Cellulose acetate, first prepared in 1865, is the acetate ester of cellulose. An acetate, or ethanoate, is either a salt or Ester of Acetic acid. Esters are a class of Chemical compounds and Functional groups Esters consist of an inorganic or organic Acid in which at least Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4 Cellulose acetate is used as a film base in photography, and as a component in some adhesives; it is also used as a synthetic fiber. An acetate, or ethanoate, is either a salt or Ester of Acetic acid. A film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the Photosensitive Emulsion that lies atop it Photography (fә'tɒgrәfi or fә'tɑːgrәfi (from Greek φωτο and γραφία is the process and Art of recording pictures by means of capturing Glue or adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by Scientists to improve upon naturally occurring Animal and plant
Acetate and triacetate are mistakenly referred to as the same fiber; although they are similar, their chemical compounds differ. Triacetate is known as a generic description or primary acetate containing no hydroxyl group. Acetate fiber is known as modified or secondary acetate having a few hydroxyl groups. Triacetate fibers, although no longer produced in the United States, contain a higher ratio of acetate-to-cellulose than do acetate fibers.
Cellulose acetate film was introduced in 1934 as a replacement for the unstable and highly flammable cellulose nitrate film stock that had previously been standard. Because of the highly flammable nature of cellulose Nitrate film, by the beginning of the 20th century manufacturers had begun to introduce Cellulose acetate as a safe alternative Nitrocellulose (also cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by Nitrating Cellulose through exposure to When exposed to heat, moisture or acids in the film base begin to deteriorate to an unusable state, releasing acetic acid with a characteristic vinegary smell, causing the process to be known as "vinegar syndrome. Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound, giving Vinegar its sour taste Because of the highly flammable nature of cellulose Nitrate film, by the beginning of the 20th century manufacturers had begun to introduce Cellulose acetate as a safe alternative " Acetate film stock is still used in some applications, such as camera negative for motion pictures. Since the 1980s, polyester film stock (sometimes referred to under Kodak's trade name "ESTAR Base") has become more commonplace, particularly for archival applications. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. Polyester is a category of Polymers which contain the Ester Functional group in their main chain A film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the Photosensitive Emulsion that lies atop it Acetate film was also used as the base for magnetic tape, prior to the advent of polyester film. Magnetic tape is a medium for Magnetic recording generally consisting of a thin magnetizable coating on a long and narrow strip of Plastic.
Cellulose acetate magnetic tape was introduced by IBM in 1952 for use on their IBM 726 tape drive in the IBM 701 computer. Magnetic tape is a medium for Magnetic recording generally consisting of a thin magnetizable coating on a long and narrow strip of Plastic. International Business Machines Corporation abbreviated IBM and nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational Computer Technology The IBM 726 dual magnetic tape reader/recorder for the IBM 701 was announced on May 21, 1952. The IBM 701, known as the Defense Calculator while in development was announced to the public on April 29, It was much lighter and easier to handle than the metal tape introduced by UNIVAC in 1951 for use on their UNISERVO tape drive in the UNIVAC I computer. UNIVAC serves as the catch-all name for the American manufacturers of the lines of mainframe computers by that name which through mergers and acquisitions underwent The UNISERVO tape drive was the primary I/O device on the UNIVAC I computer The UNIVAC I ( U N I V ersal A utomatic C omputer I) was the first commercial computer made in the United States In 1956 cellulose acetate magnetic tape was replaced by the more stable mylar magnetic tape for use on their IBM 727 tape drive. Biaxially-oriented Polyethylene terephthalate (boPET Polyester film is used for its high Tensile strength, Chemical and dimensional Stability The IBM 727 Magnetic Tape Unit was announced for the IBM 701 and IBM 702 on September 25, 1953
Cellulose acetate or acetate rayon fiber (1924) is one of the earliest synthetic fibers and is based on cotton or tree pulp cellulose ("biopolymers"). Wood pulp is a dry fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating the fibers which make up Wood. Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4 These "cellulosic fibers" have passed their peak as cheap petro-based fibers (nylon and polyester) and have displaced regenerated pulp fibers. Overview Nylon is a Thermoplastic silky material first used commercially in a nylon- Bristled Toothbrush (1938 followed more famously by Polyester is a category of Polymers which contain the Ester Functional group in their main chain
It was invented by two Swiss brothers, Doctors Camille and Henri Dreyfus, who originally began chemical research in a shed behind their father's house in Basel, Switzerland. "Basilia" redirects here For the Fly Genus, see Basilia (fly. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation In 1905, Camille and Henri developed a commercial process to manufacture cellulose acetate. The Dreyfus brothers initially focused on cellulose acetate film, which was then widely used in celluloid plastics and film. Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from Nitrocellulose and Camphor, plus dyes and other agents By 1913, Camille and Henri's studies and experiments had produced excellent laboratory samples of continuous filament acetate yarn. In 1924, the first commercial acetate filament was spun in the United States and trademarked as Celanese . Celanese ( is a large American chemical company based in Dallas, Texas.
Acetate is a very valuable manufactured fiber that is low in cost and has good draping qualities. Properties of acetate have promoted it as the “beauty fiber”. Acetate is used in fabrics such as satins, brocades, and taffetas to accentuate luster, body, drape and beauty. Satin is a Cloth that typically has a glossy surface and a dull back Brocade is a class of richly decorative shuttle-woven Fabrics often made in colored Silks and with or without Gold and Silver threads Taffeta (formerly sometimes spelled taffety) is a crisp smooth woven fabric made from Silk or synthetic fibers
Acetate usually requires dry cleaning. Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for Clothing and Textiles using an organic Solvent rather than Water.
The Federal Trade Commission definition for acetate fiber is "A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is cellulose acetate. The Federal Trade Commission ( FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act Where not less than 92 percent of the hydroxyl groups are acetylated, the term triacetate may be used as a generic description of the fiber. Cellulose triacetate, also known simply as triacetate, is manufactured from Cellulose and Acetate. "
Acetate is derived from cellulose by deconstructing wood pulp into a purified fluffy white cellulose. Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4 Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4 In order to get a good product special qualities of pulps - dissolving pulps - are used. A common problem with these is that the reactivity of the cellulose is uneven, and thereby will the quality of the cellulose acetate sometimes be damaged. The cellulose is then reacted with acetic acid and acetic anhydride in the presence of sulfuric acid. Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound, giving Vinegar its sour taste Acetic anhydride is the Chemical compound with the formula (CH3CO2O Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. It is then put through a controlled, partial hydrolysis to remove the sulfate and a sufficient number of acetate groups to give the product the desired properties. Hydrolysis is a Chemical reaction during which one or more water molecules are split into hydrogen and hydroxide ions which may go on to participate in further reactions The anhydroglucose unit is the fundamental repeating structure of cellulose and has three hydroxyl groups which can react to form acetate esters. Hydroxyl in Chemistry stands for a molecule consisting of an Oxygen atom and a Hydrogen atom connected by a Covalent bond. Esters are a class of Chemical compounds and Functional groups Esters consist of an inorganic or organic Acid in which at least The most common form of cellulose acetate fiber has an acetate group on approximately two of every three hydroxyls. This cellulose diacetate is known as secondary acetate, or simply as "acetate".
After it is formed, cellulose acetate is dissolved in acetone into a viscose resin for extrusion through spinnerets (which resemble a shower head). Acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is a colorless mobile flammable As the filaments emerge, the solvent is evaporated in warm air via dry spinning, producing fine cellulose acetate fibers.
First U. S. Commercial Acetate Fiber Production: 1924, Celanese Corporation
Current U. S. Acetate Fiber Producers: Celanese Acetate, Eastman Chemical Company
Acetate was first introduced in 1904, when Camille Dreyfus and his younger brother Henri, did chemical research and development in a shed in their father's garden in Basle, Switzerland. Inasmuch as their father was interested in a chemical factory, his influence was probably a factor in their choice of careers. And since Basle was a center of the dyestuffs industry, it was natural that their first achievement should be the development of synthetic indigo dyes. In search of a field that offers really limitless potentialities, they deliberately selected that of cellulose acetate products, including fibers for textile use. 
For five years, the Dreyfus brothers studied and experimented in a logical, systematic manner in Switzerland and France. By 1910, they had perfected acetate lacquers and plastic film and opened a factory in Basle capable of producing about three tons a day. This was largely sold to the celluloid industry in France and Germany, and to Pathe Fréres in Paris for non-flammable motion picture film base. A small but constantly growing amount of acetate lacquer, called "dope", was sold to the expanding aircraft industry to coat the fabric covering wings and fuselage. Aircraft dope is a plasticised Lacquer that is applied to fabric-coated Aircraft. 
After some twenty-odd thousand separate experiments, by 1913, the brothers produced excellent laboratory samples of acetate continuous filament yarn. The outbreak of the First World War postponed completion of development leading to successful commercial production until 1921. The war, of course, necessitated rapid expansion of the Basle factory which terminated its trade with Germany and exclusively supplied the Allied Governments with acetate "dope" for military aircraft. 
In November 1914, the British Government invited Dr. Camille Dreyfus to come to England to manufacture acetate "dope". In 1917, the War Department of the United States Government invited Dr. Dreyfus to establish a similar factory in the US after their entry into war. After about six weeks, a contract was negotiated for sale of acetate "dope" to the War Department and a plant site was sought. Dr. Dreyfus and his associates started construction of the American company at Cumberland, Maryland in 1918, but the war was over before the plant could be completed. The City of Cumberland is the county seat of Allegany County Maryland, United States, and a regional business and commercial center for Western Maryland The business with the Government was completed in due time, construction of the plant continued, the early nucleus of the management began to assemble, and the organization in England completed development of the first commercially successful acetate textile yarn. In England, in 1912, the British company produced the first commercial cellulose acetate yarn. The yarn was sold primarily for crocheting, trimming, and effect threads and for popular-priced linings. 
The first yarn spun in America was on Christmas Day, 1924, at the Cumberland, Maryland Plant. The City of Cumberland is the county seat of Allegany County Maryland, United States, and a regional business and commercial center for Western Maryland The first yarn was of fair quality, but sales resistance was heavy, and silk associates worked zealously to discredit acetate and discourage its use. Acetate became an enormous success as a fiber for moiré because its thermoplastic quality made the moiré design absolutely permanent. The same characteristic also made permanent pleating a commercial fact for the first time, and gave great style impetus to the whole dress industry. 
This was a genuine contribution. The mixing of silk and acetate in fabrics was accomplished at the beginning and almost at once cotton was also blended, thus making possible low-cost fabrics by means of a fiber which then was cheaper than silk or acetate. Today, acetate is blended with silk, cotton, wool, nylon, etc. to give to fabrics an excellent wrinkle recovery, good left, handle, draping quality, quick drying, proper dimensional stability, cross-dye pattern potential, at a very competitive price.