Shaivist, that is, focussed on the worship of Shiva, and it was liberally combined with elements of local religious cults such as the worship of the Earth goddess Yan Po Nagar. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Shaivism, also spelled "Saivism" names the oldest of the four sects of Hinduism. Shiva:(pronunciation; Sanskrit: शिव Śiva, lit "Auspicious one" One of the Trimurtis Shiva is the supreme God in the Shaiva Po Nagar is a Cham temple tower founded sometime before 781 A The main symbols of Cham Shaivism were the linga, the mukhalinga, the jatalinga, the segmented linga, and the kosa. 
The predominance of Hinduism in Cham religion was interrupted for a time in the 9th and 10th centuries, when a dynasty at Indrapura (Dong Duong in Quang Nam Province of modern Vietnam) adopted Mahayana Buddhism as its faith. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Quang Nam ( Quảng Nam;) is a province on the South Central Coast of Vietnam. Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for The Buddhist art of Dong Duong has received special acclaim for its originality. Champa was an Indic civilization that flourished along the coasts of what is now central and southern Vietnam for roughly a one thousand year period between 500 A
In the 10th centuries and following, Hinduism again became the predominant religion of Champa. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Some of the sites which have yielded important works of religious art and architecture from this period are, aside from My Son, Khuong My, Tra Kieu, Chanh Lo, and Thap Mam. Mỹ Sơn (mi sɤn is a Hindu Temple complex located in the village of Duy Phú in the administrative district of Duy Xuyên in Quảng Nam province
Islam started making headway among the Cham after the 10th century, but it was only after the 1471 invasion that this influence picked up speed. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. By the 17th century the Royal families of Cham Lords also began to turn to Islam and this eventually triggerred the major shift in religious orientation of the Cham so that by the time of their final annexation by the Vietnamese, the majority of the Cham people had converted to Islam. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Most Cham are now Muslims but, like the Javanese in Indonesia, they are heavily influenced by Hinduism. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Significant minorities of Hindus and Mahayana Buddhists exist. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Mahayana ( Sanskrit: mahāyāna, Devanagari: महायान 'Great Vehicle' is one of the two main existing schools of Buddhism and a term for Indonesian records indicate the influence of Princess Darawati, a Cham princess in influencing her husband Kertawijaya, Majapahit’s seventh ruler, similarly to Parameshwara of Malacca, to convert the Majapahit royal family to Islam. Majapahit was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. The Islamic tomb of Putri Champa (Princess of Champa) can be found in Trowulan, the site of Majapahit imperial capital. Trowulan is a village in Mojokerto, in the Indonesian province of East Java.
The most significant site for Cham temple architecture is at My Son (Viet: Mỹ Sơn) near the town of Hoi An (Viet: Hội An). Mỹ Sơn (mi sɤn is a Hindu Temple complex located in the village of Duy Phú in the administrative district of Duy Xuyên in Quảng Nam province Hội An is a small city on the coast of the South China Sea in the South Central Coast of Vietnam. The large complex at My Son was heavily damaged by US bombing during the Vietnam War. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The site is currently being restored with donations from a number of countries and NGO's. As of 2004, the clearing of land mines and UXO's had not been completed. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " A land mine is an Explosive device designed to be placed on or in the ground to explode when triggered by an operator or the Proximity of a vehicle person Unexploded ordnance (or UXO s/ UXB s sometimes acronymized as UO) are explosive Weapons ( Bombs Bullets shells
Many historic Cham towers still remain standing at other sites in Central Vietnam (An Nam), including the following:
The largest collection of Cham sculpture may be found in the Danang Museum of Cham Sculpture (formerly known as "Musée Henri Parmentier") in the coastal city of Da Nang (Viet: Đà Nẵng). Po Nagar is a Cham temple tower founded sometime before 781 A Po Klaung Garai is a Cham temple tower located in the medieval Cham principality of Panduranga near the town of Phan Rang in what is now southern Vietnam. Champa was an Indic civilization that flourished along the coasts of what is now central and southern Vietnam for roughly a one thousand year period between 500 A The Museum of Cham Sculpture is a museum located in Hai Chau district, Đà Nẵng, central Vietnam. This article is about the city of Đà Nẵng For the Vietnam War era air base see Da Nang Air Base or Đà Nẵng International Airport. The museum was established in 1915 by French scholars, and is regarded as one of the most beautiful in Southeast Asia. Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Other museums with collections of Cham art include the following: