A Central Park landscape
|Location||Manhattan, New York City|
|Size||843 acres (341 ha)|
1. An urban park, also known as a municipal park (North America or a public park or open space (United Kingdom is a Park in cities and other Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York The City of New York A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. 32 sq mi (3. 4 km²)
|Operated by||Central Park Conservancy|
|Annual visitors||25 million|
|Status||Open all year|
|(U.S. National Historic Landmark)|
|Architect:||Frederick Law Olmsted, Calvert Vaux|
|Designated as NHL:||May 23, 1963|
|Added to NRHP:||October 15, 1966|
Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. Year 1859 ( MDCCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A National Historic Landmark (NHL is a Building, site, Structure, Object, or District, that is officially recognized by the Frederick Law Olmsted ( April 25, 1822 &ndash August 28, 1903) was an American landscape designer and father of American Calvert Vaux ( December 20, 1824 – November 19, 1895) was an architect and landscape designer A National Historic Landmark (NHL is a Building, site, Structure, Object, or District, that is officially recognized by the Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP is the United States government's official list of districts sites buildings structures and objects deemed worthy of Events 533 - Byzantine General Belisarius makes his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. An urban park, also known as a municipal park (North America or a public park or open space (United Kingdom is a Park in cities and other The acre is a unit of Area in a number of different systems including the imperial and U 41 km², 1. 32 mi²; a rectangle 2. 6 statute miles by 0. A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States 5 statute mile, or 4. 1 km × 830 m) in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York The City of New York With about twenty-five million visitors annually, Central Park is the most visited city park in The United States, and its appearance in many movies and television shows has made it famous. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
The park is maintained by the Central Park Conservancy, a private, not-for-profit organization that manages the park under a contract with the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, in which the president of the Conservancy is ex-officio Administrator of Central Park. A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage The City of New York Department of Parks & Recreation (colloquially the Parks Department) is the department of government of the City of New York responsible for
Central Park is bordered on the north by West 110th Street, on the south by West 59th Street, on the west by Eighth Avenue. 59th Street in the New York City borough of Manhattan runs east-west from York Avenue to the West Side Highway, with a discontinuity Along the park's borders however, these are known as Central Park North, Central Park South, and Central Park West respectively. Central Park North is a street in the borough of Manhattan, New York City; it is a section of 110th Street. Central Park South is the section of 59th Street in the borough of Manhattan, New York City that lies along the southern end of Central Central Park West (CPW is an avenue that runs north-south in the New York City borough of Manhattan, in the United States. Fifth Avenue retains its name along the eastern border of the park. Most of the areas immediately adjacent to the park are known for impressive buildings and valuable real estate.
The park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted and architect Calvert Vaux, who went on to collaborate on Brooklyn's Prospect Park. Frederick Law Olmsted ( April 25, 1822 &ndash August 28, 1903) was an American landscape designer and father of American Calvert Vaux ( December 20, 1824 – November 19, 1895) was an architect and landscape designer Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. Prospect Park is a 585 acre (24 km² public Park in the New York City borough of Brooklyn located between Park Slope, Central Park has been a National Historic Landmark since 1963. A National Historic Landmark (NHL is a Building, site, Structure, Object, or District, that is officially recognized by the 
While much of the park looks natural, it is in fact almost entirely landscaped. It contains several natural-looking lakes and ponds, extensive walking tracks, two ice-skating rinks, the Central Park Zoo, the Central Park Conservatory Garden, a wildlife sanctuary, a large area of natural woods, a 106-acre (0. A trail is a Path or Road used for Walking, Cycling, Cross-country skiing, or other activities Ice skating is Traveling on Ice with skates, narrow (and sometimes parabolic) blade-like devices moulded into special Boots A study The Central Park Zoo is located in Central Park in New York City and run by the Wildlife Conservation Society. The Conservatory Garden is the only formal Garden in Central Park, New York City. 43 km²) billion gallon reservoir with an encircling running track, and an outdoor amphitheater called the Delacorte Theater which hosts the "Shakespeare in the Park" summer festivals. The Delacorte Theater, established in 1962 is an open-air Theater located in Manhattan 's Central Park. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theatre, and the historic Carousel. Belvedere Castle sits upon Vista Rock the second highest natural elevation in Central Park, New York City. The Swedish Cottage Marionette Theatre in New York's Central Park was originally built as a traditionally-constructed model Schoolhouse of Baltic Fir for In addition there are numerous major and minor grassy areas, some of which are used for informal or team sports, some are set aside as quiet areas, and there are a number of enclosed playgrounds for children. A playground or play area is an area designed for Children to play, indoors or outdoors
The park has its own wildlife and also serves as an oasis for migrating birds, especially in the fall and the spring, making it a significant attraction for bird watchers. Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of Birds with the naked eye or through a visual enhancement device like Binoculars. Of particular interest to New Yorkers has been the resident hawk population, especially Pale Male, a Red-tailed Hawk who has appeared in a Steve Earle song and on Late Night with Conan O'Brien. Pale Male (born 1991) is a male Red-tailed Hawk who has made his home since the early 1990s in New York City, where he has attracted the widespread attention The Red-tailed Hawk ( Buteo jamaicensis) is a medium-sized Bird of prey, one of three species colloquially known in the United States as the " Stephen 'Steve' Fain Earle (ɝl is an American Singer-songwriter, well known for his rock and Country music, as well as his political views Late Night with Conan O'Brien is an Emmy Award -winning American late-night Talk show hosted by Conan O'Brien on NBC
The 6 miles (10 km) of drives within the park are used by joggers, bicyclists and inline skaters, especially on weekends, and in the evenings after 7:00 p. m. , when automobile traffic is banned.
The park was not part of the Commissioners' Plan of 1811; however, between 1821 and 1855, New York City nearly quadrupled in population. The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 was a proposal by the New York State Legislature adopted in 1811 for the orderly development and sale of the land of Manhattan between The City of New York As the city expanded, people were drawn to the few open spaces, mainly cemeteries, to get away from the noise and chaotic life in the city.  Before long, however, New York City's need for a great public park was voiced by the poet and editor of the then-Evening Post (now the New York Post), William Cullen Bryant, and by the first American landscape architect, Andrew Jackson Downing, who began to publicize the city's need for a public park in 1844. The history of New York City begins with its Lenape inhabitants prior to the arrival of Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524 and continues with its founding The New York Post is the 13th-oldest Newspaper published in the United States and generally acknowledged as the oldest to have been published continually William Cullen Bryant (November 3 1794 - June 12 1878 was an American romantic poet, journalist and long-time editor of the New York Evening Post. Andrew Jackson Downing ( October 30, 1815 &ndash July 28, 1852) was an American Landscape designer and Writer, a prominent A stylish place for open-air driving, like the Bois de Boulogne in Paris or London's Hyde Park, was felt to be needed by many influential New Yorkers, and in 1853 the New York legislature designated a 700 acre (2. The Bois de Boulogne is a park located along the western edge of the 16ème arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt. Hyde Park is one of the largest Parks in central London, England and one of the Royal Parks of London, famous for its Speakers' Corner 8 km²) area from 59th to 106th Streets for the creation of the park, to a cost of more than US$5 million for the land alone. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been The park is the largest on Manhattan Island.
The State appointed a Central Park Commission to oversee the development of the park, and in 1857 the commission held a landscape design contest. Writer Frederick Law Olmsted and English architect Calvert Vaux developed the so-called "Greensward Plan," which was selected as the winning design. Frederick Law Olmsted ( April 25, 1822 &ndash August 28, 1903) was an American landscape designer and father of American Calvert Vaux ( December 20, 1824 – November 19, 1895) was an architect and landscape designer According to Olmsted, the park was "of great importance as the first real Park made in this century—a democratic development of the highest significance…," a view probably inspired by his stay, and various trips in Europe in 1850.  During that trip he visited several parks, and was in particular impressed by Birkenhead Park near Liverpool, England, which opened in 1847 as the first publicly funded park in the world. Birkenhead Park is a public Park in the centre of Birkenhead, on the Wirral Peninsula, Merseyside, England. Liverpool ( is a City and Metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland
Several influences came together in the design. Landscaped cemeteries, such as Mount Auburn (Cambridge, Massachusetts) and Green-Wood (Brooklyn, New York) had set an example of idyllic, naturalistic landscapes. Founded in 1831 as "America's first garden cemetery" or the first " Rural cemetery " Mount Auburn Cemetery is an Elysium where traditionally Cambridge Massachusetts is a City in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, United States. Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. The most influential innovations in the Central Park design were the "separate circulation systems" for pedestrians, horseback riders, and pleasure vehicles. The "crosstown" commercial traffic was entirely concealed in sunken roadways screened with densely planted shrub belts, so as not to disturb the impression of a rustic scene. The Greensward plan called for some 36 bridges, all designed by Vaux, ranging from rugged spans of Manhattan schist or granite, to lacy neo-gothic cast iron, no two alike. The Manhattan schist is a formation of Mica Schist rock that underlies much of the island of Manhattan in New York City. Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. The ensemble of the formal line of the Mall's doubled allées of elms culminating at Bethesda Terrace, whose centerpiece is The Bethesda Fountain, with a composed view beyond of lake and woodland was at the heart of the larger design. The Central Park Mall leading to the Bethesda Terrace provides the only purely formal feature in the naturalistic original plan of Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Bethesda Terrace overlooks The Lake in New York City 's Central Park.
Before the construction of the park could start, the area had to be cleared of its inhabitants, most of whom were quite poor and either free African-Americans or immigrants of either German or Irish origin. Freedom, or the idea of being free is a broad concept that African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Éire (ˈeːrʲə) is the Irish name for the island of Ireland and of the state of the same name. Most of them lived in smaller villages, such as Seneca Village, Harsenville, the Piggery District or the Convent of the Sisters of Charity. Seneca Village was a small village on the island of Manhattan, New York founded by Free blacks in 1825 The roughly 1,600 working-class residents occupying the area at the time were evicted under the rule of eminent domain during 1857, and Seneca Village and parts of the other communities were torn down and removed in order to make room for the park. Eminent domain ( United States) compulsory purchase ( United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland) resumption/compulsory acquisition The person responsible for carrying out the evictions was the great-great grandfather of future New York Yankee Joe Pepitone. The New York Yankees are a professional baseball team based in the borough of The Bronx, in New York City, New York. Joseph (Joe Anthony Pepitone (born October 9 1940, in Brooklyn, New York) is a former Major League Baseball First baseman
During the construction of the park, Olmsted fought constant battles with the Park Commissioners, many of whom were appointees of the city's Democratic machine. In 1860, he was forced out for the first of many times as Central Park's Superintendent, and Andrew Haswell Green, the former president of New York City's Board of Education took over as the chairman of the commission. Andrew Green ( 1820 - November 13, 1903) was a New York lawyer city planner civic leader and agitator for reform Despite the fact that he had relatively little experience, he still managed to accelerate the construction, as well as to finalize the negotiations for the purchase of an additional 65 acres (26 ha) at the north end of the park between 106th and 110th Streets, which would be used as the "rugged" part of the park, its swampy northeast corner dredged and reconstructed as the Harlem Meer. Harlem Meer ("Meer" is Dutch for "Lake" occupies the northeast corner of New York City 's Central Park, in a section of park that was added to
Between 1860 and 1873, the construction of the park had come a long way, and most of the major hurdles had been overcome. Cleopatra's Needle ("L'aiguille de Cléopâtre" in French is the popular name for each of three Ancient Egyptian Obelisks re-erected in London During this period, more than 500,000 cubic feet (14,000 m³) of topsoil had been transported in from New Jersey, as the original soil wasn't good enough to sustain the various trees, shrubs, and plants the Greensward Plan called for. The cubic foot is an imperial and US customary (non- metric) unit of Volume, used in the United States Canada and the United Kingdom New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. When the park was officially completed in 1873, more than ten million cartloads of material, including soil and rocks which were to be removed from the area had been manually dug up, and transported out of the park. Also included were the more than four million trees, shrubs and plants representing the approximately 1,500 species which were to lay the foundation for today's park.
Following the completion of the park, it quickly slipped into decline. One of the major reasons for this was the lack of interest of Tammany Hall, the political machine which was the largest political force in New York at the time. Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party Political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics and helping immigrants (most notably A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on Patronage, the Spoils system, "behind-the-scenes" control and longstanding New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous
Around the turn of the 20th century, the park faced several new challenges. Cars had been invented and were becoming commonplace, bringing with them their burden of pollution. Also, the general mental view of the people was beginning to change. No longer were parks to be used only for walks and picnics in an idyllic environment, but now also for sports, and similar recreation. Following the dissolution of the Central Park Commission in 1870 and Andrew Green's departure from the project and the death of Vaux in 1895, the maintenance effort gradually declined, and there were few or no attempts to replace dead trees, bushes and plants or worn-out lawn. For several decades, authorities did little or nothing to prevent vandalism and the littering of the park.
All of this changed in 1934, when Republican Fiorello La Guardia was elected mayor of New York City and unified the five park-related departments then in existence, and gave Robert Moses the job of cleaning up. LaGuardia redirects here For the airport see LaGuardia Airport. The Mayor of New York City is the chief executive of the Government of New York City, as stipulated by the Charter of the City of New York. Robert Moses ( December 18 1888 – July 29 1981) was the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long Moses, then about to become one of the mightiest men in New York City, took over what was essentially a relic, a leftover from a bygone era. The City of New York
In a single year, Moses managed to clean up not only Central Park, but also other parks in New York City: lawns and flowers were replanted, dead trees and bushes replaced, walls were sandblasted and bridges repaired. Major redesigning and construction was also carried out: for instance, the existing Croton Lower Reservoir was filled in so the Great Lawn could be created. The Great Lawn and Turtle Pond Central Park occupy the almost flat site of the intractably rectangular thirty-five-acre Lower Reservoir constructed in 1842 which was an unalterable The Greensward Plan's intention of creating an idyllic landscape was combined with Moses' vision of a park to be used for recreational purposes—nineteen playgrounds, twelve ballfields, and handball courts were constructed. Moses also managed to secure funds from the New Deal program, as well as donations from the public, thus ensuring that the park got a new lease of life, prospering under the wings of a powerful and new defender. The New Deal was the name that United States President Franklin D
The 1960s marked the beginning of an “Events Era” in Central Park that reflected the widespread cultural and political trends of the period. The Public Theater's annual Shakespeare in the Park festival was settled in the new Delacorte Theater (1961) and summer performances were instituted on the Sheep Meadow and then on the Great Lawn by the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and the Metropolitan Opera. The Public Theater is a New York City arts organization founded as The Shakespeare Workshop in 1954 by Joseph Papp, with the intention of showcasing the works of up-and-coming Shakespeare in the Park is a concept used across the world as a form of free public presentation of William Shakespeare's works The Delacorte Theater, established in 1962 is an open-air Theater located in Manhattan 's Central Park. The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active Symphony Orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842 The Metropolitan Opera Association of New York City, founded in April 1880 is a major presenter of all types of opera including Grand Opera. Increasingly through the 1970s, the Park became a venue for events of unprecedented scale, including political rallies and demonstrations, festivals, and massive concerts.
At the time, the City of New York was in the throes of economic and social crisis. Residents were fleeing the City and moving to the suburbs. Morale was low and crime was high. The Parks Department, suffering from budget cuts and a lack of skilled management that rendered its workforce virtually ineffective, responded by opening the Park to any and all activities that would bring people into it—regardless of their impact and without adequate management oversight or maintenance follow-up. Some of these events became important milestones in the social history of the Park and the cultural history of the City. Many were positive experiences fondly remembered by the individuals who participated. But without essential management and enforcement of reasonable limitations, and combined with a total lack of park maintenance and repair, they also did an incredible amount of damage.
By the mid-1970s, New York’s fiscal and social crisis had contributed to severe management neglect. "Years of poor management and inadequate maintenance had turned a masterpiece of landscape architecture into a virtual dustbowl by day and a danger zone by night," said the Conservancy president.  hastened the deterioration of its infrastructure and architecture, and ushered in an era of vandalism, territorial use (as when a pick-up game of softball or soccer commandeered open space to the exclusion of others) and illicit activity.
Several citizen groups had emerged intent upon reclaiming the park by fundraising and organizing volunteer initiatives. One of these groups, the Central Park Community Fund, commissioned a study of the park’s management that concluded by calling for the establishment of a single position within the Parks Department responsible for overseeing the planning and management of Central Park, and for a board of guardians to provide citizen oversight. The Koch administration was receptive, and in 1979 Parks Commissioner Gordon Davis established the office of Central Park Administrator, appointing to the position the executive director of another citizen organization, the Central Park Task Force. The Central Park Conservancy was founded the following year to support the office and initiatives of the Administrator and to provide consistent leadership through a self-perpetuating, citizen-based board that would also include as ex-officio trustees the Parks Commissioner, Central Park Administrator, and mayoral appointees.
The Park's transformation under the leadership of the Central Park Conservancy began with modest but highly significant first steps toward reclaiming the Park, addressing needs that could not be met within the existing structure and resources of the Parks Department. These included an initial focus on hiring interns and establishing a small restoration staff to reconstruct and repair unique rustic structures, undertaking horticultural projects, and removing graffiti, under the broken windows premise. Fixing Broken Windows Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities by George L Currently "Graffiti doesn't last 24 hours in the park," according to Conservancy president Douglas Blonsky. 
By the early 1980s the Conservancy was engaged in design efforts and long-term restoration planning, using a combination of its own staff and consultants. Through this work, the Conservancy provided the impetus and leadership for several early restoration projects funded by the City, while at the same time preparing a comprehensive plan for rebuilding the Park. With the completion of this plan in 1985, the Conservancy launched its first capital campaign. Through the campaign, the Conservancy assumed increasing responsibility for funding the comprehensive restoration of the Park, and full responsibility for designing, bidding, and supervising all capital projects in the Park.
The restoration of Central Park has been accompanied by a crucial transformation of its management. As the Conservancy rebuilt the Park beginning in the mid-1980s, it instituted a revolutionary new zone-management system, in which Central Park was divided into territories, in which a designated supervisor was held responsible for maintaining restored areas; and as citywide budget cuts in the early 1990s resulted in attrition of the Parks Department staff responsible for routine maintenance, the Conservancy began to hire staff to replace these workers. Management of the restored landscapes by the Conservancy’s "zone gardeners" proved so successful that core maintenance and operations staff were reorganized in 1996 and a zone-based system of management implemented throughout the Park, now divided into 49 zones. Consequently, every zone of the Park now has a specific individual accountable for its day-to-day maintenance. Zone gardeners supervise the volunteers assigned to them (who commit to a consistent work schedule), and are supported by specialized crews in areas of maintenance requiring specific expertise or equipment, or more effectively conducted on a parkwide basis. Today the Conservancy employs four out of five maintenance and operations staff in the Park, and effectively oversees the work of both the private and public employees under the authority of the Central Park Administrator (a publicly appointed position reporting to the Parks Commissioner) who is also the President of the Conservancy. As of 2007, the Conservancy had invested approximately $450 million in the restoration and management of the Park; the organization presently contributes approximately 85% of Central Park’s annual operating budget of over $25 million. 
The system was functioning so well that in 2006 the Conservancy created the Historic Harlem Parks Initiative, providing horticultural and maintenance support and mentoring in Morningside Park and St. Morningside Park is a New York City public Park in the northern portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Nicholas, Jackie Robinson and Marcus Garvey Parks. Marcus Garvey Park, or Mount Morris Park as it is referred to by the people in the neighborhood is located in Harlem in the New York City borough 
Central Park is perhaps cherished most by athletes. The Park Drive, just over 6 miles (9. 7 km) long, is a haven for runners, joggers, bicyclists, and inline skaters. Nearly every weekend, races take place in the park, many of which are organized by the New York Road Runners. New York Road Runners (NYRR founded in 1958 with 47 members has grown into the foremost running organization with a membership of 40000 The New York City Marathon finishes in Central Park outside Tavern on the Green. The New York City Marathon ( ING New York City Marathon for Sponsorship reasons is a major annual marathon (42 Tavern on the Green is a Restaurant located in Central Park on the Upper West Side of New York City, in the United States. Many other professional races are run in the park, including the recent USA Men's 8k Championships. A long tradition of horseback riding in the park was kept alive by the one remaining stable nearby, Claremont Riding Academy until it closed in 2007. The Claremont Riding Academy, the last riding stable in Manhattan was located at 175 West 89th Street between Columbus and Amsterdam Avenues in New York City At the northern part of Central Park between 106th and 108th streets Lasker Rink and Pool is a large ice skating rink which converts to an outdoor swimming pool in Summer and serves the neighboring communities.
Each summer, the Public Theater presents free open-air theatre productions, often starring well-known stage and screen actors, in the Delacorte Theater, summer performing venue of the New York Shakespeare Festival. The Public Theater is a New York City arts organization founded as The Shakespeare Workshop in 1954 by Joseph Papp, with the intention of showcasing the works of up-and-coming The Delacorte Theater, established in 1962 is an open-air Theater located in Manhattan 's Central Park. New York Shakespeare Festival is the traditional name of a sequence of shows organized by the Public Theater in New York City, most often being held at the Delacorte Most, though not all, of the plays presented are by William Shakespeare, and the performances are generally regarded as being of high quality since its founding by Joseph Papp in 1962. William Shakespeare ( baptised Joseph Papp ( June 22 1921 - October 31 1991) was an American Theatrical producer and director.
The New York Philharmonic gives an open-air concert every summer on the Great Lawn and the Metropolitan Opera presents two operas. The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active Symphony Orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842 The Metropolitan Opera Association of New York City, founded in April 1880 is a major presenter of all types of opera including Grand Opera. Many concerts have been given in the park including Elton John, 1980; the Simon and Garfunkel reunion, 1981; Diana Ross, 1983; Garth Brooks,1997; Dave Matthews Band, 2003. Sir Elton Hercules John CBE (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947 is an English pop / rock Singer, Composer The Concert in Central Park is a Live album by Simon and Garfunkel. Diana Ross (born March 261944 is an American twelve-time Grammy and Oscar -nominated singer Record producer and actress whose musical repertoire Troyal Garth Brooks, known professionally as Garth Brooks (born February 7, 1962) is an American Country music Singer-songwriter. Dave Matthews Band (also known by the initials DMB) is a United States -based rock band originally formed in Charlottesville, Virginia Since 1992, local Singer-songwriter David Ippolito has performed almost every summer weekend to large crowds of passers-by and regulars, including visitors from around the world, and has become a New York icon. Singer-songwriter is a term that refers to Performers who write, compose and sing their own material including Lyrics David Ippolito is an American Singer/songwriter who lives in New York City. Often he is simply referred to as "That guitar man from Central Park. "
Also each summer, City Parks Foundation offers Central Park Summerstage, a series of free performances including music, dance, spoken word, and film presentations. City Parks Foundation is a New York City -based Non-profit organization dedicated to the improvement and support of urban parks and neighborhoods without access to SummerStage is New York's premiere outdoor concert venue in Central Park ( New York City) founded in 1986 by the Central Park Conservancy its management was transferred SummerStage celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2005, having welcomed emerging artists and world renowned artists over two decades, including Celia Cruz, David Byrne, Curtis Mayfield, Ladysmith Black Mambazo, George Clinton and the P-Funk All Stars, and Nobel Laureate and Pulitzer winner Toni Morrison. Celia Cruz ( October 21 1925 – July 16 2003) was a Cuban salsa singer and was one of the most successful Cuban Curtis Lee Mayfield ( June 3, 1942 – December 26, 1999) was an American soul, R&B, and Funk Ladysmith Black Mambazo is a male choral group from South Africa that sings in the vocal style of Isicathamiya and mbube. P-Funk (also spelled P Funk or P Funk) is a shorthand term for the repertoire and performers associated with George Clinton and the Parliament-Funkadelic Toni Morrison (born Chloe Anthony Wofford on February 18 1931 is a Nobel Prize -winning American author editor and professor
With the revival of the city and the Park in the new century, Central park has given birth to arts groups dedicated to performing in the park, notably Central Park Brass, which performs an annual concert series, and the New York Classical Theatre, which produces an annual series of plays. Central Park Brass is a performing Quintet formed in 2002 to play an annual series of Brass chamber music concerts in New York City ’s Central Park. The New York Classical Theatre, founded in 2001 performs two plays every summer in New York City ’s Central Park and one in Battery Park.
The numerous portrait artists who work in Central Park have been interviewed and documented by Zina Saunders as part of her Overlooked New York project. Zina Saunders (born August 30, 1953) is a Manhattan-based artist-writer best known for Overlooked New York, a collection of interviews profiles and
Central Park is also home to the famed New York City restaurant, Tavern on the Green, which is located on the park's grounds at Central Park West and West 67th Street. Tavern on the Green is a Restaurant located in Central Park on the Upper West Side of New York City, in the United States. Central Park West (CPW is an avenue that runs north-south in the New York City borough of Manhattan, in the United States.
Another offering of Central Park is its boulders. Climbers, especially boulderers, use Manhattan's bedrock, a glaciated metamorphic schist, which protrudes from the ground frequently and quite considerably in some parts of Central Park. Bouldering is a style of Rock climbing undertaken without a rope and normally limited to very short climbs so that a fall will not result in serious injury Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the surface of a terrestrial planet usually the Earth. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. The schists form a group of medium-grade Metamorphic rocks chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar Minerals such as Micas chlorite There are about 5 - 10 spots where climbers congregate and tackle problems. The two most renowned spots are Rat Rock and Cat Rock, both of which sit on the south end of the park. Rat Rock is a Boulder protruding from the Central Park Bedrock in Manhattan. Additionally, there are boulders spread throughout all the way up to 110th Street. 
In addition to its 21 unique playgrounds, Central Park offers dozens of activities for children, including performances by master puppeteers at the historic Swedish Cottage Marionette Theatre. The Swedish Cottage Marionette Theatre in New York's Central Park was originally built as a traditionally-constructed model Schoolhouse of Baltic Fir for The famous Central Park Carousel has thrilled children since the original one was built in 1870.
Though Olmsted disapproved of the clutter of sculptures in the park, a total of twenty-nine sculptures have crept in over the years, most of which have been donated by individuals or organizations (and not the city itself). Much of the first statuary to appear in the park was of authors and poets, clustered along a section of the Mall that became known as Literary Walk. The Central Park Mall leading to the Bethesda Terrace provides the only purely formal feature in the naturalistic original plan of Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert The better-known sculptors represented in Central Park include Augustus Saint-Gaudens and John Quincy Adams Ward. Augustus Saint-Gaudens ( Dublin, March 1, 1848 &ndash Cornish New Hampshire, August 3, 1907) was the Irish John Quincy Adams Ward ( June 29, 1830 – May 1, 1910) was an American sculptor who is most familiar for his over-lifesize standing The "Angel of the Waters" at Bethesda Terrace by Emma Stebbins (1873), was the first large public sculpture commission for an American woman. Bethesda Terrace overlooks The Lake in New York City 's Central Park. Emma Stebbins ( September 1, 1815 - October 25, 1882) was among the first notable American woman sculptors The 1925 statue of the sled dog Balto who became famous during the 1925 serum run to Nome, Alaska is very popular among tourists, reflected in its near polished appearance as the result of being patted by countless visitors. Balto (c 1919 &ndash 14 March, 1933) was a Siberian Husky Sled dog (although some sources incorrectly state that he is an Alaskan Malamute During the 1925 serum run to Nome, also known as the " Great Race of Mercy " 20 mushers and about 150 Sled dogs relayed Diphtheria The oldest sculpture is "Cleopatra's Needle," actually an Egyptian obelisk of Tutmose III much older than Cleopatra, which was donated to New York by the Khedive of Egypt. Cleopatra's Needle ("L'aiguille de Cléopâtre" in French is the popular name for each of three Ancient Egyptian Obelisks re-erected in London An obelisk (from Greek ὀβελίσκος - obeliskos, diminutive of ὀβελός - obelos, "spit nail pointed pillar" Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III and meaning Thoth is Born) was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; January 69 BC &ndash 30 BC was a Hellenistic ruler of Egypt The largest and most impressive is equestrian King Jagiello bronze monument on the east end of Turtle Pond. The King Jagiello Monument is an equestrian monument of king of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław II Jagiełło, located in The Great Lawn and Turtle Pond Central Park occupy the almost flat site of the intractably rectangular thirty-five-acre Lower Reservoir constructed in 1842 which was an unalterable North of Conservatory Water, the sailboat pond, there is a larger-than-life statue of Alice, sitting on a huge mushroom, playing with her cat, while the Hatter and the March Hare look on. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865 is a novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson better known under the Pseudonym Lewis The Hatter is a fictional character initially encountered at a tea party in Lewis Carroll 's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and later again as " The March Hare, often called the Mad March Hare is a character most famous for appearing in the Tea party scene in Lewis Carroll 's Alice's Adventures in A large memorial to Duke Ellington created by sculptor Robert Graham was dedicated in 1997 near Fifth Avenue and 110th Street, in the Duke Ellington Circle. Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington (April 29 1899 &ndash May 24 1974 was an American Composer, Pianist, and Bandleader. Robert Graham (born August 19, 1938, in Mexico City) is a Sculptor based in the state of California in the
For 16 days in 2005 (February 12–27), Central Park was the setting for Christo and Jeanne-Claude's installation, The Gates. Christo (born as Christo Vladimirov Javacheff, Bulgarian: Христо Явашев and Jeanne-Claude (born as Jeanne-Claude Denat de Guillebon The Gates is a site-specific art installation by Christo and Jeanne-Claude. Though the project was the subject of very mixed reactions (and it took many years for Christo and Jeanne-Claude to get the necessary approvals), it was nevertheless a major, if temporary, draw for the park. 
Although often regarded as a kind of oasis of tranquility inside a "city that never sleeps," Central Park was once a very dangerous place — especially after dark — as measured by crime statistics. The park, like most of New York City, is considerably safer today, though during prior periods it was the site of numerous muggings and rapes. Well-publicized incidents of sexual and confiscatory violence, such as the notorious 1989 "Central Park Jogger" case, dissuaded many from visiting one of Manhattan's most scenic areas. Trisha Meili (born June 24, 1960) often described in the media as the Central Park Jogger, was the victim in a high-profile Assault and
As crime has declined in the Park and in the rest of New York City, many negative perceptions have waned, and the use of common sense is enough to reasonably protect visitors from harm. The park has its own New York City Police Department precinct (Central Park Precinct), which employs both regular police and Auxiliary officers. In 2005, such safety measures held the number of crimes in the park — which has more than 25 million visitors annually — to fewer than one hundred per year (down from approximately 1,000 in the early 1980s); this very low crime rate has made Central Park one of the safest urban parks in the world.
Permission to hold issue-centered rallies in Central Park has been met with increasingly stiff resistance from the city. In 2004, the organization United for Peace and Justice wanted to hold a rally on the Great Lawn during the Republican National Convention. United for Peace and Justice ( UFPJ) is a coalition of more than 1300 international and U The City denied UFPJ's application for a permit, stating that such a mass gathering would be harmful to the grass, and that such damage would make it harder to collect private donations to maintain the Park. Courts upheld the refusal.
Since the 1960s, there has been a grassroots campaign to restore the park's loop drives to their original car-free state. Car-free zones (also known as auto-free zones and pedestrian zones) are areas of a city or town in which automobile traffic is prohibited Over the years, the number of car-free hours has increased, though a full closure is currently resisted by the New York City Department of Transportation.
The Central Park Medical Unit is an all-volunteer ambulance service that provides completely free emergency medical service to patrons of Central Park and the surrounding streets. The Central Park Medical Unit ( CPMU) is an all- Volunteer Ambulance service that provides completely free emergency medical service to patrons A volunteer is someone who works for a community or for the benefit of environment primarily because they choose to do so An ambulance is a Vehicle for transporting sick or injured people to from or between places of treatment for an Illness or Injury. A medical emergency is an Injury or Illness that is acute and poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long term health CPMU also operates a rapid-response bike patrol, particularly during major events such as the New York City Marathon, the 1998 Goodwill Games, and concerts in the park. The bicycle, cycle, or bike is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind The New York City Marathon ( ING New York City Marathon for Sponsorship reasons is a major annual marathon (42 The Goodwill Games were an international sports competition created by Ted Turner in reaction to the political troubles surrounding the Olympic Games of the 1980s A concert is a live Performance, usually of Music, before an Audience.
Central Park has one of the largest remaining stands of American Elms in the northeastern U. Ulmus americana, generally known as the American Elm or less commonly as the White Elm or Water Elm, is a species native to eastern S. , 1700 of them, protected by their isolation from Dutch Elm Disease. Dutch elm disease (DED is a fungal disease of Elm trees which is spread by the Elm bark beetle. Central Park was the site of the unfortunate unleashing of starlings in North America (cf. Starlings are small to medium-sized Passerine Birds in the family Sturnidae. Invasive species). Introduced species|Weed Invasive species is a phrase with several definitions Central Park is a popular birding spot during spring and fall migration, when birds flying over Manhattan are attracted to the prominent oasis. Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of Birds with the naked eye or through a visual enhancement device like Binoculars. Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York Over a quarter of all the bird species found in the United States have been seen in Central Park. The Red-tailed hawk known as Pale Male was the object of much attention by the media, the ornithologist-author Marie Winn and other Central Park birdwatchers. Pale Male (born 1991) is a male Red-tailed Hawk who has made his home since the early 1990s in New York City, where he has attracted the widespread attention Marie Winn a journalist author and birdwatcher is known for her books and articles on the birds of Central Park her Wall Street Journal ornithology column and There are 215 bird species in New York City's Central Park. 
In 2002 a new genus and species of centipede was discovered in Central Park. Centipedes (from Latin prefix centi-, "hundred" and Greek ποδός podos, " Foot " are The centipede is about four-tenths of an inch (10 mm) long, making it one of the smallest in the world. It is named Nannarrup hoffmani (after the man who discovered it) and lives in the park's leaf litter, the crumbling organic debris that accumulates under the trees. Nannarrup hoffmani is a species of centipede that was discovered in New York City 's Central Park in 2003
Since the late 1990s, the Central Park Conservancy, the United States Department of Agriculture, and several city and state agencies have been fighting an infestation of the Asian long-horned beetle, which has been reported in Brooklyn, Queens, and Manhattan, including some parts of Central Park. The Asian longhorned beetle ( Anoplophora glabripennis) (ALB sometimes called Starry Sky (Sky Oxen in China beetle is native to China and other areas The beetle, which likely was accidentally shipped from its native China in an untreated shipping crate, has no natural predators in the United States and the fight to contain its infestation has been very expensive. The beetle infests trees by boring a hole in them to deposit its eggs, at which point the only way to end the infestation is to destroy the tree.
On June 11, 2000, following the Puerto Rican Day Parade, gangs of drunken men groped and sexually assaulted women in the park. Events 1184 BC - Trojan War: Troy is sacked and burned according to the calculations of Eratosthenes. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. The Puerto Rican Day Parade (also known as the National Puerto Rican Day Parade) is a locally televised parade that takes place yearly on Fifth Avenue in New York City Several arrests were made shortly after the attacks, but it was not until 2006 that a civil suit against the city for failing to provide police protection was finally settled. , Puerto Rican Day Parade#Incidents, 
The National Geographic Magazine is the official journal of the National Geographic Society.