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Freedom of speech by country
Censorship in Italy was not created with Fascism, nor did it end with it, but it had heavy influence in the life of Italians under the Regime. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor The working conditions of Journalists in Algeria have evolved since the 1962 independence. Australia is a federation, and responsibility for censorship is divided between the states and the federal government Censorship in Belarus Freedom of press In 2007 Reporters Without Borders ranked Belarus 151st out of 168 countries in its global press freedom listing Censorship in Bhutan is comparable to its South Asian neighbours although not as focused or systematic as censorship in China. Censorship in Burma (or Myanmar refers to government policies in controlling and regulating certain information particularly on religious, ethnic, political In Canada the principles of Community standards and Public interests are the primary adjudicants of what may be published or broadcast by the media. Censorship in the People's Republic of China is the limiting or suppressing of the publishing dissemination and viewing of certain information in the People's Republic of China Censorship in Cuba has been reported on extensively and resulted in European Union sanctions as well as statements of protest from groups governments and noted individuals As with many Soviet-allied countries prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall the government of the former German Democratic Republic (German Deutsche Demokratische Republik) applied In standard conditions France does not have Censorship laws being a Liberal democracy respectful of Freedom of press. Censorship in Germany has taken many forms during the history of the region. Censorship in India mainly targets religious issues It is justified by the government as necessary to maintain communal harmony peace and tranquillity given the history of communal tension Censorship in Iran is the limiting or suppressing of the publishing dissemination and viewing of certain information in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Although Ireland does not currently exercise much censorship in practice the state has wide-ranging laws which allow censorship and has specific laws covering Films, Israel has media censorship laws based on British emergency regulations from 1945 that apply to domestic media foreign newspapers and wire service transmissions from In Japan, Article 21 of the Japanese Constitution guarantees freedom of expression and prohibits formal censorship Censorship is a growing concern for Malaysia as it attempts to adapt to a modern knowledge-based economy The Government of Pakistan censors all Internet traffic by means of Routing all connections through a central exchange which is administered by the Censorship has been a fundamental element of Portuguese national culture throughout the country's history. The United States Department of State Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Samoa states that "The law provides for freedom of speech and of the Censorship in Saudi Arabia is prevalent in the press and with internet access Censorship in Singapore mainly targets sexual political racial and religious issues as defined by an ever-shifting panoply of out-of-bounds markers. Censorship in South Asia can apply to books movies the Internet and other media North Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) has a high degree of censorship and no Freedom of the press. Censorship in the Soviet Union was pervasive and strictly enforced Sweden strongly protects freedom of speech and was a pioneer in officially abolishing Censorship. Censorship in the Republic of China ( Taiwan) was eliminated in 1987 Freedom of speech in Thailand was guaranteed in the articles 39 40 41 in the 1997 Constitution. Censorship in Tunisia has been an issue since the country gained independence in 1956. Freedom of expression in Turkey is regulated by domestic and international legislation which Censorship in the United Kingdom has a long history with variously stringent and lax laws in place at different times although a much more liberal approach has been taken in recent years According to the Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index the United States is currently ranked 48th in the world in terms of press freedom Freedom of speech is the concept of the inherent human right to voice one's opinion publicly without fear of Censorship or Punishment Advertising regulation refers to the Laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region Editing of anime in American distribution describes the process of altering Anime to prepare it to be distributed in the United States and forms part of the process Many societies have banned certain Books This is a partial list of books that have been banned. For nearly the entire History of film production certain films have been either Boycotted by political and religious groups or literally banned by a Regime A re-edited film is a Film that has been edited from the original theatrical release Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet. Censorship of Music, the practice of censoring Music from the public may take the form of partial or total censorship with the latter banning the music entirely Similar to other forms of media Video games have been the subject of debate and Censorship. Censorship on MTV has been the subject of debate for years MTV the first and most popular Music Television network in the U Book burning (a category of biblioclasm or book destruction is the practice of destroying often ceremoniously, one or more copies of a book or other written material A bleep censor (or " bleeping " is the replacement of verbal Profanity with a beep sound (usually a) in television or radio Content-control software, also known as censorware or web filtering software, is a term for software designed and optimized for controlling what content Expurgation is a form of Censorship by way of purging anything noxious offensive sinful or erroneous usually from an artistic work Pixelization is a video- and image-editing technique where an image or part of it is blurred by displaying part or all of it at a markedly lower resolution Postal censorship is the Inspection or examination of Mail, most often by Governments that can include opening reading or marking of covers, Prior restraint is a Legal term referring to a Government 's actions that prevent materials from being published Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own work ( Blog, Book (s Film (s or other means of expression out To Whitewash is to gloss over or cover up vices crimes or to exonerate by means of a perfunctory investigation or through biased presentation of data A gag order (or suppression order) is an order sometimes a legal order by a court or government other times a private order by an employer or other institution restricting Corporate censorship is Censorship by Corporations the sanctioning of speech by spokespersons employees and business associates by threat of monetary loss loss Political censorship exists when a Government attempts to conceal distort or falsify information that its citizens receive by suppressing or crowding out political news Censorship by religion is a form of Censorship where Freedom of expression is controlled or limited using Religious authority or on the basis of the teachings Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology
The main goals of this activity were, concisely:
Censorship fought ideological and defeatist contents, and any other work or content that could enforce disturbing cultural themes.
This branch of the activity was mainly ruled by the Ministero della Cultura Popolare (Ministry of popular culture), commonly abbreviated as Min. Cul. Pop. (with a weird assonance). This administration had competence on all the contents that could appear in newspapers, radio, literature, theatre, cinema, and generally any other form of communication or art.
In literature, editorial industries had their own controlling servants steadily on site, but sometimes it could happen that some texts reached the libraries and in this case an efficient organization was able to capture all the copies in a very short time.
An important note deserves the question of foreign languages: with the "Autarchia" (the general maneuver for self-sufficiency) they had been banned, and any attempt to use a non-Italian word resulted in a formal censoring action.
Censorship did not however impose heavy limits on foreign literature, and many of the foreigner authors were freely readable. Those authors could freely frequent Italy and even write about it, with no reported troubles.
In 1930 it was forbidden the distribution of books that contained Marxist or like ideologies, but these books could be collected in public libraries in special sections not open to the general public. Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The same happened for the books that were sequestrated. All these texts could be read under authorization for scientific or cultural purposes, but it is said that this permission was quite easy to obtain. Books were burnt in 1938: those works containing themes about Jewish culture, freemasonry, communist ideas, were removed also by libraries (but it has been said that effectively the order was not executed with zeal, being a very unpopular position of the Regime). Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In order to avoid inspections by the police, many librarians just preferred to hide the texts, which in fact were found at the end of the war.
It has been said that Italian press self-censored itself before the censorship commission could do it. Effectively the actions against press were formally very few, but it has been noted that due to press hierarchical organization, the regime felt to be quite safe, controlling it by the direct naming of directors and responsible.
Most of the intellectuals that after the was would have freely expressed their anti-fascism, were however journalists during fascism, and quite comfortably could find a way to work in a system in which news directly came from the government (so-called "veline", by the tissue-paper used for type-writer copies) and only had to be adapted to the forms and the styles of each respective target audience.
Newer revisionists talk about a servility of journalists, but are surprisingly followed in this concept by many other authors and by some leftist ones too, since the same suspect was always attributed to Italian press, before, during and after the Ventennio, and still in recent times the category has not completely demonstrated yet its independence from "strong powers". A well known Italian journalist writer, Ennio Flaiano, certainly an anti-fascist, used to say that journalists don't need to care of "that irrelevant majority of Italians". Ennio Flaiano ( March 5, 1910 in Pescara – November 20 1972 in Rome) was an Italian screenwriter playwright novelist
Independent (illegal) press used clandestine print and distribution, and was mainly connected with the activities of local political groups.
The control on legitimate papers was practically operated by faithful civil servants at the printing machines and this allows reporting a common joke affirming that any text that could reach readers had been "written by the Duce and approved by the foreman".
As in any strong system, fascist censorship suggested to compose papers with a wider attention on chronicle in the most delicate political moments, in order to distract the public opinion from the dangerous passages of the government. Press then created "monsters" or focused on other terrifying figures (murderers, serial killers, terrorists, pedophiles, etc. ). When needed, an image of a safe ordered State was instead to be stressed, then police were able to capture all the criminals and, as a famous topic says, trains were always in perfect time. All these maneuvers were commonly directed by MinCulPop directly.
For completeness, it has to be recalled that after the fascism, democratic republic did not change the essence of the fascist law on press, which is now organized as it was before, like the law on access to the profession of journalist remained unaltered.
About satire and related press, Fascism was not more severe, and in fact a famous magazine, Marc'Aurelio, was able to live with little trouble. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human In 1924-1925, during the most violent times of fascism (when squads used brutality against opposition) with reference to the death of Giacomo Matteotti killed by fascists, Marc'Aurelio published a series of heavy jokes and "comic" drawings describing Mussolini finally distributing peace; eternal peace, in this case. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Giacomo Matteotti ( 22 May 1885 – 10 June 1924) was an Italian socialist politician Marc'Aurelio however would have turned to a more integrated tone during the following years and in 1938 (the year of the racial laws) published tasteless anti-Semitic contents. Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Quite obviously, any telephone call was at risk of being intercepted and, sometimes, interrupted by censors.
Not all the letters were opened, but not all those which were read by censors had the regular stamp that recorded the executed control. Most of the censorship was very probably not declared, in order to secretly consent further police investigations.
Chattering en plein air was indeed very risky, as a special section of investigators dealt with what people was saying on the roads; an eventual accusation by some policeman in disguise was evidently very hard to disprove and many people reported of having been falsely accused of anti-national sentiments, just for personal interests of the spy. Consequently, after the first cases, people commonly avoided talking publicly.
The greatest amount of documents about fascist censorship comes from the military commissions for censorship.
This is also due to some facts: first of all the war had brought many Italians far from their houses, creating a need for writing to their families that previously did not exist. Secondarily, in a critic situation as a war can be, obviously military authorities were compelled to a major activity in order to control eventual internal oppositions, spies or (most important) defeatists. Finally, the result of the war could not allow fascists to hide or delete these documents (which it is supposed might have happened for other ones before the war), that remained in public offices where they were found by occupating troops. So we can now read thousands of letters that soldiers sent to their families, and these documents revealed as a unique resource for sociology (and general knowledge about those times).
The work was daily organized, resumed and composed in a note that daily was received by Mussolini or his apparatus and by the other major authorities. (See, in Italian, a wide excerpt here )
Notes reported, i. e. , what soldiers could think about relevant events, what was the opinion in Italy, similar arguments.
The fact that Italians were well aware of the fact that any communication could be intercepted, recorded, analyzed and eventually used against them, caused that censorship in time became a sort of usual rule to consider, and soon most people used jargons or other conventional systems to overtake the rules. Opposition was expressed in satiric ways or with some geniously studied legal tricks, one of which was to sing publicly the Hymn of Sardinia, which should have been forbidden not being in Italian language, but it could not be forbidden being one of the symbols of the Savoy house.
It has to be said that in most of the small villages, life continued as before, since the local authorities used a very familiar style in executing such orders. Also in many urban realities, civil servants used little zeal and more humanity. But the general effect was indeed relevant.
In theatre censorship caused a revival of "canovaccio" and Commedia dell'Arte: given that all the stories had to obtain a prior permission before being performed, stories were summarized and officially were improvisations on a given theme.