|Central Intelligence Agency|
Seal of the Central Intelligence Agency
|Formed||July 26, 1947|
|Preceding Agency||Central Intelligence Group|
|Headquarters||Langley, Virginia, United States|
|Minister Responsible||John Michael McConnell, Director of National Intelligence|
|Agency Executives||General Michael Hayden USAF, Director|
Stephen Kappes, Deputy Director
Scott White, Associate Deputy Director
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian intelligence agency of the United States government. An intelligence agency is a governmental agency that is devoted to the Information gathering (known in the context as " intelligence " The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. Its primary function is collecting and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and persons in order to advise public policymakers. Intelligence Collection Management is the process of managing and organizing the collection of intelligence information from various sources This article deals with the roles of processing/analysis in the real-world intelligence cycle as a part of Intelligence cycle management.
Prior to December 2004, the CIA was literally the central intelligence organization for the US government. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 created the office of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), who took over some of the government and intelligence community (IC)-wide function that had previously been under the CIA. The Director of National Intelligence ( DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority direction and control of the President The United States Intelligence Community (IC is a cooperative federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work together to conduct intelligence The DNI manages the United States Intelligence Community and in so doing it manages the intelligence cycle. The United States Intelligence Community (IC is a cooperative federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work together to conduct intelligence This article is at the top level of a series of articles about Intelligence Cycle Management Among the functions that moved to the DNI were the preparation of estimates reflecting the consolidated opinion of the 16 IC agencies, and preparation of briefings for the President.
When discussing the CIA, it is critical to understand when one is speaking of the older IC-wide responsibilities, or its present set of responsibilities. The IC still has internal politics, although an increasing number of interagency "centers", as well as the Intellipedia information sharing mechanism, are hoped to be improvements. Intellipedia is an online system for collaborative data sharing used by the United States Intelligence community (IC
The current CIA still has a number of functions in common with other countries' intelligence agencies; see relationships with foreign intelligence agencies. The agency both collects and analyzes intelligence. The CIA's headquarters is in the community of Langley in the McLean CDP of Fairfax County, Virginia, a few miles west of Washington, D.C. along the Potomac River. This article describes the unincorporated community of Langley in McLean Virginia McLean (pronounced "mick-CLANE") is an Unincorporated community located in Fairfax County in Northern Virginia. A census-designated place ( CDP) is a type of place (a concentration of population identified by the United States Census Bureau for statistical purposes Fairfax County is a county in Northern Virginia, in the United States. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid- Atlantic coast of the United States.
Sometimes, the CIA is referred to euphemistically in government and military parlance as Other Government Agencies (or OGA), particularly when its operations in a particular area are an open secret. A euphemism is a substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener or in the case of doublespeak The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States An idiom is a Phrase whose meaning cannot be deduced from the literal Definition, but refers instead to a figurative meaning that is known only An open secret is a concept or idea (often in but not necessarily limited to government and military circles that is "officially" secret or restricted in knowledge but  Other terms include The Company and The Agency.
The heraldic symbol that comprises the CIA seal consists of three representative parts: the "right"-facing bald eagle head atop,( "right" facing, since the eagle looks over its "right" shoulder, not the left shoulder ) the compass star (or compass rose), and the shield. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. A seal can mean a wax seal bearing an impressed figure or an embossed figure in paper with the purpose of authenticating a document but the term can also mean any device for A compass, magnetic compass or mariner's compass is a navigational instrument for determining direction relative to the earth's Magnetic poles It consists For Compass Airlines an Airline in the US using the Callsign "Compass Rose" See Compass Airlines A compass rose is a figure displaying the orientation The eagle is the national bird, standing for strength and alertness. Eagles are large birds of prey which are members of the Bird order Falconiformes and family Accipitridae, and belong to several genera The 16-point compass star represents the CIA's world-wide search for intelligence outside the United States, which is then reported to the headquarters for analysis, reporting, and re-distribution to policymakers. The compass rests upon a shield, symbolic of defense. 
The CIA has an executive office, four major directorates, and a variety of specialized offices. Prior to the creation of the Office of the Director of National Intelligences, it had some additional responsibilities for the IC as a whole.
Previously, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) oversaw the Intelligence Community (IC), serving as the president's principal intelligence advisor, additionally serving as head of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Office of United States Director of Central Intelligence (DCI was established by U The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 amended the National Security Act to provide for a Director of National Intelligence who would assume some of the roles formerly fulfilled by the DCI, with a separate Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Director of National Intelligence ( DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority direction and control of the President The DCI's title now is "Director of the Central Intelligence Agency" (DCIA), serving as head of the CIA.
Currently, the Central Intelligence Agency answers directly to the Director of National Intelligence, although the CIA Director may brief the President directly. The CIA has its budget approved by the Congress, a subset of which do see the line items. The intelligence community, however, does not take direct orders from the Congress. The National Security Advisor is a permanent member of the National Security Council, responsible for briefing the President with pertinent information collected by all 16 U. The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Adviser (abbreviated NSA, or sometimes ANSA A National Security Council (NSC is usually an Executive branch governmental body responsible for coordinating policy on national security issues and advising chief S. Intelligence Community agencies are under the policy, but not necessarily budgetary, authority of the Director of National Intelligence. The United States Intelligence Community (IC is a cooperative federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work together to conduct intelligence
The effect of the personalities of the DCIs on the structure and behavior of the Agency and indeed the IC is analyzed in Painter's dissertation on "Early Leader Effects" of Donovan, Dulles and Hoover
Until the creation of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), the Director of the CIA met regularly with the President to issue daily reports on ongoing operations. The Director of National Intelligence ( DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority direction and control of the President After the creation of the post of DNI, currently Mike McConnell, the report is now given by the DNI—who oversees all US Intelligence activities, including intelligence community operations outside of CIA jurisdiction. Hon John Michael "Mike" McConnell (born July 26, 1943) has served as the United States Director of National Intelligence since Former CIA Director Porter Goss, who had been a CIA officer, denied this has had a diminishing effect on morale, but promoted his mission to reform the CIA into the lean and agile counter-terrorism focused force he believes it should be. Porter Johnston Goss (born December 10 1938) is an American politician, who was the last Director of Central Intelligence and the first 
A Deputy Director of the CIA (DDCIA) Assists the Director in his duties as head of the CIA and exercises the powers of the Director when the Director’s position is vacant or in the Director’s absence or disability. The Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (DD/CIA is a senior United States government official in the U Either the Director or Deputy Director may be a military officer, but both positions may not be filled, at the same time, by military officers.
On July 5, 2006, the position of Executive Director, who managed day-to-day operations and budget, was replaced with an Associate Deputy Director of the CIA (ADD)
As the DCIA's principal adviser and representative on military issues, the Associate Director for Military Support (AD/MS), a senior general officer, coordinates CIA efforts to provide Joint Force commanders, who are principally consumers of national-level intelligence but producers of operational intelligence. The AD/MS also supports Department of Defense officials who oversee military intelligence training and the acquisition of intelligence systems and technology. John A. Gordon was the first AD/MS, before the creation of ODNI. General John Alexander Gordon (born August 22 1946 in Jefferson City Missouri) was deputy director of central intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency There is also an Associate Deputy Director for Operations for Military Affairs (ADDO/MA) 
The Office of Military Affairs provides intelligence and operational support to the US armed forces. 
President George W. Bush, in creating the National Clandestine Service (NCS), made it clear policy that the CIA to be in charge of all human intelligence (HUMINT) operations. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. HUMINT, a syllabic abbreviation of the words HUMan INTelligence refers to intelligence gathering by means of interpersonal contact as opposed to the more technical NCS, (formerly the Directorate of Operations, and earlier the "Directorate of Plans"), collects clandestine human intelligence collection, and conducts deniable psychological and paramilitary operations. This article is a subset article under Human Intelligence. For a complete hierarchical list of articles see the intelligence cycle management hierarchy  Creation of the NCS was the culmination of a years old turf war regarding influence, philosophy and budget between the United States Department of Defense and the CIA. The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government The Pentagon, through the DIA, wanted to take control of the CIA's paramilitary operations and many of its human assets. A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force but which are not regarded as having the same status DoD had organized the Defense HUMINT Service, which, with the Presidential decision, became part of the NCS.
The CIA, which has for years held that human intelligence is the core of the agency, successfully argued that the CIA's decades long experience with human resources and civilian oversight made it the ideal choice. Thus, the CIA was given charge of all US human intelligence, but as a compromise, the Pentagon was authorized to include increased paramilitary capabilities in future budget requests. The military is also authorized to run Counterintelligence Force Protection Source Operations, which are directly related to the protection of military forces and facility. This article is a subset article of Intelligence cycle security. Another HUMINT area that remains with DoD is direct support to special operations, by an organization, originally called the Intelligence Support Activity (ISA), which is a special access program (i. The US Army Intelligence Support Activity ( USAISA, frequently shortened to Intelligence Support Activity or ISA, and nicknamed The Activity) e. , separate from sensitive compartmented intelligence activities that must be reported to the Congressional intelligence committees). ISA and its successors transferred to the United States Special Operations Command, where their classified names and special access program designations are changed frequently. The United States Special Operations Command ( USSOCOM or SOCOM) is the Unified Combatant Command charged with overseeing the various Special Operations 
The Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities (TENCAP) program is a system of making national intelligence available to warfighters.  TENCAP information most commonly comes from space-based and national-level aircraft programs, where CIA's responsibilities have moved, in many cases, to NRO, NSA, NGA, and DIA. Nevertheless, CIA still can serve such information, with the emphasis on HUMINT, and on technical sensors that need to be emplaced clandestinely in denied areas.
A great sensitivity remains about CIA having domestic responsibilities, but it clearly will, on occasions, collect information outside the US that relates directly to domestic security. CIA, for example, is more likely to obtain HUMINT on terrorists than the very limited foreign resources of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) or Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
While DHS, like the military, is seen principally as a consumer of national intelligence, but its border and transportation security functions will produce intelligence. At present, however, there is no well-defined way for DHS to task intelligence collection agencies with its requirements. One proposal suggests using the AD/MS as a prototype, to create an AD/Homeland Security in the CIA, and possibly an equivalent position in the Justice Department, which, through the FBI and other agencies, legally collects domestic intelligence.  This proposal is one of many to improve coordination and avoid intelligence failures caused by not "connecting the dots", when the dots are held by different agencies.
Prior to 2004, CIA had two analytic roles: the main effort based in the Directorate of Intelligence, which used internal experts to analyze data collected by the CIA, National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the military collection organizations, and other parts of the intelligence community. The National Reconnaissance Office ( NRO) located in Chantilly Many of these reports were on current subjects, such as the status of a revolutionary group, or the technical details of a new Chinese factory.
Another function, however, was preparing "estimates", which try to predict the future. This article is part of a series on Intelligence cycle management, and deals with the dissemination of processed intelligence Estimates are a product of the intelligence community as a whole. National Intelligence Estimates were the most extensively coordinated documents, often that could be scheduled on a regular basis, such as a regular report on Soviet intentions. Special National Intelligence Estimates (SNIE) were quick-response publications, often providing guidance in a crisis, but were still interagency consensus rather than CIA alone.
CIA had a separate and prestigious office, going by different names and organizations, such as the Office of National Estimates, Board of National Estimates, or a set of National Intelligence Officers, which would seek out the consensus of all the intelligence agencies, and then have some of the most senior analysts write a draft. The idea of such estimates is often credited to Sherman Kent,sometimes called the father of US intelligence analysis, with special emphasis on the production of estimates. Sherman Kent, ( December 6, 1903 - March 11, 1986) was a Yale University history professor who during World War II pioneered This function is now in the National Intelligence Council of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.  Originally defined in 1950, this responsibility stated "CIA is now in the business of producing what are called National Intelligence Estimates (NIE) along the lines laid down in NSC 50. These papers are interdepartmental in character, designed to focus all available intelligence on a problem of importance to the national security. " In the early days of the process, CIA used the State Department's intelligence staff for drafting the NIEs, but a "small top level Office of National Estimates" was set up to integrate the departmental drafts. A senior CIA analyst responsible for the document would work out differences. There is also a process by which an agency can disagree with a comment called a "reclama", which is a footnote expressing an alternate position. For an example of such dissents, see Special National Intelligence Estimate 10-9-65 in CIA activities in Asia and the Pacific#Vietnam 1965: Viet Cong and DRV Reactions, where there are dissents to various parts from all or part of the military, and from the Department of State. See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U
Upon approval by an interagency review committee, the paper becomes a NIE and is sent by the Director of Central Intelligence to the President, appropriate officers of Cabinet level, and the NSC. 
The "DI" is the analytical branch of the CIA, responsible for the production and dissemination of all-source intelligence analysis on key foreign issues. This article deals with the roles of processing/analysis in the real-world intelligence cycle as a part of Intelligence cycle management. . While it has, like most government agencies, reorganized over the years, its current structure has four regional analytic groups, six groups for transnational issues, and two support units.  Prior to the formation of the office of the Director of National Intelligence, the President's Daily Brief was prepared by the CIA Office of Current Intelligence. The President's Daily Brief ( PDB) sometimes incorrectly referred to as the President's Daily Briefing or the President's Daily Bulletin, is a top-secret
Some open source intelligence OSINT, such as the Foreign Broadcast Information Service, were, at different times, part of the Directorate of Intelligence or the Directorate of Science & Technology. This article is a subset article in a series under Intelligence collection management. Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS is an Open source intelligence component of the CIA 's Directorate of Science and Technology that monitors translates Along with other OSINT functions, the National Open Source Enterprise is now in the ODNI. The National Open Source Enterprise was established by Assistant Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Open Source (ADDNI/OS Eliot A
There is an Office dedicated to Iraq. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. In addition, there are regional analytical Offices covering:
The Office of Terrorism Analysis, which supports the National Counterterrorism Center, in the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. B Syria - Belka Woman from Damascus Arab from Baghdadjpg|thumb|Inhabitants of the Near East late nineteenth century North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions The National Counterterrorism Center ( NCTC) is a United States government organization responsible for national and international counterterrorism efforts The Director of National Intelligence ( DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority direction and control of the President
The Office of Transnational Issues applies unique functional expertise to assess existing and emerging threats to US national security and provides the most senior US policymakers, military planners, and law enforcement with analysis, warning, and crisis support.
The CIA Crime and Narcotics Center researches information on international narcotics trafficking and organized crime for policymakers and the law enforcement community. The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. Since the CIA has no domestic police authority, it sends its analytic information to the FBI and other law enforcement organizations, such as the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) is a United States Department of Justice Law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and
The Weapons, Intelligence, Nonproliferation, and Arms Control Center provides intelligence support deals with national and non-national threats, as well as supporting threat reduction/arms control. This works with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (or DTRA) is an agency within the United States Department of Defense (DoD created "to safeguard America and its interests
Again cooperating with the FBI for domestic activity, the Counterintelligence Center Analysis Group identifies, monitors, and analyzes the efforts of foreign intelligence entities, both national and non-national, against US interests.
The Information Operations Center Analysis Group evaluates foreign threats to US computer systems, particularly those that support critical infrastructures. It works with critical infrastructure protection organizations in the United States Department of Defense (e. The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government g. , CERT Coordination Center) and the Department of Homeland Security (e. The CERT Coordination Center was created by DARPA in November 1988 after the Morris worm struck g. , United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team)
The Office of Collection Strategies and Analysis provides comprehensive intelligence collection expertise to the DI, a wide range of senior Agency and Intelligence Community officials, and key national policymakers. The United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT is part of the National Cyber Security Division of the United States 's Department of Homeland Security
The Office of Policy Support customizes DI analysis and presents it to a wide variety of policy, law enforcement, military, and foreign liaison recipients.
The National Clandestine Service, a semi-independent service which was formerly the Directorate of Operations, is responsible for collection of foreign intelligence, principally from clandestine HUMINT sources, and covert action. The National Clandestine Service ( NCS) is the main United States Intelligence agency for coordinating human intelligence (HUMINT services The National Clandestine Service ( NCS) is the main United States Intelligence agency for coordinating human intelligence (HUMINT services This article is a subset article under Human Intelligence. For a complete hierarchical list of articles see the intelligence cycle management hierarchy A covert operation is a Military or political activity carried out in such a way that the parties responsible for the action can be an Open secret, but The new name reflects its having absorbed the Defense HUMINT Service, which did strategic human intelligence HUMINT collection for the Department of Defense (DoD). HUMINT, a syllabic abbreviation of the words HUMan INTelligence refers to intelligence gathering by means of interpersonal contact as opposed to the more technical HUMINT directly related to military missions remains under the DoD. Note that there is an open source function in the office of the Director of National Intelligence, which may be taking over certain legal interviews in the US that previously were the Domestic Contact Division (or Domestic Contact Service). The Director of National Intelligence ( DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority direction and control of the President
While the NCS organization chart has not been published, although there have been prior descriptions of the Directorate of Plans or the Directorate of Operations, a fairly recent organization chart of the Defense HUMINT Service will indicate functions transferred into the NCS, and may well be fairly close to the overall NCS organizational structure. 
There are references to earlier structures in various historical documents. For example, in a CIA paper on the internal probe into the Bay of Pigs, there are several comments on the Directorate of Plans organizational structure in 1962. For the United States invasion at the Bay of Pigs see Bay of Pigs Invasion. Even though any large organization will constantly reorganize, the basic functions will stay and can be a clue to future organization.
At the top level, Deputy Director for Plans Richard Bissell had two Assistant Deputy Directors, C. Tracy Barnes and Richard Helms. Richard Mervin Bissell Jr ( September 18, 1909 &ndash February 7, 1994) was an American intelligence officer Tracy Barnes (1911 - 1972 was a senior staff member at the United States' Central Intelligence Agency (CIA serving as first head of the agency's Domestic Operations Division Richard McGarrah Helms ( March 30, 1913 &ndash October 23, 2002) was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI from 1966 to 1973 Warner explains "operational details fell to Branch 4 (Cuba) of the DDP's Western Hemisphere Division (WH)", with some exceptions. Jacob Esterline, chief of the Cuba Branch, reported directly to Bissell and Barnes rather than to his division chief, J. C. King "although King was regularly informed and often consulted. To confuse matters still further, Branch 4 had no direct control over the Brigade's aircraft, which were managed by a separate DDP division that also took some orders directly from Deputy Director of Central Intelligence (DDCI) Charles P. Cabell, a US Air Force general who liked to keep his hand in the planning of airdrops and other missions," Air operations, therefore, were in a separate division either for covert support, paramilitary operations, or both.
Cuba Branch had a "Foreign Intelligence Section," foreign intelligence being a term of art for HUMINT. The branch, however, established "a separate "G-2" unit subordinate to its Paramilitary Section, which planned the actual invasion. This gives us the model of a geographic branch with subordinate sections, at least, for intelligence collection and paramilitary actions.
Warner's paper also mentions that certain DDP groups were outside the scope of the post-mortem by Executive Director Lyman Kirkpatrick, but their mention tells us that these were representative components of the DDP: ". Lyman Kirkpatrick (1916-1995 served as Inspector general and Executive director of the CIA. . . the Havana station or the Santiago base, the development of foreign intelligence assets and liaison contacts, Division D's technical collection programs, or counter-intelligence work against the Cuban services. " CIA "stations" are the parts of the embassy with officers under diplomatic cover, in a typical diplomatic office building. "Bases", however, are large facilities for supporting operations, typically with an airfield, secure warehouses, barracks and training areas. Division D was the joint CIA-NSA collection effort, where CIA would use clandestine operations personnel to emplace NSA SIGINT sensors. The reference to counter-intelligence work appears to refer to a main counterintelligence division, presumably the Counterintelligence Staff under James Jesus Angleton. James Jesus Angleton (December 9 1917 &ndash May 12 1987 known to colleagues as Jim and nicknamed "the Kingfisher" was a long-serving chief of the Central Intelligence
The Directorate of Science & Technology creates and applies innovative technology in support of the intelligence collection mission. See also Central Intelligence Agency The Directorate of Science and Technology is the branch of the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA charged See also Central Intelligence Agency The Directorate of Science and Technology is the branch of the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA charged  The CIA has always shown a strong interest in how to use advances in technology to enhance its effectiveness.  This interest in modern technology came from two main aims: firstly, to harness these techniques its own use, and second to counter any new technologies the Soviets might develop. This effort gained impetus in the fifties with the launch of the Sputnik satellite by the USSR. The agency was also extremely interested in computer and information technology. Information technology ( IT) as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA is "the study design development implementation support In 1999, CIA created the venture capital firm In-Q-Tel to help fund and develop technologies of interest to the agency. In-Q-Tel of Arlington Virginia United States is a not-for-profit Venture capital firm that invests in high-tech companies for the sole purpose of keeping the 
Its website mentions its priorities being in:
In January 2008, its featured collaboration was with Streambase Systems, makers of a "high-performance Complex Event Processing (CEP) software platform for real-time and historical analysis of high-volume intelligence data," using a new processing paradigm for Structured Query Language (SQL), allowing queries against multiple real-time data streams still updating the data base.
The Directorate of Support provides necessary "housekeeping" administration functions, but in a manner consistent with the need to keep their details protected. These functions include personnel, security, communications, and financial operations. Most of this Directorate is sub-structured into smaller offices based on role and purpose, such as the CIA Office of Security, which is concerned both with personnel and physical security. Other major offices include the CIA Office of Communications and the Office of Information Technology.
Under the original NSC 10/2 authorization, CIA was made responsible not just for covert action during the cold war, but for such action during major wars, in collaboration with the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Joint Chiefs of Staff ( JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the Armed services in the United States armed forces When DCI Smith created the Directorate of Plans and ended the autonomy of the OPC and OSO, he recognized it was necessary to establish logistical support for these operations before the start of a hot war. Smith did not want to duplicate existing military support systems, and proposed, in 1952, that the CIA should be able to draw, on a reimbursable basis, on military supply stocks. In many respects, this was the beginning of the idea that what was to become the Directorate of Support had a far wider scope than the OSS and initial CIA term, Directorate of Administration.
Smith presented the concept that the CIA would need a worldwide system of support bases, which usually could be tenant organizations on military bases. According to Smith's memo,
A major logistical support base will consist of a CIA base headquarters, training, communications, medical accommodation for evacuees and storage for six months’ hot war requirements as well as provide logistical support for CIA operational groups or headquarters. . . Informal planning along the lines indicated has been carried out by elements of CIA with . . . the Joint Chiefs of Staff . . .
The CIA was expected to reimburse "extraordinary expenses" incurred by the military services. 
While military transportation might be appropriate for some purposes, there would be cases where the arrival of a military aircraft at a location other than a military base might draw undue attention. This was the origin of the idea of the CIA operating proprietary airlines, whose relationship to the US government would not be public.  Among these organizations were airlines that provided covert logistical support, such as Civil Air Transport, Southern Air Transport, and consolidated them into Air America. Civil Air Transport (CAT was a Chinese airline later owned by the CIA, that supported United States Covert operation throughout East and Southern Air Transport was the name of two Airlines in the United States. Air America was an American passenger and cargo airline covertly owned and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA from 1950 to 1976 The latter was heavily involved in support with the war in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam in the 1960s.
This directorate includes the Office of Training, which starts with a Junior Officer Training program for new employees. So that the initial course might be taken by employees who had not received final security clearance and thus were not permitted unescorted access to the Headquarters building, a good deal of basic training has been given at office buildings in the urban areas of Arlington, Virginia.
It is known, although not acknowledged by the U. S. Government, that the CIA runs at least two operations training facilities.  One is known as The Farm, at Camp Peary, Virginia. Camp Peary is a military reservation in York County near Williamsburg Virginia. The other is known as The Point at Harvey Point, North Carolina. The Harvey Point Defense Testing Activity facility owned by the Department of Defense, is located on a peninsula in Perquimans County North Carolina along the Albemarle Sound While the course outline has never been revealed, it is believed to include such things as surveillance, countersurveillance, cryptography, paramilitary training as well as other tradecraft. Surveillance is the monitoring of Behavior. Systems surveillance is the process of monitoring the behavior of people objects or processes within systems for conformity Countersurveillance refers to measures undertaken to prevent Surveillance, including Covert surveillance. Cryptography (or cryptology; from Greek grc κρυπτός kryptos, "hidden secret" and grc γράφω gráphō, "I write" The course seems to be about less than a year and runs at irregular intervals depending on circumstances. Operations training is delivered by experienced operations officers.
Student progress is monitored by experienced evaluators that meet to discuss a recruit's progress and have the power to dismiss a recruit even before his or her training is complete. Evaluation techniques for the CIA's World War II predecessor, the OSS, were published as the book Assessment of Men, Selection of Personnel for the office of Strategic Services.  See Roger Hall's You're Stepping on my Cloak and Dagger for an accurate but amusing account of Hall's OSS duty, which included finding unexpected solutions to things in the assessment process as well as his experience in real operations.  He described a specific assessment period at a rural facility called "Station S". Hall said he tried to find out why it was called Station S, and finally decided the reason was that "assess" has more "S" letters than any other.
Psychological stress is part of operations training, but of a different type than military special operations force evaluation, such as the Navy SEAL Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL course or Army Special Forces Assessment and Selection. For instance, an operations training officer will often lie to a recruit saying they have evidence that will result in the recruit to be arrested and tried for felony crimes. This is a test of the recruit's ability to maintain a cover under stress.
Contrary to popular belief or what is seen in film and television series, American-born, professional employees trained to work for the National Clandestine Service (CIA) are never referred to as "secret agents", "spies", "agents" or "special agents", they are known as 'Operations Officers' or 'Case Officers', or Officer for short. To highlight this point: within the intelligence community, the equivalent of an FBI Special Agent is a CIA Officer. Within the law enforcement community, the equivalent of a CIA 'agent' is an FBI informant. There does not exist any working title or job position known as 'CIA Agent', agents of the CIA are usually always foreigners who choose to betray their own country by passing along secret information to the government through CIA Case Officers, who are posted at U. S. embassies worldwide. 
These CIA Case Officers recruit foreign agents, known as 'assets', to give information to the CIA. There are a wide range of motivations for a person to become an asset; see CIA Case Officers are normally sent abroad under a cover identity, most commonly as a diplomat but sometimes under "nonofficial cover" using an assumed identity and having no immunity. This article is a subset article under Human Intelligence. For a complete hierarchical list of articles see the intelligence cycle management hierarchy The Clandestine HUMINT page dealt with the functions which that discipline can serve including espionage and active counterintelligence were presented 
One of the CIA's best-known publications, The World Factbook, is in the public domain and is made freely available without copyright restrictions because it is a work of the United States federal government. The World Factbook ( ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for 
CIA's Center for the Study of Intelligence maintains the Agency's historical materials and promotes the study of intelligence as a legitimate and serious discipline.  The CIA since 1955 has published an in-house professional journal known as Studies in Intelligence that addresses historical, operational, doctrinal, and theoretical aspects of the intelligence profession. The Center also publishes unclassified and declassified Studies articles, as well as other books and monographs. A monograph ( Classical Greek, "One Writer" or "Single Writing") is a work of writing upon a single subject usually also by a single  A further annotated collection of Studies articles was published through Yale University Press under the title Inside CIA's Private World: Declassified Articles from the Agency's Internal Journal, 1955-1992. Yale University Press is a book Publisher founded in 1908. It became an official department of Yale University in 1961, but remained 
In 2002, CIA's Sherman Kent School for Intelligence Analysis began publishing the unclassified Kent Center Occasional Papers, aiming to offer "an opportunity for intelligence professionals and interested colleagues—in an unofficial and unfettered vehicle—to debate and advance the theory and practice of intelligence analysis. This article deals with the intellectual process of analysis itself as opposed to Intelligence analysis management, which in turn is a subcomponent of Intelligence "
Two offices advise the Director on legality and proper operations. The Office of the General Counsel advises the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency on all legal matters relating to his role as CIA director and is the principal source of legal counsel for the CIA. A general counsel is the chief Lawyer of a legal department usually in a corporation or government department 
The Office of Inspector General promotes efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability in the administration of Agency activities. In a civilian or military administration an Inspector General is a high ranking official charged with the mission to inspect and report on some bodies in their field of competency OIG also seeks to prevent and detect fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement. The Inspector General is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The Inspector General, whose activities are independent of those of any other component in the Agency, reports directly to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. OIG conducts inspections, investigations, and audits at Headquarters and in the field, and oversees the Agency-wide grievance-handling system. The OIG provides a semiannual report to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency which the Director is required by law to submit to the Intelligence Committees of Congress within 30 days.
In February 2008, the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Michael V. Hayden, sent a message to employees that Inspector General John L. Director of the Central Intelligence Agency ( D/CIA) serves as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, which is part of the United States Intelligence Michael Vincent Hayden, (born March 17, 1945 in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania) was a United States Air Force four-star general and is the Helgerson will accept increased control over the investigations by that office, saying "John has chosen to take a number of steps to heighten the efficiency, assure the quality and increase the transparency of the investigation process".  The Washington Post suggested this was a response to senior officials who believe the OIG has been too aggressive in looking into counterterrorism programs, including detention programs. The changes were the result of an investigation, begun in April 2007, by one of Hayden's assistants, Robert L. Deitz.  There was congressional concern that restrictions on the OIG might have a chilling effect on its effectiveness. Senator Ron Wyden , a Democratic member of the Intelligence Committee, did not disagree with any of Hayden's actions, said the inquiry “should never have happened and can’t be allowed to happen again. A senate is a Deliberative body, often the Upper house or chamber of a Legislature or Parliament. Ronald Lee Wyden (born May 3, 1949) is an American politician ”. . . “I’m all for the inspector general taking steps that help C. I. A. employees understand his processes, but that can be done without an approach that can threaten the inspector general’s independence
The Office of Public Affairs advises the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency on all media, public policy, and employee communications issues relating to his role as CIA director and is the CIA’s principal communications focal point for the media, the general public and Agency employees. Public relations (PR is the practice of managing the flow of Information between an Organization and its Publics Public relations - often referred  See CIA influence on public opinion. At various times under its own authority or in accordance with directives from the President or White House/National Security Council staff the Central Intelligence Agency has attempted
The CIA acts as the primary American HUMINT and general analytic agency, under the Director of National Intelligence, who directs or coordinates the 16 member organizations of the United States Intelligence Community. The Director of National Intelligence ( DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority direction and control of the President The United States Intelligence Community (IC is a cooperative federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work together to conduct intelligence It obtains information from other U. S. government intelligence agencies, commercial information sources, and foreign intelligence services.
A number of those organizations are fully or partially under the budgetary control of the United States Secretary of Defense or other cabinet officers such as the Attorney General of the United States. The United States Secretary of Defense ( SECDEF) is the head of the U The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement
As do other analytic members of the U. S. intelligence community such as the Department of State's Bureau of Intelligence and Research and the analytic division of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), its raw input includes imagery intelligence IMINT collected by air and space systems of the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) processed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), signal intelligence SIGINT of the National Security Agency (NSA), and measurement and signature intelligence MASINT from the DIA MASINT center. The Bureau of Intelligence and Research ( INR) is an intelligence bureau in the U IMINT, short for IM agery INT elligence is an intelligence gathering discipline which collects information via satellite and Aerial photography The National Reconnaissance Office ( NRO) located in Chantilly The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency ( NGA) is an agency of the United States Government with the primary mission of collection analysis and The National Security Agency/ Central Security Service ( NSA/CSS) is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States government Measurement and Signature Intelligence, or MASINT, refers to intelligence gathering activities that bring together disparate elements that do not fit within the
Until the 2004 reorganization of the intelligence community, one of the "services of common concern" that CIA provided was OSINT from the Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS). This article is a subset article in a series under Intelligence collection management. Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS is an Open source intelligence component of the CIA 's Directorate of Science and Technology that monitors translates  FBIS, which had absorbed the Joint Publication Research Service, a military organization that translated documents, which moved into the National Open Source Enterprise under the Director of National Intelligence. The National Open Source Enterprise was established by Assistant Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Open Source (ADDNI/OS Eliot A The Director of National Intelligence ( DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority direction and control of the President
CIA still provides a variety of unclassified maps and reference documents both to the intelligence community and the public. 
As part of its mandate to gather intelligence, CIA is looking increasingly online for information, and has become a major consumer of social media. "We're looking at YouTube, which carries some unique and honest-to-goodness intelligence," said Doug Naquin, director of the DNI Open Source Center (OSC) at CIA. The Director of National Intelligence Open Source Center (OSC is a United States government center that provides analysis of open source materials including Gray literature "We're looking at chat rooms and things that didn't exist five years ago, and trying to stay ahead. "
In a trend some find disturbing, many of duties and functions of Intelligence Community activities, not the CIA alone, are being "outsourced" and "privatized. " Mike McConnell, Director of National Intelligence, was about to publicize an investigation report of outsourcing by U. Hon John Michael "Mike" McConnell (born July 26, 1943) has served as the United States Director of National Intelligence since Outsourcing is Subcontracting a process such as product design or Manufacturing, to a Third-party company S. intelligence agencies, as required by Congress.  However, this report was then classified.  Hillhouse speculates that this report includes requirements for the CIA to report:
Congress has required an outsourcing report by March 30, 2008. 
The Director of National Intelligence has been granted the authority to increase the number of positions (FTEs) on elements in the Intelligence Community by up to 10% should there be a determination that activities performed by a contractor should be done by a US government employee.
Part of the contracting problem comes from Congressional restrictions on the number of employees in the IC. According to Hillhouse, this resulted in0% of the de facto workforce of the CIA's National Clandestine Service being made up of contractors. "After years of contributing to the increasing reliance upon contractors, Congress is now providing a framework for the conversion of contractors into federal government employees--more or less. "
As with most government agencies, building equipment often is contracted. The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), responsible for the development and operation of airborne and spaceborne sensors, long was a joint operation of the CIA and the United States Department of Defense. The National Reconnaissance Office ( NRO) located in Chantilly The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government NRO had been significantly involved in the design of such sensors, but the NRO, then under DCI authority, contracted more of the design that had been their tradition, and to a contractor without extensive reconnaissance experience, Boeing. The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E
Some of the cost problems associated with intelligence come from one agency, or even a group within an agency, not accepting the compartmented security practices for individual projects, requiring expensive duplication. 
Many intelligence services cooperate. There may even be a deniable communications channel with ostensibly hostile nations.
The role and functions of the CIA are roughly equivalent to those of the United Kingdom's Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS), the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki) (SVR), the foreign french intelligence service DGSE Direction Général de la Surveillance du Territoire ( Directorate-General for External Security) and Israel's Mossad. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Secret Intelligence Service ( SIS) colloquially known as MI6 is the United Kingdom 's external Intelligence agency. The Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS is the Australian government Intelligence agency responsible for collecting foreign intelligence undertaking counter-intelligence The Canadian Security Intelligence Service ( CSIS) (Service canadien du renseignement de sécurité ( SCRS) is the primary Intelligence agency of the Foreign Intelligence Service ( Russian: Служба Внешней Разведки (or SVR) is Russia 's primary external intelligence agency For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The Mossad ( HaMossad leModi'in v'leTafkidim Meyuhadim) (המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים - Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations While the preceding agencies both collect and analyze information, some like the US State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research are purely analytical agencies. The Bureau of Intelligence and Research ( INR) is an intelligence bureau in the U See List of intelligence agencies. The following is a partial list of current intelligence agencies.
The closest links of the US IC to other foreign intelligence agencies are Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. There is a special communications marking that signals that an intelligence-related messages can be shared with these four countries.  An indication of the United States' close operational cooperation is the creation of a new message distribution label within the main US military communications network. Previously, the marking of NOFORN (i. e. , No Foreign Nationals) required the originator to specify which, if any, non-US countries could receive the information. A new handling caveat, USA/AUS/CAN/GBR/NZL Eyes Only, used primarily on intelligence messages, gives an easier way to indicate that the material can be shared with Australia, Canada, Great Britain, and New Zealand.
The Central Intelligence Agency was created by Congress with National Security Act of 1947, signed into law by President Harry S. Truman. The National Security Act of 1947, Pub L No 235 80 Cong 61 Stat It is the descendant of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) of World War II, which was dissolved in October 1945 and its functions transferred to the State and War Departments. The Office of Strategic Services ( OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Eleven months earlier, in 1944, William J. Donovan, the OSS's creator, proposed to President Franklin D. Roosevelt creating a new organization directly supervised by the President: "which will procure intelligence both by overt and covert methods and will at the same time provide intelligence guidance, determine national intelligence objectives, and correlate the intelligence material collected by all government agencies. "Wild Bill Donovan" redirects here For the Baseball Pitcher and manager see William Edward Donovan. " Under his plan, a powerful, centralized civilian agency would have coordinated all the intelligence services. He also proposed that this agency have authority to conduct "subversive operations abroad," but "no police or law enforcement functions, either at home or abroad. "
CIA personnel have died on duty, some in accidents and some by deliberate hostile action. On the memorial wall at CIA headquarters, some of the stars have no name attached, because it would reveal the identity of a clandestine officer. Both the OSS and its British counterparts, as do other agencies worldwide, struggle with finding the right organizational balance among clandestine intelligence collection, counterintelligence, and covert action. See Clandestine HUMINT and Covert Action for a historical perspective on this problem. National governments deal in both intelligence and military Special operations functions that either should be completely secret (i These issues also bear on the reasons that, in the history below, some "eras" overlap. Also see the Wikipedia article Director of Central Intelligence, which contains an expanded history of CIA by director; the priorities and personalities of individual directors have had a strong influence on Agency operations. The Office of United States Director of Central Intelligence (DCI was established by U
The Office of Strategic Services, which was the first independent US intelligence agency, created for the Second World War, was broken up shortly after the end of the war, by President Truman, on September 20, 1945. The Office of Strategic Services ( OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. The rapid reorganizations that followed reflected the routine sort of bureaucratic competition for resources, but also trying to deal with the proper relationships of clandestine intelligence collection and covert action (i. e. , paramilitary and psychological operations). See Clandestine HUMINT and Covert Action for a more detailed history of this problem, which was not unique to the US during and after World War II. National governments deal in both intelligence and military Special operations functions that either should be completely secret (i In October 1945, the functions of the OSS were split between the Departments of State and War:
|New Unit||Oversight||OSS Functions Absorbed|
|Strategic Services Unit (SSU)||War Department||Secret Intelligence (SI) (i. The Strategic Services Unit was an Intelligence agency of the United States government which existed in the immediate post- World War II period e. , clandestine intelligence collection) and Counter-espionage (X-2)|
|Interim Research and Intelligence Service (IRIS)||State Department||Research and Analysis Branch (i. e. , intelligence analysis)|
|Psychological Warfare Division (PWD) (not uniquely for former OSS)||War Department, Army General Staff||Staff officers from Operational Groups, Operation Jedburgh, Morale Operations (black propaganda)|
This division lasted only a few months. Jedburgh was an operation in World War II in which men from the British Special Operations Executive, the U Despite opposition from the military establishment, the United States Department of State and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), President Truman established the Central Intelligence Group (CIG) in January 1946 which was the direct predecessor to the CIA.  The CIG was an interim authority established under Presidential authority. The assets of the SSU, which now constituted a streamlined "nucleus" of clandestine intelligence was transferred to the CIG in mid-1946 and reconstituted as the Office of Special Operations (OSO).
In September 1947, the National Security Act of 1947 established both the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency. The National Security Act of 1947, Pub L No 235 80 Cong 61 Stat The White House National Security Council ( NSC) in the United States is the principal forum used by the President for considering National  Rear Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter was appointed as the first Director of Central Intelligence. Roscoe Henry Hillenkoetter ( May 8, 1897 &ndash June 18, 1982) born in St The Office of United States Director of Central Intelligence (DCI was established by U
The National Security Council Directive on Office of Special Projects, June 18, 1948 (NSC 10/2) further gave the CIA the authority to carry out covert operations "against hostile foreign states or groups or in support of friendly foreign states or groups but which are so planned and conducted that any US Government responsibility for them is not evident to unauthorized persons. Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. "
In 1949, the Central Intelligence Agency Act (Public Law 81-110) authorized the agency to use confidential fiscal and administrative procedures, and exempting it from most of the usual limitations on the use of Federal funds. The Central Intelligence Agency Act,, is a United States federal law enacted in 1949 Public law is a theory of law governing the relationship between Individuals ( Citizens companies) and the State. It also exempted the CIA from having to disclose its "organization, functions, officials, titles, salaries, or numbers of personnel employed. " It also created the program "PL-110", to handle defectors and other "essential aliens" who fall outside normal immigration procedures, as well as giving those persons cover stories and economic support. Being undercover is disguising one's own identity or using an assumed identity for the purposes of gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn secret information 
Then-DCI Walter Bedell Smith, who enjoyed a special degree of Presidential trust, having been Dwight D. Eisenhower's primary Chief of Staff during World War II, insisted that the CIA -- or at least only one department -- had to direct the OPC and OSO. General Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith GBE KCB ( October 5, 1895 – August 9, 1961) was Dwight Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general Those organization, as well as some minor functions, formed the euphemistically named Directorate of Plans in 1952. The National Clandestine Service ( NCS) is the main United States Intelligence agency for coordinating human intelligence (HUMINT services
Also in 1952, United States Army Special Forces were created, with some missions overlapping those of the Department of Plans. In general, the pattern emerged that the CIA could borrow resources from Special Forces, although it had its own special operators.
Allen Dulles, who had been a key OSS operations officer in Switzerland during the Second World War, took over from Smith, at a time where US policy was dominated by intense anticommunism. Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7 1893 &ndash January 29 1969 was the first civilian and the longest serving (1953-1961 Director of Central Intelligence (de-facto head of Various sources were involved, the most visible being the investigations and abuses of Senator Joseph McCarthy, and the more quiet but systematic containment doctrine developed by George Kennan, the Berlin Blockade and the Korean War. Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14 1908 – May 2 1957 was an American politician who served as a Republican U George Frost Kennan (February 16 1904 &ndash March 17 2005 was an American Advisor, Diplomat, Political scientist, and Historian, best The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 11 May 1949 was one of the first major international crises of the Cold war. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the Dulles enjoyed a high degree of flexibility, as his brother, John Foster Dulles, was simultaneously Secretary of State. John Foster Dulles ( February 25, 1888 &ndash May 24, 1959) served as U Concern regarding the Soviet Union and the difficulty of getting information from its closed society, which few agents could penetrate, led to solutions based on advanced technology. Among the first success was with the Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which could take pictures and collect electronic signals from an altitude above Soviet air defenses' reach. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout SR-71
During this period, there were numerous covert actions against perceived Communist expansion. Some of the largest operations were aimed at Cuba after the overthrow of the Batista government, including assassination attempts against Fidel Castro and the dubiously deniable Bay of Pigs Invasion. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la General Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (fulˈxensjo βaˈtista i salˈdiβar January 16, 1901 &ndash August 6, 1973) was a Cuban Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until The Bay of Pigs Invasion (aka Playa Girón) was an unsuccessful attempt by a U There have been suggestions that the Soviet attempt to put missiles into Cuba came, indirectly, when they realized how badly they had been compromised by a US-UK defector in place, Oleg Penkovsky. Oleg Vladimirovich Penkovsky, codenamed "Agent Hero" (Олег Владимирович Пеньковский born April 23, 1919, Vladikavkaz 
The CIA, working with the military, formed the joint National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) to operate reconnaissance aircraft such as the SR-71 and later satellites. The National Reconnaissance Office ( NRO) located in Chantilly WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout "The fact of" the United States operating reconnaissance satellites, like "the fact of" the existence of NRO, was highly classified for many years.
As the US military and electorate were affected by Vietnam, so was the CIA. The OSS Patti mission had arrived near the end of the Second World War, and had significant interaction with the leaders of many Vietnamese factions, including Ho Chi Minh. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including For the city named after him see Ho Chi Minh City. Hồ Chí Minh (name  While the Patti mission forwarded Ho's proposals for phased independence, with the French or even the United States as the transition partner, the US policy of containment opposed forming any government that might be Communist. Containment refers to a Foreign policy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War.
The first CIA mission to Indochina, under the code name Saigon Military Mission arrived in 1954, under Edward Lansdale. See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U Edward Geary Lansdale ( February 6, 1908 &ndash February 23, 1987) was a U US-based analysts were simultaneously trying to project the evolution of political power, both if the scheduled referendum chose merger of the North and South, or if the South, the US client, stayed independent. Initially, the US focus in Southeast Asia was on Laos, not Vietnam. See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U Laos (ˈlɑːoʊs or /ˈlaʊs/ officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a Landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially
During the period of American combat involvement in the Vietnam War, there was considerable arguments about progress among the Department of Defense under Robert S. McNamara, the CIA, and, to some extent, the intelligence staff of the Military Assistance Command Vietnam. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government Robert Strange McNamara (born June 9 1916 in Oakland, California) is an American business executive and former United States Secretary of Defense The US Military Assistance Command Vietnam, MACV, ( mack vee) was the United States' unified command structure for all of its military forces in South Vietnam  In general, the military was consistently more optimistic than the CIA. Sam Adams, a junior CIA analyst with responsibilities for estimating the actual damage to the enemy, eventually resigned from the CIA, after expressing concern, to Director of Central Intelligence Richard Helms with estimates that were changed for interagency and White House political reasons, writing the book War of Numbers. The Office of United States Director of Central Intelligence (DCI was established by U Richard McGarrah Helms ( March 30, 1913 &ndash October 23, 2002) was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI from 1966 to 1973
Things came to a head in the early 1970s, around the time of the Watergate political burglary affair. The Watergate scandals were a series of Political scandals during the presidency of Richard Nixon that resulted in the Indictment of several of Nixon's A dominant feature of political life during that period were the attempts of Congress to assert oversight of U. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses S. Presidency, the executive branch of the U. S. Government. Revelations about past CIA activities, such as assassinations and attempted assassinations of foreign leaders, illegal domestic spying on U. S. citizens, provided the opportunities to execute Congressional oversight of U. S. intelligence operations. Hastening the Central Intelligence Agency's fall from grace were the burglary of the Watergate headquarters of the Democratic Party by ex-CIA agents, and President Richard Nixon's subsequent use of the CIA to impede the FBI's investigation of the burglary. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. In the famous "smoking gun" recording that led to President Nixon's resignation, Nixon ordered his chief of staff, H.R. Haldeman, to tell the CIA that further investigation of Watergate would "open the whole can of worms" about the Bay of Pigs of Cuba, and, therefore, that the CIA should tell the FBI to cease investigating the Watergate burglary, due to reasons of "national security". Harry Robbins Haldeman (publicly known as H R Haldeman, and informally as Bob Haldeman) ( October 27, 1926 &ndash November 12, The Bay of Pigs Invasion (aka Playa Girón) was an unsuccessful attempt by a U 
In 1973, then-DCI James R. Schlesinger commissioned reports — known as the "Family Jewels" — on illegal activities by the Agency. James Rodney Schlesinger (born February 15, 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975 under presidents Richard Nixon and The Family Jewels is the informal name used to refer to a set of reports that detail activities conducted by the United States Central Intelligence Agency. In December 1974, Investigative journalist Seymour Hersh broke the news of the "Family Jewels" in a front-page article in The New York Times, revealing that the CIA had assassinated foreign leaders, and had conducted surveillance on some seven thousand American citizens involved in the antiwar movement (Operation CHAOS). Investigative journalism is a type of reporting in which reporters deeply investigate a topic of interest often involving crime Political corruption, or some other Scandal Seymour (Sy Myron Hersh (born April 8, 1937) is an American Pulitzer Prize winning investigative Journalist and Author Operation CHAOS or Operation MHCHAOS was the code name for a domestic espionage project conducted by the Central Intelligence Agency.
Congress responded to the disturbing charges in 1975, investigating the CIA in the Senate via the Church Committee, chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-Idaho), and in the House of Representatives via the Pike Committee, chaired by Congressman Otis Pike (D-NY). The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a For his son Frank Forrester Church IV the Unitarian Universalist minister and theologian see Forrest Church. The Pike Committee is the common name for the House Select Committee on Intelligence during the period when it was chaired by Democratic Representative Otis Grey Pike (born August 31, 1921) was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from New York. In addition, President Gerald Ford created the Rockefeller Commission, and issued an Executive Order prohibiting the assassination of foreign leaders. Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr (July 14 1913 December 26 2006 was the thirty-eighth President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977 and the fortieth Vice President The US President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States was set up under President Gerald Ford in 1975 to investigate the activities of the executive order in the United States is a Directive issued by the President, the head of the executive branch of the federal government
Repercussions from the Iran-Contra Affair arms smuggling scandal included the creation of the Intelligence Authorization Act in 1991. The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal which was revealed in November 1986 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration. The United States Central Intelligence Agency ’s Intelligence Authorization Act was implemented in order to enforce an article of the Constitution which has not been It defined covert operations as secret missions in geopolitical areas where the U. S. is neither openly nor apparently engaged. This also required an authorizing chain of command, including an official, presidential finding report and the informing of the House and Senate Intelligence Committees, which, in emergencies, requires only "timely notification".
Previously, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) oversaw the Intelligence Community, serving as the president's principal intelligence advisor, additionally serving as head of the Central Intelligence Agency. The DCI's title now is "Director of the Central Intelligence Agency" (DCIA), serving as head of the CIA.
Currently, the Central Intelligence Agency reports to the Director of National Intelligence. Prior to the establishment of the DNI, the CIA reported to the President, with informational briefings to U. S. Congressional committees The National Security Advisor is a permanent member of the National Security Council, responsible for briefing the President with pertinent information collected by all U. The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Adviser (abbreviated NSA, or sometimes ANSA A National Security Council (NSC is usually an Executive branch governmental body responsible for coordinating policy on national security issues and advising chief S. intelligence agencies, including the National Security Agency, the Drug Enforcement Administration, et cetera; all sixteen Intelligence Community agencies are under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence. The National Security Agency/ Central Security Service ( NSA/CSS) is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States government The Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) is a United States Department of Justice Law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and The United States Intelligence Community (IC is a cooperative federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work together to conduct intelligence The Director of National Intelligence ( DNI) is the United States government official subject to the authority direction and control of the President
The history of CIA deals with several things, certainly including covert action, but also clandestine and overt intelligence collection, intelligence analysis and reporting, and logistical and technical support of its activities. Prior to the December 2004 reorganization of the intelligence community (IC), it also was responsible for coordinations of IC-wide intelligence estimates.
These articles are organized in two different ways: By geographical region (for state actors or non-state actors limited to a country or region) and by transnational topic (for non-state actors).
CIA operations by region, country and date are discussed in detail in the following Wikipedia articles:
CIA analyses of issues such as the effect of emerging diseases, and the detection of WMDs, are inherently transnational, and are discussed in the following articles. This article deals with activities of the United States Central Intelligence Agency in North and South America. See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U CIA operations and, where appropriate, authorizations for covert operations (for example, NSDD 138 authorizing direct action against terrorists) by transnational topic are discussed in the following Wikipedia articles:
In addition, a view of covert US activity specifically oriented towards regime change actions is given in the following Wikipedia article:
Major sources for this section include the Council on Foreign Relations of the United States series, the National Security Archive and George Washington University, the Freedom of Information Act Reading Room at the CIA, U. See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with those activities of the Central Intelligence Agency that preserve or violate human rights The United States has underaken many covert regime change actions The Council on Foreign Relations ( CFR) is an American Nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (at The National Security Archive is a 501(c(3 non-governmental non-profit research and archival institution located within The George Washington University in The George Washington University ( GW or GWU) is a private coeducational university located in Washington D The Freedom of Information Act ( FOIA) is the implementation of freedom of information legislation in the United States S. Congressional hearings, Blum's book and Weiner's book Note that the CIA has posted a rebuttal to Weiner's book, and that Jeffrey Richelson of the National Security Archive has also been sharply critical of it. 
Areas of controversy about inappropriate, often illegal actions include experiments, without consent, on human beings to explore chemical means of eliciting information or disabling people. See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with those activities of the Central Intelligence Agency that preserve or violate human rights Another area involved torture and clandestine imprisonment. See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with those activities of the Central Intelligence Agency that preserve or violate human rights There have been attempted assassinations under CIA orders and support for assassinations of foreign leaders by citizens of the leader's country, and, in a somewhat different legal category that may fall under the customary laws of war, targeted killing of terrorist leaders. See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with those activities of the Central Intelligence Agency that preserve or violate human rights See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with those activities of the Central Intelligence Agency that preserve or violate human rights
While the names change periodically, there are two basic security functions to protect the CIA and its operations. There is an Office of Security in the Directorate for Support, which is responsible for physical security of the CIA buildings, secure storage of information, and personnel security clearances. For use by the United Nations, see Security Clearance (UN A security clearance is a status granted to individuals allowing them access to Classified These are directed inwardly to the agency itself.
In what is now the National Clandestine Service, there is a counter-intelligence function, called the Counterintelligence Staff under its most controversial chief, James Jesus Angleton. This article is a subset article of Intelligence cycle security. James Jesus Angleton (December 9 1917 &ndash May 12 1987 known to colleagues as Jim and nicknamed "the Kingfisher" was a long-serving chief of the Central Intelligence This function has roles including looking for staff members that are providing information to foreign intelligence services (FIS) as moles. This article is a subset article of Intelligence cycle security. Another role is to check proposals for recruiting foreign HUMINT assets, to see if these people have any known ties to FIS and thus may be attempts to penetrate CIA to learn its personnel and practices, or as a provocateur, or other form of double agent. HUMINT, a syllabic abbreviation of the words HUMan INTelligence refers to intelligence gathering by means of interpersonal contact as opposed to the more technical This article is a subset article of Intelligence cycle security.
This agency component may also launch offensive counterespionage, where it attempts to interfere with FIS operations. This article is a subset article of Intelligence cycle security. CIA officers in the field often have assignments in offensive counterespionage as well as clandestine intelligence collection. The Clandestine HUMINT page dealt with the functions which that discipline can serve including espionage and active counterintelligence were presented
In 1993, the headquarters of the CIA was attacked by Mir Aimal Kansi, a Pakistani national. An attack took place on January 25, 1993 near the entrance of Central Intelligence Agency (CIA headquarters in Langley Virginia where two CIA employees An attack took place on January 25, 1993 near the entrance of Central Intelligence Agency (CIA headquarters in Langley Virginia where two CIA employees Two CIA employees were killed, Frank Darling and Lansing Bennett, M.D.
The "Family Jewels" and other documents reveal that the Office of Security violated the prohibition of CIA involvement in domestic law enforcement, sometimes with the intention of assisting police organizations local to CIA buildings. An attack took place on January 25, 1993 near the entrance of Central Intelligence Agency (CIA headquarters in Langley Virginia where two CIA employees
Perhaps the most disruptive period involving counterintelligence was James Jesus Angleton's search for a mole,based on the statements of a Soviet defector, Anatoliy Golitsyn. James Jesus Angleton (December 9 1917 &ndash May 12 1987 known to colleagues as Jim and nicknamed "the Kingfisher" was a long-serving chief of the Central Intelligence Anatoliy Mikhaylovich Golitsyn CBE (Анатолий Михайлович Голицынborn August 25, 1926 in Piryatin, Ukrainian SSR A second defector, Yuri Nosenko, challenged Golitsyn's claims, with the two calling one another Soviet double agents. Lt Col Yuri Ivanovich Nosenko ( October 30 1927 – August 23 2008) was a KGB Defector and a figure of significant controversy  Many CIA officers fell under career-ending suspicion; the details of the relative truths and untruths from Nosenko and Golitsyn may never be released, or, in fact, may not be fully understood. The accusations also crossed the Atlantic to the British intelligence services, who also were damaged by molehunts. 
On February 24, 1994, the agency was rocked by the arrest of 31-year veteran case officer Aldrich Ames on charges of spying for the Soviet Union since 1985. Aldrich Hazen Ames (born May 26 1941) is a former Central Intelligence Agency Counter-intelligence officer and analyst who in 1994 was convicted 
Other defectors have included Edward Lee Howard, a field operations officer, and William Kampiles, a low-level worker in the CIA 24-hour Operations Center. Edward Lee Howard (born in New Mexico 1951 died 12 July 2002 in Moscow was a CIA case officer who defected to the Soviet Union. Kampiles sold the Soviets the detailed operational manual for the KH-11 reconnaissance satellite. The KH-11, also referenced by the codenames 1010, Crystal and Kennan, also commonly known as " Key Hole " was a type of Reconnaissance 
The agency has also been criticized for ineffectiveness as an intelligence gathering agency. Former DCI Richard Helms commented, after the end of the Cold War, "The only remaining superpower doesn't have enough interest in what's going on in the world to organize and run an espionage service. Richard McGarrah Helms ( March 30, 1913 &ndash October 23, 2002) was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI from 1966 to 1973 Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the " The CIA has come under particular criticism for failing to predict the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985
See the information technology section of the intelligence analysis management for discussion of possible failures to provide adequate automation support to analysts, and US intelligence community A-Space for a IC-wide program to collect some of them. This article deals with the roles of processing/analysis in the real-world intelligence cycle as a part of Intelligence cycle management. This article deals with the roles of processing/analysis in the real-world intelligence cycle as a part of Intelligence cycle management. The United States Intelligence Community A-Space is a project from the Office of the Director of National Intelligence 's (ODNI Office of Analytic Transformation and Cognitive traps for intelligence analysis also goes into areas where CIA has examined why analysis can fail. This article deals with a subset of the
Agency veterans have lamented CIA's inability to produce the kind of long-range strategic intelligence that it once did in order to guide policymakers. John McLaughlin, who was deputy director and acting director of central intelligence from October 2000 to September 2004, said that drowned by demands from the White House and Pentagon for instant information, "intelligence analysts end up being the Wikipedia of Washington. John Edward McLaughlin (born June 15, 1942 in McKeesport, Pennsylvania) is the former Deputy Director of Central Intelligence "In the intelligence analysis article, orienting oneself to the consumers deals with some of ways in which intelligence can become more responsive to the needs of policymakers. This article deals with the intellectual process of analysis itself as opposed to Intelligence analysis management, which in turn is a subcomponent of Intelligence This article deals with the intellectual process of analysis itself as opposed to Intelligence analysis management, which in turn is a subcomponent of Intelligence
For the media, the failures are most newsworthy. A number of declassified National Intelligence Estimates do predict the behavior of various countries, but not in a manner attractive to news, or, most significantly, not public at the time of the event. In its operational role, some successes for the CIA include the U-2 and SR-71 programs, and anti-Soviet operations in Afghanistan in the mid-1980s. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت,
Among the first analytic failures, before the CIA had its own collection capabilities, it assured President Harry S Truman on October 13, 1950 that the Chinese would not send troops to Korea. President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Six days later, over one million Chinese troops arrived.  See an analysis of the failure; also see surrounding text for the two Koreas and China, and the time period before the Korean War. See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U Earlier, the intelligence community failed to detect the North Korean invasion, in part because resources were not allocated to SIGINT coverage of the Korean peninsula.
The history of US intelligence, with respect to French Indochina and then the two Vietnams, is long and complex. The Pentagon Papers often contain pessimistic CIA analyses that conflicted with White House positions. The Pentagon Papers is the popular name for a 14000-page top-secret United States government report about the history of the Government's internal planning and policy It does appear that some estimates were changed to reflect Pentagon and White House views. . See CIA activities in Asia and the Pacific for detailed discussions of intelligence and covert operations from 1945 (i. See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U e. , before the CIA) onwards.
Another criticism is the failure to predict India's nuclear tests in 1974. Pokharan-II refers to test explosions of five Nuclear devices three on 11 May and two on 13 May 1998 conducted by India A review of the various analyses of India's nuclear program did predict some aspects of the test, such as a 1965 report saying, correctly, that if India did develop a bomb, it would be explained as "for peaceful purposes". See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U
A major criticism is failure to forestall the September 11, 2001 attacks. The 9/11 Commission Report identifies failures in the IC as a whole. 9/11 Commission Report, formally named Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, is the official report of the events leading up to One problem, for example, was the FBI failing to "connect the dots" by sharing information among its decentralized field offices. The report, however, criticizes both CIA analysis, and impeding their investigation. 9/11 Commission ReportThe National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up on November 27, 2002
The executive summary of a report which was released by the office of CIA Inspector General John Helgerson on August 21, 2007 concluded that former DCI George Tenet failed to adequately prepare the agency to deal with the danger posed by Al Qaeda prior to the attacks of September 11, 2001. In a civilian or military administration an Inspector General is a high ranking official charged with the mission to inspect and report on some bodies in their field of competency George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) was the Director of Central Intelligence for the United States Central Intelligence Agency Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The The report had been completed in June, 2005 and was partially released to the public in an agreement with Congress, over the objections of current DCI General Michael V. Hayden. Michael Vincent Hayden, (born March 17, 1945 in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania) was a United States Air Force four-star general and is the Hayden said its publication would "consume time and attention revisiting ground that is already well plowed. ” Tenet disagreed with the report's conclusions, citing his planning efforts vis-a-vis al-Qaeda, particularly from 1999. 
Several investigations (e. g. , Church Committee, Rockefeller Commission, Pike Committee), as well as released declassified documents, reveal that the CIA, at times, operated outside its charter. The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a The US President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States was set up under President Gerald Ford in 1975 to investigate the activities of the The Pike Committee is the common name for the House Select Committee on Intelligence during the period when it was chaired by Democratic Representative In some cases, such as during Watergate, this may have been due to inappropriate requests by White House staff. The Watergate scandals were a series of Political scandals during the presidency of Richard Nixon that resulted in the Indictment of several of Nixon's In other cases, there was a violation of Congressional intent, such as the Iran-Contra affair. The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal which was revealed in November 1986 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration.
The first major analysis, following the National Security Act of 1947, was chaired by former President Herbert Hoover, with a Task Force on National Security Organization under Ferdinand Eberstadt, one of the drafters of the National Security Act and a believer in centralized intelligence. The National Security Act of 1947, Pub L No 235 80 Cong 61 Stat President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10 1874 &ndash October 20 1964 was the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933 Ferdinand A Eberstadt ( June 19, 1890 — November 11, 1969) was an American Lawyer, Investment banker, and
The task force concluded that the system of the day led to an adversarial relationship, with little effective coordination, among the CIA, the military, and the State Department. "In the opinion of the task force, this produced duplication on one hand, and, on the other, departmental intelligence estimates that "have often been subjective and biased. " In large measure, the military and State Department were blamed for their failure to consult and share pertinent information with the CIA. The task force recommended "that positive efforts be made to foster relations of mutual confidence between the [CIA] and the several departments and agencies that it serves. "
This report stressed that the CIA "must be the central organization of the national intelligence system. " It recommended a ". . . top echelon [of] an evaluation board or section composed of competent and experienced personnel who would have no administrative responsibilities and whose duties would be confined solely to intelligence evaluation. " It also favored a civilian DCI with a long term in office.
"In the arena of covert operations and clandestine intelligence, the Eberstadt Report supported the integration of all clandestine operations into one office within CIA, under NSC supervision. To alleviate concerns expressed by the military who viewed this proposal as encroaching upon their prerogatives, the report stated that clandestine operations should be the responsibility of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) in time of war. "
The report declared that the failure to appraise scientific advances (e. g. , biological and chemical warfare, electronics, aerodynamics, guided missiles, atomic weapons, and nuclear energy) in hostile countries might have more immediate and catastrophic consequences than failure in any other field of intelligence. It urged the US to develop a centralized capability for tracking these developments.
The Eberstadt report was soon eclipsed by what may have been the most influential policy paper. "On January 8, 1948, the National Security Council established the Intelligence Survey Group (ISG) to "evaluate the CIA's effort and its relationship with other agencies. "The Jackson-Dulles-Correa report held an opposite view on clandestine collection to the Eberstadt Report, interesting in that Dulles was a clandestine collection specialist.
Like the Hoover Commission, this group was chartered at the request of President Truman, and was made up of Allen W. Dulles, who had served in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) during the Second World War and would become DCI in 1953, William Jackson, a future Deputy DCI, and Matthias Correa, a former assistant to Secretary of Defense James V. Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7 1893 &ndash January 29 1969 was the first civilian and the longest serving (1953-1961 Director of Central Intelligence (de-facto head of William Harding Jackson ( March 25, 1901 - September 28, 1971) was a U Forrestal when the latter had served as Secretary of the Navy during the war. Chaired by Dulles, the ISG presented its findings, known as the Dulles-Jackson-Correa Report, to the National Security Council on January 1, 1949. Partially declassified in 1976, it "contained fifty-six recommendations, many highly critical of the CIA and DCI. In particular, the report revealed problems in the agency's execution of both its intelligence and operational missions. It also criticized the quality of national intelligence estimates by highlighting the CIA's--and, by implication, the DCI's--"failure to take charge of the production of coordinated national estimates. " The report went on to argue that the CIA's current trend in clandestine intelligence activities should be reversed in favor of its mandated role as coordinator of intelligence. " It was "particularly concerned about the personnel situation at CIA, including internal security, the high turnover of employees, and the excessive number of military personnel assigned to the agency. " See the continuing concern about personnel in the 1954 Doolittle Report To add "continuity of service" and the "greatest assurance of independence of action," the report argued that the DCI should be a civilian and that military appointees be required to resign their commissions.
As with the Eberstadt Report, the Dulles Report also expressed concern about the inadequacies in scientific intelligence and the professionalism of the service intelligence organizations, and urged that the CIA provide greater coordination. This led to a recommendation for increased coordination between the DCI and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the arena of counterespionage. In turn, the report recommended that the Director of FBI be elevated to membership in the committee to help the DCI coordinate intelligence and set intelligence requirements.
The report proposed a large-scale reorganization of CIA. Even though it emphasized intelligence analysis and coordination over operations, it
"suggested incorporating covert operations and clandestine intelligence into one office within CIA. . . . the Office of Special Operations (OSO), responsible for the clandestine collection of intelligence, and the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC), responsible for covert actions, be integrated into a single division within CIA. [It] recommended replacing existing offices with four new divisions for coordination, estimates, research and reports, and operations. "
The heads of the new offices would be included in the immediate staff of the DCI so that he would have "intimate contact with the day-to-day operations of his agency and be able to give policy guidance to them. " These recommendations would become the start of the model for the future organization and operation of the present-day CIA. Until the DNI creation, estimates were in a separate office reporting to the DCI, coordination was a job of the DDCI (later assisted by the Intelligence Community Staff), research and reports became the Directorate of Intelligence, and operations was first, euphemistically, called the Directorate of Plans. Directorates for Support (originally called Administration), and Science & Technology, were also created.
Gen. James Doolittle did an extensive report on covert actions, specifically for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. General James Harold "Jimmy" Doolittle USAF (14 December 1896 &ndash 27 September 1993 was an American Aviation pioneer Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general 
The report's first recommendation dealt with personnel. It recommended releasing a large number of current staff that could never be more than mediocre, aggressively recruit new staff with an overall goal of increasing the workforce, and intensify training, with 10% of the covert staff time spent in training. The Director should be nonpolitical.
Security was the next concern, starting with a drive to reduce interim and provisional security clearances. For use by the United Nations, see Security Clearance (UN A security clearance is a status granted to individuals allowing them access to Classified The report strongly endorsed use of the polygraph both for initial recruits and existing staff. A polygraph (popularly referred to as a Lie detector) is an instrument that measures and records several physiological responses such as Blood pressure Counterespionage needed to be strengthened, and field stations needed both to report on their staff and periodically be inspected. This article is a subset article of Intelligence cycle security. Consolidating the Washington workforce, which was scattered among buildings, into one or a few main buildings was seen as a way of improving the security of classified information.
Coordination in the intelligence community was seen as a problem, especially agreeing on clear understandings between CIA and military intelligence organizations. The United States Intelligence Community (IC is a cooperative federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work together to conduct intelligence The overall IC program for eliciting information from defectors needed improvement, with contributions from multiple agencies.
As far as organization and management, the report described the structure of the Directorate of Plans (i. e. , the clandestine service) as too complex and in need of simplification. The Inspector General needed an agency-wide mandate. The role of the Operations Coordinating Board, the covert and clandestine oversight staff of the National Security Council needed to be strengthened, with operations clearly approved and guided from the highest levels of government. A National Security Council (NSC is usually an Executive branch governmental body responsible for coordinating policy on national security issues and advising chief
The report addressed the classic problem of increasing performance while reducing costs. This meant better review of the budgets of covert and clandestine activities by a Review Board, except for the most sensitive operations. It meant providing the Comptroller with enough information, even if sanitized, to do a thorough job.
Soon after President Dwight D. Eisenhower created the President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Actitivites, that Board requested that Robert A. Lovett and David K.E. Bruce examine CIA's covert operations. President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general The President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB is an advisor to the Executive Office of the President of the United States. Robert Abercrombie Lovett ( 14 September 1895 - 7 May 1986) was the fourth United States Secretary of Defense, serving in David Kirkpatrick Este Bruce ( February 12, 1898 - December 5, 1977) was the United States Ambassador to France from 1949 to 1952 . This information comes from Arthur Schlesinger's book about Robert F. Kennedy, cited by cryptome. Arthur Meier Schlesinger Jr, born Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger ( October 15 1917 &ndash February 28 2007) was a Pulitzer Prize recipient Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20 1925 – June 6 1968 also called RFK, was the United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964 and a org. ""Bruce was very much disturbed," Lovett told the Cuba board of inquiry in 1961. "He approached it from the standpoint of 'what right have we to go barging into other countries buying newspapers and handing money to opposition parties or supporting a candidate for this, that or the other office?' He felt this was an outrageous interference with friendly countries. . . . He got me alarmed, so instead of completing the report in thirty days we took two months or more. ""
"The 1956 report, written in Bruce's spirited style, condemned
the increased mingling in the internal affairs of other nations of bright, highly graded young men who must be doing something all the time to justify their reason for being. . . . Busy, moneyed, and privileged [the CIA] likes its "King Making" responsibility (the intrigue is fascinating -- considerable self-satisfaction, sometimes with applause, derives from "successes" -- no charge is made for "failures" -- and the whole business is very much simpler than collecting covert intellignece on the USSR through the usual CIA methods!).
According to cryptome's account of the Schlesinger book, "Bruce and Lovett could discover no reliable system of control. "there are always, of course, on record the twin, well-born purpose of 'frustrating the Soviets' and keeping others 'pro-western' oriented. Under these almost any [covert] action can be and is being justified. . . . Once having been conceived, the final approval given to any project (at informal lunch meetins of the OCB [Operations Coordinating Board] inner group) can, at best, be described as pro forma. " One consequence was that "no one, other than those in the CIA immediately concerned with their day to day operation, has any detailed knowledge of what is going on. " With "a horde of CIA representatives" swarming around the planet, CIA covert action was exerting "significant, almost unilateral influences. . . on the actual formulation of our foreign policies. . . sometimes completely unknown" to the local American ambassador. " Bruce and Lovett concluded with an plea about taking control of covert operations and their consequences:
Should not someone, somewhere in an authoritative position in our government, on a continuing basis, be. . . calculating. . . the long-range wisdom of activities which have entailed a virtual abandonment of the international "golden rule," and which, if successful to the degree claimed for them, are responsible in a great measure for stirring up the turmoitl and raising the doubts about us that exist in many countries of the world today?. . . Where will we be tomorrow? | "Bruce was very much disturbed," Lovett told the Cuba board of inquiry in 1961. "He approached it from the standpoint of 'what right have we to go barging into other countries buying newspapers and handing money to opposition parties or supporting a candidate for this, that or the other office?' He felt this was an outrageous interference with friendly countries. . . .
The CIA itself would like more detail on this report, a copy of which could not be found, in 1995, by the Agency's History Staff.  Referring to reports such as the Dulles-Jackson-Correa, Doolittle, Pike, Church, and Rockefeller reports, the Staff "recently ran across a reference to another item, the so-called "Bruce-Lovett" report, that it would very much like to read--if we could find it! The report is mentioned in Peter Grose's recent biography Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles. According to Grose, [Bruce and Lovett] prepared a report for President Dwight Eisenhower in the fall of 1956 that criticized CIA's alleged fascination with "kingmaking" in the Third World and complained that a "horde of CIA representatives" was mounting foreign political intrigues at the expense of gathering hard intelligence on the Soviet Union.
The History Staff checked the CIA files on the President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities (PBCFIA). They checked with the Eisenhower Library. They checked with the National Archives, which holds the PBCFIA records. They checked with the Virginia Historical Society, the custodian of David Bruce's papers. None had a copy.
"Having reached a dead end, we consulted the author of the Dulles biography, Peter Grose. Grose told us that he had not seen the report itself but had used notes made from it by historian Arthur M. Schlesinger for Robert F. Kennedy and His Times (1978). Professor Schlesinger informed us that that he had seen the report in Robert Kennedy's papers before they were deposited at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library in Boston. He had loaned Grose his notes and does not have a copy of these notes or of the report itself.
"This raises an interesting question: how did a report on the CIA written for President Eisenhower in 1956 end up in the RFK papers? We think we have the answer. Robert Lovett was asked to testify before Gen. Maxwell Taylor's board of inquiry on the 1961 Bay of Pigs operation. General Maxwell Davenport Taylor ( August 26, 1901 &ndash April 19, 1987) was an American Soldier and Diplomat For the United States invasion at the Bay of Pigs see Bay of Pigs Invasion. Robert Kennedy was on that board and may have asked Lovett for a copy of the report. But we do not have the answer to another question: where is the "Bruce-Lovett" report? The JFK Presidential Library has searched the RFK papers without success. Surely the report will turn up some day, even if one government agency and four separate archives so far haven't been able to find it. But this episode helps to prove one of the few Iron Laws of History: the official who keeps the best records gets to tell the story. "
The 1975 United States President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States, better known as the Rockefeller Commission investigated questionable practices including assassination attempts and inappropriate domestic operations. The US President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States was set up under President Gerald Ford in 1975 to investigate the activities of the Larger Congressional investigations followed in 1975, first the Church Committee of the United States Senate, followed by the Pike Committee of the United States House of Representatives. The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives The Pike Committee is the common name for the House Select Committee on Intelligence during the period when it was chaired by Democratic Representative The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Eventually, these interim committees were replaced by the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the U.S. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (sometimes referred to as SSCI) is The United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence is a committee of the United States House of Representatives, currently chaired by Silvestre
In 1996, the U.S. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence issued a congressional report estimating that: "Hundreds of employees on a daily basis are directed to break extremely serious laws in countries around the world in the face of frequently sophisticated efforts by foreign governments to catch them. The United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence is a committee of the United States House of Representatives, currently chaired by Silvestre A safe estimate is that several hundred times every day (easily 100,000 times a year) DO officers engage in highly illegal activities (according to foreign law) that not only risk political embarrassment to the US but also endanger the freedom if not lives of the participating foreign nationals and, more than occasionally, of the clandestine officer himself. "
In the same document, the committee wrote, "Considering these facts and recent history, which has shown that the [Director of the Central Intelligence Agency], whether he wants to or not, is held accountable for overseeing the [Clandestine Service], the DCI must work closely with the Director of the CS and hold him fully and directly responsible to him. " 
On 27 June 2007 the CIA released two collections of previously classified documents which outlined various activities of doubtful legality. Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The first collection, the "Family Jewels," consists of almost 700 pages of responses from CIA employees to a 1973 directive from Director of Central Intelligence James Schlesinger requesting information about activities inconsistent with the Agency's charter. The Family Jewels is the informal name used to refer to a set of reports that detail activities conducted by the United States Central Intelligence Agency. James Rodney Schlesinger (born February 15, 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975 under presidents Richard Nixon and 
The second collection, the CAESAR-POLO-ESAU papers, consists of 147 documents and 11,000 pages of research from 1953 to 1973 relating to Soviet and Chinese leadership hierarchies, and Sino-Soviet relations. 
This is an area with many shades of gray. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA America 's Intelligence agency, has made use of media assets both foreign and domestic for its covert Espionage and secret operations have long been a source of fiction and the real and perceived United States Central Intelligence Agency is a source of many books movies and video games There is little argument, for example, that the CIA acted inappropriately in providing technical support to White House operatives conducting both political and security investigations, with no legal authority to do so. Things become much more ambiguous when law enforcement may expose a clandestine operation, a problem not unique to intelligence but also seen among different law enforcement organizations, where one wants to prosecute and another to continue investigations, perhaps reaching higher levels in a conspiracy. 
The CIA had long been dealing with terrorism originating from abroad, and in 1986 had set up a Counterterrorist Center to deal specifically with the problem. The US Central Intelligence Agency 's Counterterrorist Center was established in 1986 At first confronted with secular terrorism, the Agency found Islamist terrorism looming increasingly large on its scope. Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only (For a discussion of the full range of CIA involvement with terrorism of all types, see CIA transnational anti-terrorism activities. See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U )
The network that became known as al-Qaeda ("The Base") grew out of Arab volunteers who fought the Soviets and their puppet regimes in Afghanistan in the 1980s. Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, The CIA denied helping to recruit such people (or having direct contact with Osama bin Laden). Osama bin Laden, with some spelling variations is the name used in English to refer to (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن born 10 March However, various authorities relate that the Agency brought both Afghans and Arabs to the United States for military training. (See the 1980s section of the CIA sub-article on terrorism.)
In 1999 DCI George Tenet initiated a grand Plan to deal with al-Qaeda. See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) was the Director of Central Intelligence for the United States Central Intelligence Agency J (Joseph Cofer Black had a 28-year career in the Directorate of Operations at the Central Intelligence Agency, culminating in his appointment as Director of the CIA's Developing from this strategy, in 2000 the CIA and USAF jointly ran a series of flights over Afghanistan with a small remote-controlled reconnaissance drone, the Predator; they obtained probable photos of Bin Laden. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Osama bin Laden, with some spelling variations is the name used in English to refer to (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن born 10 March Counterterrorist-Center chief Cofer Black and others became advocates of arming Predators with missiles to try to hit Bin Laden and other Qaeda leaders. J (Joseph Cofer Black had a 28-year career in the Directorate of Operations at the Central Intelligence Agency, culminating in his appointment as Director of the CIA's Tenet warned the Bush Cabinet at the Principals Committee meeting of September 4, 2001 of the dangers of using an undertested armed drone. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. He advised they should be aware of the consequences of a controversial or mistaken strike. The CIA then resumed reconnaissance missions, but with the drones now weapons-capable. The CIA also organized a Strategic Assessments Branch for "big picture" analysis (and apparently to develop targeting strategies). The strategic assessments branch of the Counterterrorist Center (CTC of the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA was established in 2001 to plug a gap The branch's chief started his job on September 10, 2001. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. (See the CIA sub-article on terrorism under 1999, 2000, and 2001. See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with activities of the U )
Whether or not the intelligence available, or presented by the Bush Administration justified the action or allowed proper planning, especially for the occupation, is quite controversial. See also Central Intelligence Agency This article deals with those activities of the Central Intelligence Agency that preserve or violate human rights George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. See Iraq 2003. See also CIA activities in the Near East North Africa South and Southwest Asia See also Saddam Hussein - United States relations U See CIA activities in Iraq for additional details of these controversies as well as a rather long history of CIA involvement with Iraq. See also CIA activities in the Near East North Africa South and Southwest Asia See also Saddam Hussein - United States relations U
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