A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population. This term is mostly used in connection with national 'population and door to door censuses' (to be taken every 10 years according to United Nations recommendations); agriculture censuses (all agriculture units) and business censuses (all enterprises). The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
The census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is only obtained from a subset of a population. Sampling is that part of Statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern As such it is a method used for accumulating statistical data, and also plays a part in democracy (voting). Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Census data is also commonly used for research, business marketing, planning purposes and not at least as a base for sampling surveys. In popular usage "marketing" is the promotion of products especially Advertising and Branding However in professional usage the term has a wider meaning of
It is widely recognized that population and housing censuses are vital for the planning of any society. Traditional censuses are however becoming more and more costly. A rule of thumb for census costs in developing countries have for a long time been 1 USD / enumerated person. More realistic figures today are around 3 USD. These approximates should be taken with great care since a various amount of activities can be included in different countries (e. g. enumerators can either be hired or requested from civil servants). The cost in developed countries is far higher. The cost for the 2000 census in the US is estimated to 4. 5 billion USD. Alternative possibilities to retrieve data are investigated. Nordic countries Denmark, Finland and Norway have for several years used administrative registers. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Partial censuses ‘Micro censuses’ or ‘Sample censuses' are practiced in France and Germany. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
While the census provides a useful way of obtaining statistical information about a population, such information can sometimes lead to abuses, political or otherwise, made possible by the linking of individuals' identities to anonymous census data. 
It is not unusual for census data to be processed in some way so as to obscure individual information. Some censuses do this by intentionally introducing small statistical errors to prevent the identification of individuals in marginal populations; others swap variables for similar respondents.
Whatever measures have been taken to reduce the privacy risk in census data, new technology in the form of better electronic analysis of data poses increasing challenges to the protection of sensitive individual information.
The first known census was taken by the Babylonians in 3800 BC, over 5000 years ago. Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital Records suggest that it was taken every six or seven years and counted the number of people and livestock, as well as quantities of butter, honey, milk, wool and vegetables. 
Census in Egypt are said to have been taken already during the early Pharaonic period. A Census is an enumeration of all the people of a nation or a registration region a systematic and complete count of all who are living in specified places usually on a specific date 3340 BC and in 3050 BC.
One of the earliest documented censuses was taken in 500-499 BC by the Persian Empire's military for issuing land grants, and taxation purposes. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia 
Censuses were conducted in the Mauryan Empire as described in Chanakya's (c. The Maurya Empire ( 322 – 185 BCE) ruled by the Mauryan dynasty was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military Chanakya Sanskrit: चाणक्य Cāṇakya) (c 350-283 BC was an adviser and a Prime minister to the first Maurya Emperor 350-283 BC) Arthashastra, which prescribed the collection of population statistics as a measure of state policy for the purpose of taxation. The Arthashastra ( IAST: Arthaśāstra) is a Treatise on statecraft, economic policy and Military strategy which It contains a detailed description of methods of conducting population, economic and agricultural censuses. 
The Bible relates stories of several censuses. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin The Book of Numbers describes a divinely-mandated census that occurred when Moses led the Israelites from Egypt. The Book of Numbers, ( Bamidbar, meaning in the wilderness) is the fourth book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. Moses ( Latin: Moyses,; Greek: grc Mωυσής in both the Septuagint and the New Testament; Arabic: ar موسىٰ See also History of ancient Israel and Judah According to the Bible, the Israelites were the dominant group living in the Land of Israel. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. A later census called by King David of Israel, referred to as the "numbering of the people," provoked divine retribution, although Biblical commentators are unsure of the reason. David, Arabic: داوود or داود dawud, "beloved" was the second king of the united Kingdom of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible The Kingdom of Israel ( ( KJV Israel in Samaria) was one of the successor states to the older United Monarchy (also often called the 'Kingdom of Israel' Araunah is the name given by the Books of Samuel to a Jebusite who owned a Threshing floor that was purchased by David and turned into an altar A Roman census is also mentioned in one of the best-known passages of the Bible in the Gospel of Luke, see Census of Quirinius. A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. The Gospel of Luke (Gk Κατά Λουκάν Ευαγγέλιον) is a synoptic Gospel, and is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the The Census of Quirinius refers to a historical enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of
Rome conducted censuses to determine taxes (see Censor). Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. The word 'census' origins in fact from ancient Rome, coming from the Latin word 'censere', meaning ‘estimate’. The Roman census was the most developed of any recorded in the ancient world and it played a crucial role in the administration of the Roman Empire. The Roman census was carried out every five years. It provided a register of citizens and their property from which their duties and privileges could be listed.
The world's oldest extant census data comes from China during the Han Dynasty. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. Taken in the fall of 2 AD, it is considered by scholars to be quite accurate. At that time there were 59. 6 million living in Han China, the world's largest population.  The second oldest preserved census is also from the Han, dating back to 140 AD, when only a few more than 48 million people were recorded. Mass migrations into what is today southern China are believed to be behind this massive demographic decline.
In the Middle Ages, the most famous census in Europe is the Domesday Book, undertaken in 1086 by William I of England so that he could properly tax the land he had recently conquered. The Domesday Book (ˈduːmzdeɪ bʊk also known as Domesday, or Book of Winchester) was the record of the great survey William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages In 1183, a census was taken of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, to ascertain the number of men and amount of money that could possibly be raised against an invasion by Saladin, sultan of Egypt and Syria. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents This article is about the Christian kingdom For the history of the city see History of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian Salahadin Ayyubi ( Arabic:صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب Kurdish: سهلاحهدین ئهیوبی Selah'edînê Eyubî; c This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية
A very interesting way to record census information was made in the Inca Empire in the Andean region from the 15th century until the Spaniards conquered their land. The Inca Empire (or Inka Empire) was the largest empire in Pre-Columbian America. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. The Incas did not have any written language but recorded information collected during censuses and other numeric information as well as non-numeric data on quipus, strings from llama or alpaca hair or cotton cords with numeric and other values encoded by knots in a base 10 positional system. Quipu or khipu (sometimes called talking knots) were recording devices used in the Inca Empire and its predecessor societies in the Andean The llama ( Lama glama) is a South American Camelid, widely used as a Pack animal by the Incas and other natives of the Andes The Alpaca ( Vicugna pacos) is a domesticated species of South American Camelid.
A partial and incomplete population census was taken in Afghanistan in 1979. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, A census was planned for 2007.
Population and housing censuses have been carried out in Algeria in 1967, 1977, 1987 and 1998. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's The next one is in 2008.
A Population & Housing Census was carried out in 2001
National population census are carried out in Argentina roughly every ten years, the last one being in 2001.
More about census, see: National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina
The Austrian census is run by the Statistik Austria. National Statistics and Censuses Institute ( Spanish: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, INDEC is the Argentine government agency responsible Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich It is carried out every ten years, the last one being in 2001. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.
The Australian census is operated by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The Australian census is administered by the Australian Bureau of Statistics every five years For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Australian Bureau of Statistics ( ABS) is Australia 's national statistical agency. It is currently conducted every five years, the last occurrence being on August 8, 2006. Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Past Australian censuses were conducted in 1911, 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954, and 1961 - 2006 every five years. In 2006, for the first time, Australians were able to complete their census online
Population censuses have been carried out in 1974, 1981, 1991 and 2001. It is done by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS)
Population censuses have been taken in Benin in 1978, 1992 and 2002. Benin (bə'nɪn officially the Republic of Benin, and also known as Benin Republic, is a country in Western Africa.
Population and housing censuses have been carried out in Bolivia in 1992 and 2001. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America.
A census was taken by apostolic vicar the bishop Pavao Dragicevic in 1743.
The Brazilian census is carried out by IBGE, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, every 10 years. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics or IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Gehjgygmmliografia e Estatística is the agency responsible for Statistical |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn meaning (returning yearly known in English since c. The last one was in 2000. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Earlier censuses were taken in 1872 (the first), 1900, 1920, 1941, 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1991. Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar.
The first census was organised after Bulgarian parliament passed a law for national censuses in 1880. A special Act on Statistics was enacted in 1897. It was following on the edge European standards at the time. The area of the next census was widening for the purposes of International Statistical Institute which was planning a world wide census of the then ‘civilized world’ at the time. The Directorate of Statistics was the only institution authorized and responsible with and for organization and of national censuses. The procedure remained the same until WW-II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
During the period in review Bulgaria has organized 16 population censuses (1880, 1884, 1887, 1892, 1900, 1905, 1910, 1920, 1926, 1934, 1946, 1956, 1965, 1975, 1985, 1992 all of them ending in December and 2001 providing data by March same year). Reliability of the statistics, indeed, improved with the time.
The information in the first censuses covers a wide range of data: • Population statistic – sex, age, nationality, mother tongue, education, religion, different groups of disabled people • Occupation…. • Animal statistics- providing detailed information on the number of beasts on the village and town level; • Dwelling statistics – the data is broken down by villages/towns and by type of use – for living and for rent providing purposes • Vital statistics – marriage, number of family members, age at marriage, mortality and nativity
The Canadian census is run by Statistics Canada. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing Statistics to help The first census conducted in Canada was conducted in 1666, by French intendant Jean Talon, when he took a census to ascertain the number of people living in New France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. New France was governed by three rulers the governor, the bishop and the Intendant, all appointed by the King and sent from France Jean Talon Comte d'Orsainville (1625 baptised 8 January 1626 &ndash November 1694 was a French colonial administrator who was the first and most The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the The individual provinces conducted censuses, in the 19th century and before, sometimes in conjunction with each other. In 1871, Canada's first formal census was conducted, which counted the population of Nova Scotia, Ontario, New Brunswick, and Quebec. Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec New Brunswick ( French: Nouveau-Brunswick /nuvobʁɔnzwik/ is one of Canada 's three Maritime provinces and is the only constitutionally Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk In 1918, the Dominion Bureau of Statistics was formed, and replaced by Statistics Canada in 1971. The Dominion Bureau of Statistics was a Canadian government Organization responsible for Censuses It was formed in 1918 by the Statistics Act
Censuses in Canada are conducted in five-year intervals. The last two censuses were conducted in 2001 and 2006. Censuses taken in mid-decade (1976, 1986, 1996, etc. ) are referred to as quinquennial censuses. An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn meaning (returning yearly known in English since c. Others are referred to as decennial censuses. An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn meaning (returning yearly known in English since c. The first quinquennial census was conducted in 1956.
For the 2006 Census of Canada, respondents were able, for the first time, to choose to complete their census questionnaire online. Other options for answering the questionnaire include postal mail (using a pre-paid envelope) and telephone (using an 800 number). Basic principle A traditional landline telephone system also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS, commonly handles both signaling and audio information A toll-free, Freecall, Freephone, or 800 number is a special Telephone number, in that the Called party is charged the cost of the
See also: Canada 2001 Census, Canada 2006 Census. The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population
In the Province of Alberta, Section 57 of its Municipal Government Act (MGA) enables municipalities to perform their own censuses on any given year. Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 An official municipal census must be conducted no earlier than April 1 and no later than June 30 of the same year, according to the MGA's Determination of Population Regulation. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper If municipalities choose to make their census count official, the new population must be submitted to the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing prior to September 1 of the year the census was performed. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. The latest census counts for Alberta's municipalities are released in the Ministry's annual Official Population List publication.
AltaPop (Alberta Population) is a very useful website that builds upon the data provided by the Province and Statistics Canada. Visit AltaPop to compare municipal and federal census results by municipality, to analyse historic population trends by municipality, and to view detailed annual population summaries either by size of municipality or sorted alphabetically.
Population censuses have been taken in the People's Republic of China in 1913, 1944, 1972, 1999 and 2004. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES These were the world's biggest censuses as they attempted to count every man, woman and child in its colossal population. Some 6 million enumerators were enganged in the 2000 census. The first economic census was taken in 2004.
Costa Rica carried out its 9th population census in 2000. Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in The Costa Rica 2000 Census was undertaken by the National Institute of Statistics and Census ( Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, INEC in Spanish INEC, National Institute of Statistics and Census is in charge of conduct these census. Past Costa Rican censuses were conducted in 1864, 1883, 1892, 1927, 1950, 1963, 1973 and 1984.
Census in the Czech Republic is carried out every 10 years by the Czech Statistical Office. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, The last census was taken in 2001. Earlier censuses were taken in 1869, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1921, 1930, 1950, 1961, 1970, 1980 and 1991.
The first Danish census was in 1700-1701, and contained statistical information about adult men. Census taking in Denmark started in its modern form in 1769, and the next two censuses were taken in 1787 and 1801. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Only about half of it still exists. A census of school children was taken during the 1730s.
Following these early undertakings, the first census to attempt completely covering all citizens (including women and children who had previously been listed only as numbers) of Denmark-Norway was taken in 1769 . Denmark–Norway ( Danish: Danmark-Norge Norwegian: Danmark-Norge or Danmark-Noreg is the historiographical name for a former political entity union At that point there were 797 584 citizens in the kingdom. Georg Christian Oeder took a statistical census in 1771 which covered Copenhagen, Sjælland, Møn, and Bornholm. Copenhagen (ˌkəʊpənˈheɪgən ˌkəʊpənˈhɑːgən ˈkəʊpənˌheɪgən ˈkəʊpənˌhɑːgən kʰøb̥ənˈhɑʊ̯ˀn kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn is the capital and largest city Zealand (also Sealand Danish: Sjælland;) is the largest Island (7031 km² of Denmark (excluding Greenland Mön redirects here Mön is also the Icelandic name for the Isle of Man, q Bornholm (b̥ʌnˈhʌlˀm or [bɔʀnˈhɔlˀm]) ( Old Norse: Burgundarholm ' is a Danish Island in the Baltic Sea located
After that, censuses followed somewhat regularly in 1787, 1801, and 1834, and between 1840 and 1860, the censuses were taken every five years, and then every ten years until 1890. Special censuses for Copenhagen were taken in 1885 and 1895.
In the 20th century, censuses were taken every five years from 1901 to 1921, and then every ten years from 1930. The last traditional census was taken in 1970.
A limited population census based on registers was taken in 1976. From 1981 and each year onwards information that corresponds to a population and housing census is retrieved from registers. Denmark was the first country in the world to conduct these censuses from administrative registers. The most important registers are the population register (Det Centrale Personregister), a Building and Dwelling Register and an Enterprise Register. Det Centrale Personregister ( English: Civil Registration System) short CPR is a Danish nationwide centralised register of personal information The central statistical office, Statistics Denmark is responsible for compiling these data. Statistics Denmark ( Danish: Danmarks Statistik) is a Danish governmental organization under the Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs. This information is available online in the Statbank Denmark.
Three censuses have been taken in Ethiopia: 1984, 1994 and in 2007. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page The responsible institution is the Central Statistical Agency.
Most of the census in 2007 was taken in August, while the Somali Region and the Afar Region were not covered. Somali ( Gobolka Soomaalida) is the eastern-most of the nine ethnic divisions ( kililoch) of Ethiopia. Afar is one of the nine ethnic divisions ( Kililoch) of Ethiopia, and is the homeland of the Afar people. The northern Afar region is a remote, hot and arid area. The eastern Somali region (Ogaden) hosts a large nomadic Somali population and is a conflict area where Ethiopian regular forces are fighting against Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF). Ogaden (pronounced and often spelled Ogadēn ]] is the international name of the Somali Regional State in Ethiopia. The Ogaden National Liberation Front ( ONLF) (ኦጋደን፡ ብሔራዊ፡፡ነጽነት፡ግንባር( Somali: Jabhadda Wadaniga Xoreynta Ogaadeenya The Ogaden National Liberation Front ( ONLF) (ኦጋደን፡ ብሔራዊ፡፡ነጽነት፡ግንባር( Somali: Jabhadda Wadaniga Xoreynta Ogaadeenya
The first population census was taken in 1749 when Finland was a part of Sweden.
Napoleon Bonaparte began the census in France as a means of determining the number of potential soldiers under his rule. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Today, the census in France is carried out by INSEE. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. INSEE ( French: I nstitut N ational de la S tatistique et des É tudes É conomiques; inse (not) in French is the Since 2004, a partial census is carried out every year, and the results published as averages over 5 years.
The first systematic population on the European continent was taken in 1719 in Prussia (roughly corresponding to today's northern Germany and western Poland). Year 1719 ( MDCCXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state
The first large-scale census in the German Empire took place in 1895. The German census of 1895 was one of the first full-scale Censuses organized on all territories of the German Empire. Attempts at introducing a census in West Germany sparked strong popular resentment in the 1980s since many quite personal questions were asked. West Germany ( Inf German: Westdeutschland or West-Deutschland) was the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany ( Some campaigned for a boycott. In the end the Constitutional Court stopped the census in 1980 and 1983. A constitutional court is a high court that deals primarily with Constitutional law. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) The last census was in 1987. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) Germany has since used population samples in combination with statistical methods, in place of a full census. Sampling is that part of Statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern
Census takes place every 10 years and is carried out by the National Statistical Service of Greece . An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn meaning (returning yearly known in English since c. Last census was in 2001.
Modern population censuses have been taken in Guatemala in 1930, 1950, 1964, 1973, 1981, 1994 and in 2002. Controversial cenuses were in particular the ones in 1950 and 1964 (misclassification of the Maya population) and the 1994 census (generally questioned).
Relaciones Geográficas of Mexico and Guatemala, 1577-1585.
On May 25, 1577, King Philip II of Spain ordered by royal cédula the preparation of a general description of Spain's holdings in the Indies. Events 1085 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo Spain back from the Moors. Instructions and a questionnaire, issued in 1577 by the Office of the Cronista Mayor-Cosmógrafo, were distributed to local officials in the Viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru to direct the gathering of information. The questionnaire, composed of fifty items, was designed to elicit basic information about the nature of the land and the life of its peoples. The replies, known as "relaciones geográficas," were written between 1579 and 1585 and were returned to the Cronista Mayor-Cosmógrafo in Spain by the Council of the Indies.
Census takes place every 10 years and by-census between two censuses by the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. Population census in Hong Kong ( a collection of demographic data in Hong Kong, is conducted by Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn meaning (returning yearly known in English since c. The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ( see pronunciation; conventional short The last census was conducted in 2001 and the last by-census was taken in 2006.
Official decennial censuses have been taken in Hungary since 1870; the latest one – in line with the recommendations of the United Nations and the Statistical Office of the European Union – was carried out in 2001. Starting from 1880 the Hungarian census system was based on native language (the language spoken at home in the early life of the person and at the time of the survey), vulgar language (the most frequently used language in the family), and other spoken languages.
The first Icelandic census took place in 1703, following upon the first Danish census of 1700-1701. Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Further censuses were carried out in 1801, 1845 and 1865. The 1703 exercise was the first ever census to cover all inhabitants of an entire country, mentioning the name, age and social position of each individual. All of the information still exists, although some of the original documents have been lost.
The setting up, in 1952, of the National Register (þjóðskrá) eliminated the need for censuses. All those born in Iceland, and all new residents, are automatically registered. Individuals are identified in the register by means of a national identification number (the so-called kennitala), a number composed of the date of birth in the format ddmmyy and four additional digits, the last of which indicates the century in which the person was born (9 for the 1900s and 0 for the 2000s). A national identification number is used by the Governments of many countries as a means of tracking their Citizens Permanent residents and temporary residents
In Iceland, the National Register also doubles as electoral register. The electoral roll (or electoral register) is a listing of all those registered to vote in a particular area Likewise, all bank accounts are linked to the national identification of the owner (companies and institutions all have their own identification numbers).
The decennial census of India is the primary source of information about the demographic characteristics of the population of India which is the second biggest country of the world in terms of population. The Demographics of India are overall remarkably diverse India's population of approximately 1 India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Demographics of India are overall remarkably diverse India's population of approximately 1
The first census in India in modern times is dated 1872. It started as far back as in 1860 and was finished in 1871. Starting from there, a population census has been carried out every 10 years, latest being the fourteenth in February-March 2001. An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn meaning (returning yearly known in English since c.
Census is carried out by the office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India, Delhi an office under the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Delhi (दिल्ली ਦਿੱਲੀ دلی d̪ɪlːiː sometimes referred to as Dilli) is the second largest metropolis of India, with a population under the Census of India Act, 1948. The act gives Central Government many powers like to notify a date for Census, power to ask for the services of any citizen for census work. The law makes it compulsory for every citizen to answer the census questions truthfully. The Act provides penalties for giving false answers or not giving answers at all to the census questionnaire. One of the most important provisions of law is the guarantee for the maintenance of secrecy of the information collected at the census of each individual. The census records are not open to inspection and also not admissible in evidence.
Census happens in two phases, first House Listing and House Numbering Operations and second actual population enumeration phase. Census is carried out by the canvassing method. In this method, each and every household is visited and the information is collected by a specially trained enumerator.
9 February 2001, the first day of the 2001 census was celebrated as the census day. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.
The first census in Israel was held in November 1948, six months after the creation of the state. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Subsequent censuses took place in 1961, 1972, 1983 and 1995. The aforementioned were conducted by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה HaLishka HaMerkazit LeStatistika) abbreviated CBS, is an Israeli
The census in Italy is carried out by ISTAT every 10 years. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Istituto Nazionale di Statistica ( Istat) is the Italian national statistical institute An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn meaning (returning yearly known in English since c. The last four were in 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001.
Japan collects census information every five years. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The figures show the English translation of the 2005 census form. The form solicits information on name, sex, relationship to head of household, year and month of birth, marital status, nationality, number of members of household, type and nature of dwelling, floor area of dwelling, number of hours worked during the week prior to October 1, employment status, name of employer and type of business, and kind of work. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.
Explanation of census form, side 1
Explanation of census form, side 2
The first population census after the independence in 1946 was taken in 1952. It did only count the number of people in the households and could therefore be considered only to be a housing census. The first real complete census was taken in 1961. The following censuses have been taken in 1979, 1994 and 2004. The distribution of Palestinians and Jordanians within the population has been a politically sensetive issue since the Six-Day war in 1967. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt
Census in Kenya was first held in 1948, when Kenya was still a Colony administrated by the British. The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south Since 1969 census has been taken every ten years. The last census to date was in 1999. 
Kosovo is formally a part of Serbia but has been administrated by the UN since 1999. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security A population census was planned under international supervision for 2007.
The most recent census in Latvia was in 2000. Before that, it was about 6 censuses, most part of these previous censuses was in the USSR time. The census in Latvia is carried out by Centrālā Statistikas Pārvalde (Central Statistical Bureau). Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region.
No census has been taken in Lebanon since 1932. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية
The foundation of the Republic of Macedonia followed the break up of the former Yugoslav Republic in 1991. The first population and housing census was taken in the summer 1994. The second census was taken in the autumn 2002. Both censuses were observed by international experts due to the sensitive issue regarding the ethnic distribution (Macedonian vs Albanian population).
Population censuses are taken every 10th year in Mexico. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The latest have been in 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000 (the 12th census).
The first census was taken in 1980. The second in 1997. The third was taken 1-14 August 2007.
The first census in the Netherlands was conducted in 1795, and the last in 1971. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands A law was produced on April 22, 1879, ordering a census to be conducted every ten years. Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil. Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
The census that was planned for 1981 was postponed and later cancelled. A call for privacy was responsible for the cancellation of any further census since 1991. Censuses are being conducted by the Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (Statistics Netherlands) since 1899. Statistics Netherlands, founded in 1899, is a Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands. The censuses today are mostly (population, fiscal) register based, combined with surveying.
The census in New Zealand is carried out by Statistics New Zealand (Tatauranga Aotearoa), every five years. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Statistics New Zealand (In Māori, Te Tari Tatau) is the state sector organisation of New Zealand which is responsible for the country's official The last was on 7 March 2006. Events 161 - Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. For the 2006 Census of New Zealand, respondents could choose to complete their census questionnaire online. See New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings. The New Zealand government department Statistics New Zealand conducts a Census of Population and Dwellings every five years
Population censuses are taken every 10th year in Nepal. Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. The latest were in 1981, 1991 and 2001 (the 6th census)
Population censuses have been taken in Nigeria during colonial time in 1866, 1871, 1896, 1901, 1911, 1921 and 1952. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal The censuses covered only the southern part of the country except for the 1952 census which was country wide, and the censuses before 1921 were based on administrative estimates rather than on an actual enumeration.
Censuses during the independence were taken 1963, 1973, 1991 and 2006. The results from 1973 were highly disputed. The preliminary results for 2006 indicates a population of 140,000,000. 700,000 enumerators were engaged in this operation.
The two first male censuses was conducted during the 1660s and 1701. Later statistical censuses were held in 1769, 1815, 1835, 1845, and 1855. Norway’s first nominative, complete census was taken in 1801, when Norway still was ruled by the Oldenburg dynasty of Denmark-Norway. Denmark–Norway ( Danish: Danmark-Norge Norwegian: Danmark-Norge or Danmark-Noreg is the historiographical name for a former political entity union The scope of the census followed the de jure principle, so military persons should be included as well as foreigners if they were residents. The 1865, 1875 and 1900 censuses are digitized, and are made searchable on the internet. The census records are made public available when 100 years have passed. Since 1900, a census has been conducted every ten years. (However, the 1940 census was postponed to 1946. ) Since 2001 the population census has been combined with the housing statistics.
Censuses have been taken in the Sultanate of Oman in 1993 and 2003. Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is an Arab Country in Southwest Asia on the southeast
The first census in Peru was carried out in 1836. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The tenth and last one was the 2005 Census and was carried out by Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. The Peru 2005 Census was a detailed enumeration The Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI ("National Institute of Statistics and Informatics" is a semi-autonomous Peruvian government agency The next census will be the 2007 Census. The Peru 2007 Census will be a detailed
The census in Poland is carried out by GUS every circa 10 years. Censuses in Poland: Polish census of 1921 Polish census of 1931 Polish census of 1950 Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn meaning (returning yearly known in English since c. The last one occurred in 2002 between May 21 and June 8. Polish census of 2002 (Narodowy Spis Powszechny 2002 was a Census in Poland taken from 21 May to 8 June 2002 During the national census in 2002 the following censuses were conducted at the same time: National Population and Housing Census and National Agricultural Census.
The first census in Portugal was carried out in 1864. The census in Portugal is carried out by INE every 10 years. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The Instituto Nacional de Estatística is the National Statistical Institute of Portugal. An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn meaning (returning yearly known in English since c. The last one occurred in 2001.
The census in the Republic of Ireland is carried out by the Central Statistics Office (Ireland). Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. The Central Statistics Office ( CSO) or in Irish An Phríomh-Oifig Staidrimh ( POS) is the Statistical agency responsible for the gathering of The previous two censuses were carried out in 2002 and most recently on April 23, 2006. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The census is carried out every five years, except in 2001, whose census was postponed to 2002 due to the outbreak of foot and mouth disease. Foot-and-mouth disease ( FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease ( Aphtae epizooticae) is a highly contagious and sometimes fatal viral According to the 2006 form, "any person who fails or refuses to provide information or who knowingly provides false information may be subject to a fine of up to €25,000," under the Central Statistics Act 1993.
The census in Ireland is very similar to that of the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located That is, the "100 year" law applies here as well, as does the recent addition of a question regarding religion to the 2006 census. However, the 1911 Census for the whole of Ireland was made publicly available some time ago, and is available free online (unlike digitised censuses from the United Kingdom).
Since the very first census, the question of "Can you speak Irish?" has been asked. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. This has often led to misleading figures, as many people know how to speak some Irish through schooling, but do not actually speak it frequently. The 2006 census included how often you spoke the language if you had chosen the "Yes" answer if you spoke Irish.
Also, on the CSO website, instructions for non-English speaking residents of the Republic of Ireland were available. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States They were mock copies of the census forms, with all headings/questions etc. being translated into a particular language. These were not to be filled out, but were only a guide on how to fill out the English or Irish form.
This census also asked two unique questions relating to ownership of PCs and what Internet connection your home had. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks The next census will take place in the year 2011.
The first census in Romania was carried out in 1859. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Nowadays it is carried every ten years by the Institutul Naţional de Statistică (INSSE). The National Institute of Statistics (Institutul Naţional de Statistică is a Romanian government agency which is responsible for collecting national Statistics, The last one occurred in 2002.
In Russia, the first (and the only) Russian Empire Census was carried out in 1897. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Russian Empire Census of 1897 was the first and the only Census carried out in the Russian Empire. All-Union Population Censuses were carried out in the USSR (which included RSFSR and the other republics) in 1920 (urban only), 1926, 1937, 1939, 1959, 1970, 1979, and 1989. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The First All Union Census of the Soviet Union took place in 1926 The 1989 Soviet Census was the final and most comprehensive census taken within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The first post-Soviet Russian Census was carried out in 2002. Russian Census of 2002 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2002 го́да was the first Census of the Russian Federation carried The next census is tentatively planned for 2010. Currently, the census is the responsibility of the Federal State Statistics Service.
Population censuses have been taken in Saudi Arabia in 1962/63 (incomplete), 1974 (complete but not reliable), 1992 and 2004. An agriculture census was taken in 1999.
The census takes place every 10 years. The last census was in 2002 (although having been planned for 2001), the previous one was in 1991 and the next is planned for 2011.
The first census of modern Slovenia was carried in 1991, after independence had been declared. Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. The Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (Statistični urad Republike Slovenije) conducted the second census in 2002. Further censuses are planned for every 10 years.
The first census of South Africa was taken in 1911. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Several enumerations have occurred since then , with the most recent two being carried out by Statistics South Africa in 1996 and 2001. Statistics South Africa is the national Statistics board of South Africa. Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) The South African National Census of 2001 is the most recent national Census of South Africa.
The census in Spain is carried out by INE every 10 years. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The National Institute of Statistics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística is the official organisation in Spain that collects Statistics about demography An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn meaning (returning yearly known in English since c. The first modern census was carried out in 1768 by Conde de Aranda, under the reign of Carlos III. Charles III ( January 20, 1716 – December 14, 1788) was King of Spain 1700–88 (as Carlos III King of Naples and The last four were in 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001.
Population censuses have been carried out in Sudan in 1955/56, 1973 (national), 1983 (national) and 1993 (only north). Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. A census is planned for April 2008.
The first population census in Sweden was carried out in 1749. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The last population and housing census was carried out in 1990. It is planned to conduct population and housing censuses based on registers in the future.
In Switzerland, the Federal Population Census (German: Eidgenössische Volkszählung, French: Recensement fédéral de la population, Italian: Censimento federale della popolazione) has been carried out every 10 years starting in 1850. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. For the game see 1850 (board game. 1850 ( MDCCCL) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link The census was initiated by Federal Councillor Stefano Franscini, who evaluated the data of the first census all by himself after Parliament failed to provide the necessary funds. The Swiss Federal Council (Schweizerischer Bundesrat Conseil fédéral suisse Consiglio federale svizzero Cussegl federal Stefano Franscini ( October 23, 1796 – July 19, 1857) was a Swiss Politician and Statistician.  The census is now being conducted by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office, which makes most results available on its website.
Data being collected include population data (citizenship, place of residence, place of birth, position in household, number of children, religion, languages, education, profession, place of work, etc. ), household data (number of individuals living in the household, etc. ), accommodation data (surface area, amount of rent paid, etc. ) and building data (geocoordinates, time of construction, number of floors, etc. In Mathematics and its applications a coordinate system is a system for assigning an n - Tuple of Numbers or scalars to each point ). Participation is compulsory and reached 99. 87% of the population in 2000. 
Starting in 2010, the census will cease to be conducted through written questionnaires distributed nationwide. Instead, data in existing population registers will be used. That data will be supplemented with a biannual questionnaire sample of 200,000 people as well as regular microcensuses.
The first population census in Syria was taken by the French Mandatory Regime in 1921-22. This is however not considered reliable. Censuses during independence have been taken 1947, 1960 (the first comprehensive demographic investigation), 1970, 1976 (a sample census), 1981, 1994 and 2004.
The Turkish census is run by Devlet İstatistik Enstitüsü. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The first census in Turkey was conducted in 1927. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches After 1935, it took place in every 5 years until 1990. Now, the census takes place every 10 years. The last census was in 2000. It can be noted that the census enumeration takes place on one single day in Turkey (in other countries it takes 1-2 weeks). This required some 900,000 enumerators in 2000. The 15th census based on improved geographical information systems is planned for 2010.
A census was taken in the Ottoman Empire 1831-38 by Sultan Mahmud II (1808-1839) as a part of the reform movement Tanzimat. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Mahmud II ( Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثاني Mahmud-ı sānī) ( July 20, 1785 July 1, 1839 The Tanzimat ( Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 Christian and Jewish men were counted but the female population was excluded. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth PLEASE TAKE NOTE************
The first censuses in Uganda were taken 1911, 1921 and 1931. The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. It was done in a rather primitive way. Enumeration unit was 'huts' and not individuals. In Mathematics and theoretical Computer science, the broadest and most abstract definition of an enumeration of a set is an exact listing of all of its More scientific censuses were taken 1948 and 1959 where the enumeration unit was persons. The census was however divided into two separate enumerations, one for Africans, and one for the non-African population. The censuses during independence 1969, 1980, 1991 were taken jointly for all races. The censuses 1980 and 1991 included housing information and in addition a larger questionnaire for a sample of the population. It can be mentioned that the questionnaires for the 1980 were lost and only provisional figures are available from this census. The census in 2002 involved some 50,000 enumerators and supervisors.
The first post-Soviet Ukrainian Census was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine in 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. The first Ukrainian Census was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last Soviet Union census Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.
In the 7th century, Dál Riata (now western Scotland and northern County Antrim in Northern Ireland) was the first territory in what is now the UK to conduct a census, with what was called the "Tradition of the Men of Alba" (Senchus fer n-Alban). The United Kingdom has taken a Census of its population every ten years since 1801 with the exception of 1941 ( during the Second World War) Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Gaelic overkingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland with some territory on the northern Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. County Antrim ( Contae Aontroma or simply Aontroim in Irish) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, and one of nine counties Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Alba is the Scottish Gaelic name (ˈalˠ̪əpə for Scotland. The Senchus Fer n-Alban (The History of the men of Scotland is an Old Irish medieval text believed to have been compiled in the 10th century England took its first Census when the Domesday Book was compiled in 1086 for tax purposes. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Domesday Book (ˈduːmzdeɪ bʊk also known as Domesday, or Book of Winchester) was the record of the great survey
Following the influence of Malthus and concerns stemming from his An Essay On The Principle Of Population the UK census as we know it today started in 1801. Thomas Robert Malthus FRS (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834 was an English political economist and demographer who expressed views This was championed by John Rickman who managed the first four up to 1831, partly to ascertain the number of men able to fight in the Napoleonic wars. John Rickman ( 22 August 1771 &ndash 11 August 1840) was an English government official and Statistician of the early nineteenth The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions Rickman's 12 reasons - set out in 1798 and repeated in Parliamentary debates - for conducting a UK census included the following justifications:
The census has been conducted every ten years since 1801 and most recently in 2001. The first four censuses (1801-1831) were mainly statistical (that is, they were mainly headcounts and contained virtually no personal information).
The 1841 Census, conducted by the General Register Office, was the first to record the names of everyone in a household or institution. However, their relationship to the head of the household wasn’t noted, although sometimes this can be inferred from the occupation shown (eg servant). Those under the age of 15 had their proper ages listed, but for those who were older the ages were supposed to be rounded down to the nearest five years, although this rule was not strictly adhered to. Precise birthplaces were not given - at best the birthplace can be narrowed down to the county in which the person was living.
From 1851 onwards the census shows the exact age and relationship to the head of household for each individual; the place of birth was also listed, but with varying degrees of precision. Sometimes those who were born abroad have the annotation B. S. or British Subject.
The censuses are reasonably accurate. However, ages in particular are frequently shown incorrectly, though often the difference is only one year; in general the younger the individual the more accurate the age shown. Birthplaces often vary from one census to the next: a common error is to show the place where the census was taken as the birthplace, but most of the variations in birthplace can be accounted for by changes in geographical scale (for example, the nearest town being shown instead of the precise village, or a city being shown instead of the relevant suburb).
The censuses are also remarkably complete - though inevitably a small percentage of the population wasn’t recorded for one reason or another, and in some cases the records are missing or damaged (notably in 1861). Furthermore, all censuses of Ireland before 1901 have been lost or destroyed.
Because of World War II, there was no census in 1941. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including However, following the passage into law (on 5 September 1939) of the National Registration Act a population count was carried out on 29 September 1939, which was, in effect, a census. Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The census of England & Wales is undertaken for the government by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) for policy and planning purposes, and statistical information is also made available in published reports and on the ONS's website. The Office for National Statistics (ONS is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly Scotland carry out their own census by the General Register Office for Scotland(GROS), while Northern Ireland also carry out their own census by Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA). Public access to the census returns is restricted under the terms of the 100-year rule and the most recent returns made available to researchers are those of the 1901 Census.
The 2001 census was the first year in which the government asked about religion. A nationwide Census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 Perhaps encouraged by a hoax chain letter that started in New Zealand, 390,000 people entered their religion as Jedi Knight (more than Sikhs, Buddhists or Jews), with some areas registering up to 2. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Jedi are members of a fictional monastic order in the ''Star Wars'' galaxy, created by George Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ 6% of people as "Jedi". It was wrongly implied in emails that stating "Jedi" on the form would cause it to become an "official religion". No such thing exists in the United Kingdom. However, the director of reporting and analysis at the ONS stated that it may have helped with the collection process as it encouraged young people, who are often missed, to complete forms. (See Jedi census phenomenon. The Jedi census phenomenon is a Grassroots movement that was created in 2001 for citizens in a number of English-speaking countries to record their Religion )
All of the British censuses from 1841-1901 have been transcribed and indexed and are available online; there is a joint project between the National Archives of Ireland and Library and Archives Canada to digitize the 1901 and 1911 censuses for the whole of Ireland, and it is possible this will be completed by the end of 2007. The next UK census is planned for 2011. 
The United States Constitution mandates that the census be taken at least once every ten years, and that the number of members of the United States House of Representatives from each state be determined accordingly. The United States Census is a decennial Census mandated by the United States Constitution. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. In addition, census statistics are used for apportioning Federal funding for many social and economic programs.
The first U.S. Census was conducted in 1790 by Federal marshals. The United States Census is a decennial Census mandated by the United States Constitution. Year 1790 ( MDCCXC) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Census-takers went door-to-door and recorded the number of people in each household, along with the name of the head of the household. Slaves were enumerated, but for apportionment purposes each counted as only three-fifths of a citizen. The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which American Indians being neither taxed nor considered during apportionment were not counted in the census. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States The first census counted 3. 9 million people, less than half the population of New York City in 2000; the 2000 census counted over 281 million people. The City of New York In 1902, Congress established the Census Bureau as a permanent Federal agency. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census This is an incomplete list of United States federal agencies.
In recent times, there were two forms of questionnaire – long and short. The Long Form and its additional questions about items such as daily commute times, housing unit factors, etc. has been replaced by the American Community Survey (ACS). The American Community Survey (ACS is a project of the US Census Bureau that replaces the long form in the decennial Census. Computer algorithms (based on complex sampling rules) determined which form was mailed to a given household (in practice, of those households whose locations are on the Census Master Address List), one in six receiving the long form. In Mathematics, Computing, Linguistics and related subjects an algorithm is a sequence of finite instructions often used for Calculation This was supplemented by census workers going door-to-door to talk to people who failed to return the forms. In addition to a simple count of residents, the Census Bureau collects a variety of statistics, on topics ranging from ethnicity to the presence of indoor plumbing. Plumbing, from the Latin plumbum for Lead, is the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and Plumbing fixtures for While some critics claim that census questions are an invasion of privacy, the data collected by every question is either required to enforce some federal law (such as the Voting Rights Act) or is required to administer some federal program. Background See also [[Disfranchisement after the Civil War]] The 13th Amendment, ratified in 1865 after the Civil War, abolished and prohibited The United States Congress gives approval to every question asked on the Census. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses
Despite a massive effort, the Census Bureau has never been able to count every individual, leading to controversy about whether to use statistical methods to supplement the numbers for some purposes, as well as arguments over how to improve the actual head count. The Supreme Court has ruled that only an actual head count can be used to apportion Congressional seats; however, cities and minority representatives have complained that urban residents and minorities are undercounted. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. In several cases, the Census Bureau will recount an area with disputed figures, provided the local government pays for the time and effort. The State of Utah protested the figures of the 2000 decennial census because it stood to gain a seat in the House of Representatives, but North Carolina gained it instead. The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States Had the Census Bureau been mandated to count the numbers of Utahns living overseas, including many Mormon missionaries, Utah might have gained the seat. TalkMormon#Latter Day Saint vs Latter-day Saint --> Mormon
To minimize the burden on individuals and to provide improved data, the Bureau is preparing several alternative methods for gathering economic, demographic, and social information, including the American Community Survey and record linking of depersonalized administrative records with other administrative records and Census Bureau surveys. The American Community Survey (ACS is a project of the US Census Bureau that replaces the long form in the decennial Census.
By law (92 Stat. 915, Public Law 95-416, enacted on October 5, 1978), census records are sealed for 72 years. Events 869 - The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) This figure has remained unchanged since prior to the updates of the 1978 law, reflecting an era when life expectancy was under 60 years, and thus attempts to protect individual's privacy by prohibiting the release of such information during their expected lifetimes. Thus, the most recent Census released to the public was the 1930 Census, released in 2002.
Indexes to some of the U. S. Censuses have been produced over the years, making the process of searching old census records much easier. Some indexes of census records have been produced by amateur volunteer genealogists. Due to the sheer volume of information, and the manual methodologies involved, the indexing used to be limited to the head-of-household. These indexes were published in bound volumes and are often available in regional libraries along with microfilm rolls that can be researched.
While valuable, indexes produced from these censuses can be problematic to use. The original census records from this era were completed by hand by census enumerators; this leads to problems in handwriting recognition and variations in spelling of surnames within the original documents.
The 1880 to 1920 censuses have indexes of last names, produced using the Soundex system; the indexing project was performed by the Works Progress Administration. Soundex is a Phonetic algorithm for indexing names by sound as pronounced in English. The Works Progress Administration (renamed in 1939 the Work Projects Administration; WPA) was the largest New Deal agency employing millions of people The Soundex system is tolerant of variations in spelling; names with similar sounds but different spellings have the same encoding. The chief motivation in producing the Soundex name indexes was to assist citizens in finding census records to provide evidence of age, especially for those born before the advent of governmentally-approved birth certificates. (Verification of age was needed to establish eligibility for old-age benefits such as Social Security). Social Security, in the United States currently refers to the federal Old-Age Survivors and Disability Insurance ( OASDI) program Partial Soundex indexes of the 1930 census are available; resources from the Works Progress Administration were diverted towards support of World War II efforts before the project was completed. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
With the advent of computers, and more recently, the Internet, expanded indexes including all family members are beginning to appear on genealogy websites. These are accompanied with hypertext links that take the researcher directly to an image of the original census page, without having to travel to a regional library and scroll through endless rolls of microfilm. (see http://www.familysearch.org or http://www.ancestry.com or http://www.census-online.com/links/ for examples)
Genealogists view censuses as secondary sources of information; primary sources of information such as birth certificates and even obituaries are viewed as more reliable. Still, census information often provides useful information for genealogists and clues on where to proceed to find further primary source documents.
Researchers must use care when working with census records. Census taker handwriting varies from excellent to illegible. Information may also be inaccurate due to spelling variants by the recorder. Some information, especially ages, may be incorrect due to vanity or confusion on the part of the information giver. Birthplaces may not be accurate depending on which family member gave the information. With these and other cautions in mind, census records can be very informative and useful.
In additional to the decennial federal census, more localized versions are often used. An example of this is Massachusetts, which takes a statewide census every fifth year. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Likewise, each community in Massachusetts takes a municipal census each year. Some states conducted limited censuses for various purposes which predate the 1790 federal census schedules. Various state archives can usually direct the researcher to these sources.