The Chamavi were a Germanic tribe of Late Antiquity and the European Dark Age. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic Late Antiquity (c 300-600 is a Periodization used by historians to describe the transitional centuries from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, in This article is about the phrase "Dark Age(s" as a characterization of the Early Middle Ages in Western Europe They first appear under that name in the 1st century AD Germania of Tacitus as a Germanic tribe that, for most of their history, existed along the North bank of the Lower Rhine in the region today called Hamaland after them, which is in the Gelderland province of the Netherlands. The Germania ( Latin title De Origine et situ Germanorum, English for the Origin and Situation of the Germans) written by Gaius Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge Hamaland is a non-administrative region in the east of the Netherlands that is named after the Frankish Chamavi -tribe Gelderland ( English also Guelders) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Tacitus (op. cit. 34) locates them to the west of the Frisians. The Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people living in coastal parts of The Netherlands and Germany.
Tacitus says (35) that the Chamavi had moved into the lands of the Bructeri. The Bructeri were a Germanic tribe located in northwestern Germany (Soester Börde between the Lippe and Ems rivers south of the Teutoburg As to why the Bructeri were no longer there, the Latin is phrased in such a way as not to reveal the details:
As these same neighbors became the later Salian Franks, the "consensus" mentioned is the first known agreement among them. Salians redirects here for the eleventh-century dynasty see Salian dynasty, for Roman priests see Salii.
These passages in Tacitus raise the question, if Hamaland is the former territory of the Bructeri, where were the Chamavi before then? One answer is that they occupied the coastal plain to the north (Germans moved almost invariably from north to south). Many settlements are named Hamm, including possibly a modern city, Hamburg. Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany The name may have come from the Germanic equivalent of Chamavi.
The best etymology derives Ham- from common Germanic *haimaz, "home", from Indo-European *tkei-, "settle", from which the High German place-name suffix, -heim. The High German languages (in German, Hochdeutsch) are any of the varieties of standard German, Luxembourgish and The ham- form, "settlement", seems to have come from North Sea Germanic, as we acquired it through Dutch and French. Ingvaeonic, also known as North Sea Germanic, is a postulated grouping of the West Germanic languages that would fork into Old Frisian, Old English Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The -avi, an adjectival ending, later resulted in -au in other place names, but was dropped in this one. Chamavi in this derivation would mean "men of the settlements" or "settlers. " When and in what sense they were so is lost in prehistory.
The Annales of Tacitus tells an apparently contradictory story (13. The Annals, or in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the four Roman Emperors succeeding 55). To keep the Roman soldiers of Lower Germany occupied, their commanders sent them over the Rhine and into vacant lands to work on a canal. Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in today's southern and western Netherlands, parts of Due to a dispute with the Roman commanders of Belgium, the soldiers were withdrawn, but the Frisians sent men to occupy the land. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Romans expelled them. The Ampsivarii took up the cause. They claimed the land had been occupied by the Chamavi, followed by the Tubantes and the Usipetes. The Tubanti was a Germanic tribe, living in the eastern part of The Netherlands. The Tencteri and Usipetes were Germanic tribes located on the eastern bank of the lower Rhine in the 1st century BC Why had the lands of the Chamavi become vacant? We know they were there later as Franks. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group
Ptolemy gives us the answer indirectly. Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca In Geographia (2. The Geographia or Geography is Ptolemy 's main work besides the Almagest. 10), he tells us that the Kamauoi (Latinized to Camavi) were next to the Chaerusci, who in Tacitus are in Lower Saxony near Hanover, or perhaps Thuringia and Anhalt. Lower Saxony ( German: Niedersachsen ch is pronounced before an s --> lies in north-western Germany and is second Hanover (i ( haˈnoːfɐ on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony ( Niedersachsen The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen is located in central Germany. Anhalt is a historical County (after 1806 Duchy) in central Germany, located between the Harz Mountains and the river Elbe Apparently, some Chamavi abandoned their lands to move upriver.
Two other peoples of Ptolemy wear the *haimaz name: the Chaemae and the Banochaemae. The name Chaemae, is a Latinization of an ancient Germanic tribal name cited by Ptolemy in his Geography (2 The Banochaemae, or Baenochaemae, or Bainochaimai, or Bonochamae were a people of Greater Germany in Ptolemy. These polities were in what became the High German range. There is no reason to assume they were the Chamavi, although the identification cannot be ruled out either. Ptolemy treats them as distinct peoples.
When next the Chamavi appear, history finds them keeping Salian company. At some time after Ptolemy the lowlands around and in what was once the Zuider Zee, now part of the Netherlands, became occupied by a people called the Salii ("salt-water people"), no doubt by a simple change of name, either their own or someone else's. The Zuiderzee (ˌzaɪdɚ ˈzeɪ] Dutch: Zuiderzee, ˈzœydərzeː was a shallow Inlet of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Salians redirects here for the eleventh-century dynasty see Salian dynasty, for Roman priests see Salii. There were probably elements of both Frisians and Chamavi, with a sprinkling of Batavian pirates. They became a distinct ethnic polity and immediately began to unsettle the region, becoming troublesome to the Romans. They are almost always found in association with Chamavi.
The name of the Franks was assigned to the Salians right from their first debut on the stage of history. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The Panegyrici Latini, a series of twelve speeches given in praise of Roman emperors, describe the efforts of Constantius Chlorus, father of Constantine the Great, to pacify the Franks, who are kept distinct from the Chamavi. The Panegyrici Latini or Latin Panegyrics is a collection of twelve ancient Roman Panegyric orations Flavius Valerius Constantius ( March 31 c 250&ndash July 25 306) was an emperor of the Western Roman Empire (305&ndash306 Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine These Panegyrici are often attributed to Eumenius, magister memoriae (private secretary) to Constantius, resulting in the compromise name of pseudo-Eumenius. Eumenius (born c 260 at the latest more probably between 230 and 240) was one of the Roman Panegyrists and author of a speech transmitted
In the late 3rd century Constantius, as described by the Panegyrici, found it necessary to remove the Franks from Belgium again and again, and yet he drew back from annihilistic solutions. Leaving the peaceful Franks in place, he deported the captured soldiers and their dependents, who were called laeti, to vacant lands in Burgundy, where they worked the land and served in the Roman army. We know the Chamavi were among them because there was a settlement (Ch)amavorum. These Franks later rose to the high ranks, coming to dominate the Roman army on the Rhine.
Some Romans at least did consider the Chamavi to be Franks. On the Peutinger map, which dates to as early as the 4th century, is a brief note written in the space north of the Rhine,
The Chamavi also appear in the 5th century Notitia Dignitatum as a Roman military unit. The Tabula Peutingeriana ( Peutinger table) is an Itinerarium showing the Cursus publicus, the road network in the Roman Empire. The Notitia Dignitatum is a unique document of the Roman imperial chanceries Long before then, however, we hear of them in a letter of Flavius Claudius Julianus (Julian the Apostate, because he reverted from Christianity to paganism) to the Athenians. Flavius Claudius Julianus, known also as Julian or Julian the Apostate (331 or 332 to 26 June 363) was Roman Emperor (Caesar He says that he forced the Salii to sue for peace and drove the Chamavi out of Gaul.
The full story is told in Ammianus Marcellinus (17. Amiricanus Gambilinus (325/330-after 391 was a fourth-century Roman historian. 8-9). The two tribes knew they were where they were not supposed to be, but apparently were hoping not to have to fight. When Julian approached with a business-like force, they sent envoys begging for peace in exchange for returning home and promising to stay there. Julian dismissed them with assurances but with no definite answer and then secretly trailed the envoys to the locations of their armies, which he attacked with the element of surprise. Some of the Chamavi were killed, others put in chains, and the rest fled to their homes, to send envoys later petitioning Julian from a supine position. This time peace was accepted. The Chamavi were to make payments of grain, but none were probably ever made, due to further Roman troubles.
Life for the Chamavi thus went on. We have a hint as to their language from the 5th century Lex Salica, a body of law developed by the Salians themselves. Salic law ( Lat Lex Salica) was an important body of traditional Law codified for governing the Salian Franks in the Early Middle Ages On one manusript are written glosses in Old Saxon. A difference between low and high may even have existed in the time of Tacitus. Gregory of Tours also mentions the Chamavi as being among the Franks. Saint Gregory of Tours ( November 30, c 538 &ndash November 17, 594) was a Gallo-Roman historian and bishop of Tours The name and the unity proved unusually enduring, as the Lex Chamavorum Francorum is known from the 9th century, and was official under Charlemagne. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his After that they vanish from their province by diffusion into the new population of the Netherlands. The age of tribal polities was finished in west Europe.