Classification and external resources
Cerebral edema (cerebral oedema in British English) is an excess accumulation of water in the intracellular and/or extracellular spaces of the brain. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify Diseases The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision ( ICD -10) is a coding of diseases and signs symptoms abnormal findings G00-G99 - Diseases of the Nervous system (G00-G09 Inflammatory diseases of the Central nervous system ( Bacterial meningitis The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify Diseases The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The Diseases Database is a free Website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions Symptoms, and Medications. Medical Subject Headings ( MeSH) is a huge Controlled vocabulary (or metadata system for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books British English or UK English ( BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain
Due to a breakdown of tight endothelial junctions which make up the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The blood-brain barrier (BBB is a metabolic or cellular structure in the Central nervous system (CNS that restricts the passage of various chemical substances and microscopic This allows normally excluded intravascular proteins and fluid to penetrate into cerebral parenchymal extracellular space. Once plasma constituents cross BBB the edema spreads, this may be quite fast and widespread. As water enters white matter it moves extracellularly along fiber tracts and can also affect the gray matter. This type of edema is seen in response to trauma, tumors, focal inflammation, late stages of cerebral ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy. In Medicine, ischemia ( Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction hema or haema is Blood) is a restriction Encephalopathy /ɛnˌsɛfəˈlɒpəθi/ literally means Disease of the Brain.
Some of the mechanisms contributing to BBB dysfunction are: physical disruption by arterial hypertension or trauma, tumor-facilitated release of vasoactive and endothelial destructive compounds (e. g. arachidonic acid, excitatory neurotransmitters, eicosanoids, bradykinin, histamine and free radicals).
In this type of edema the BBB remains intact. This edema is due to the derangement in cellular metabolism resulting in inadequate functioning of the sodium and potassium pump in the glial cell membrane. Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life. Glial cells, commonly called neuroglia or simply glia (Greek for "glue" are non- Neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition As a result there is cellular retention of sodium and water. There are swollen astrocytes in gray and white matter. Cytoxotic edema is seen with various intoxications (dinitrophenol, triethyltin, hexachlorophene, isoniazid), in Reye's syndrome, severe hypothermia, early ischemia, encephalopathy, early stroke or hypoxia, cardiac arrest, pseudotumor cerebri, and cerebral toxins. 24-Dinitrophenol ( DNP) C 6 H 4 N 2 O 5 is a cellular metabolic Hexachlorophene, also known as Nabac is a Disinfectant related to the herbicides 245-T and 24-D. Isoniazid (also called isonicotinyl hydrazine or INH) is a first-line antituberculous medication used in the prevention and treatment of Tuberculosis Reye's syndrome is a potentially fatal Disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs especially the Brain and Liver. Hypothermia is a condition in which an organism's temperature drops below that required for normal Metabolism and bodily functions In Medicine, ischemia ( Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction hema or haema is Blood) is a restriction Encephalopathy /ɛnˌsɛfəˈlɒpəθi/ literally means Disease of the Brain. A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain Chronic Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole ( generalized hypoxia) or region of the body ( tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate
Normally cerebral-spinal fluid (CSF) and extracellular fluid (ECF) osmolality of the brain is slightly greater than that of plasma. When plasma is diluted by excessive water intake (or hyponatremia), syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), hemodialysis, or rapid reduction of blood glucose in hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), formerly hyperosmolar non-ketotic acidosis (HONK), the brain osmolality will then exceed the serum osmolality creating an abnormal pressure gradient down which water will flow into the brain causing edema. Hyponatremia ( British: hyponatraemia) is an Electrolyte disturbance (disturbance of the salts in the blood in which the Sodium ( Natrium The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH is a condition commonly found in the hospital population especially in patients being hospitalized for Central nervous system In Medicine, hemodialysis (also haemodialysis) is a method for removing waste products such as Potassium and Urea, as well as free water Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology. Osmolarity is a measure of the osmoles of solute per Liter of solution while the osmolality is a measure of the osmoles of Solute per Kilogram Hyperglycemia, hyperglycaemia, or high blood sugar is a condition in which an excessive amount of Glucose circulates in the Blood plasma It affects the brain so severely that the victim feels like drowning until he/she dies the slow painful death.
This form of cerebral edema is seen in acute, malignant hypertension. It is thought to result from direct transmission of pressure to cerebral capillary with transudation of fluid into the ECF.
Occurs in obstructive hydrocephalus. This form of edema is due to rupture of CSF-brain barrier: permits CSF to penetrate brain and spread in the extracellular space of white matter. Differentiated from vasogenic edema in that fluid contains almost no protein
High altitude cerebral edema (or HACE) is a severe (usually fatal) form of altitude sickness. High altitude cerebral edema (or HACE) is a severe (frequently fatal form of Altitude sickness. High altitude cerebral edema (or HACE) is a severe (frequently fatal form of Altitude sickness. Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness ( AMS) altitude illness, or soroche, is a pathological condition that is caused by acute HACE is the result of swelling of brain tissue from fluid leakage. Symptoms can include headache, loss of coordination (ataxia), weakness, and decreasing levels of consciousness including disorientation, loss of memory, hallucinations, psychotic behavior, and coma. It generally occurs after a week or more at high altitude. High altitude are regions on the Earth 's surface (or in its atmosphere) that are high above Mean sea level. Severe instances can lead to death if not treated quickly. Immediate descent is a necessary life-saving measure (2,000 - 4,000 feet). There are some medications (e. g. dexamethasone) that may be prescribed for treatment in the field, but these require proper medical training in their use. Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of Steroid Hormones It acts as an Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant Anyone suffering from HACE must be evacuated to a medical facility for proper follow-up treatment. A gamow bag can sometimes be used to stabilize the sufferer before transport or descending. A Gamow bag is an inflatable pressure bag that is large enough to fit a person inside
Climbers may also suffer high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), which affects the lungs. High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE is a life-threatening form of non-cardiogenic Pulmonary edema that occurs in otherwise healthy Mountaineers at altitudes above High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE is a life-threatening form of non-cardiogenic Pulmonary edema that occurs in otherwise healthy Mountaineers at altitudes above While not as life threatening as HACE in the initial stages, failure to descend to lower altitudes or receive medical treatment can also lead to death.
Treatment approaches can include diuretics and corticosteroids. A diuretic is any Drug that elevates the rate of urination ( Diuresis) Corticosteroids are a class of Steroid hormones that are produced in the Adrenal cortex.