Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals Ungulates (meaning roughly "being Hoofed quot or "hoofed animal" are several groups of Mammals most of which use the tips of their toes usually In Biological classification, family ( Latin The biological Subfamily bovines includes a diverse group of 10 species of medium to large sized Ungulates including domestic Cattle, Bison, Water In Biological classification, family ( Latin A bovid is any of almost 140 species of Cloven-hoofed Mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. They are raised as livestock for meat (called beef and veal), dairy products (milk), leather and as draft animals (pulling carts, plows and the like). Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food Beef is the Culinary name for Meat from Bovines especially domestic Cattle (cows Veal is the Meat of Dairy products are generally defined as Foodstuffs produced from Milk. Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. Leather is a material created through the Tanning of hides and Skins of Animals primarily Cattlehide The Tanning process A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks "CARTS" redirects here For the transportation system see Capital Area Rural Transportation System, or Chautauqua CARTS. The plough ( American spelling plow; both plaʊ is a Tool used in Farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed In some countries, such as India, they are honored in religious ceremonies and revered. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country It is estimated that there are 1. 3 billion cattle in the world today. 
Cattle were originally identified by Carolus Linnaeus as three separate species. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for These were Bos taurus, the European cattle, including similar types from Africa and Asia; Bos indicus, the zebu; and the extinct Bos primigenius, the aurochs. Zebus ( Bos primigenius indicus) sometimes known as 'humped Cattle ' or 'indicus' cattle are a type of cattle better-adapted to tropical environments The aurochs or urus ( Bos taurus primigenius) was a very large type of cattle that was prevalent in Europe until its Extinction in 1627 The aurochs is ancestral to both zebu and European cattle. More recently these three have increasingly been grouped as one species, with Bos primigenius taurus, Bos primigenius indicus and Bos primigenius primigenius as the subspecies.
Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other closely related species. Hybrid individuals and even breeds exist, not only between European cattle and zebu but also with yaks (called a dzo), banteng, gaur, and bison ("cattalo"), a cross-genera hybrid. Zebus ( Bos primigenius indicus) sometimes known as 'humped Cattle ' or 'indicus' cattle are a type of cattle better-adapted to tropical environments The yak ( Bos grunniens) is a long-haired Bovine found throughout the Himalayan region of south Central Asia, the Qinghai - The Banteng, Bos javanicus is an Ox that is found in Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Borneo The gaur (ˈɡaʊɚ ( Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large dark-coated bovine animal of South Asia and Southeast Asia. This is an article about an animal For other uses see Bison (disambiguation. Beefalo are a fertile hybrid offspring of domestic Cattle, Bos taurus, and the American Bison, Bison bison (generally called For example, genetic testing of the Dwarf Lulu breed, the only humpless "Bos taurus-type" cattle in Nepal, found them to be a mix of European cattle, zebu and yak.  Cattle cannot successfully be bred with water buffalo or African buffalo. The African Buffalo or Cape Buffalo ( Syncerus caffer) is a large African bovid.
The aurochs originally ranged throughout Europe, North Africa, and much of Asia. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan In historical times, their range was restricted to Europe, and the last animals were killed by poachers in Masovia, Poland, in 1627. Masovia or Mazovia (Mazowsze is a geographic and historic region situated in eastern Poland 's Masovian Plain. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Breeders have attempted to recreate cattle of similar appearance to aurochs by crossing of domesticated cattle breeds, creating the Heck cattle breed. Heck Cattle, also called reconstructed Aurochs or Auroxen, are a hardy breed of Cattle ( Bos taurus) often referred to by its promoters by the (See also aurochs and zebu articles. The aurochs or urus ( Bos taurus primigenius) was a very large type of cattle that was prevalent in Europe until its Extinction in 1627 Zebus ( Bos primigenius indicus) sometimes known as 'humped Cattle ' or 'indicus' cattle are a type of cattle better-adapted to tropical environments )
Cattle did not originate as a name for bovine animals. The biological Subfamily bovines includes a diverse group of 10 species of medium to large sized Ungulates including domestic Cattle, Bison, Water It derives from the Latin caput, head, and originally meant movable property, especially livestock of any kind.  The word is closely related to "chattel" (a unit of personal property) and "capital" in the economic sense. Personal property is a type of Property. In the Common law systems personal property may also be called chattels or personalty. In Economics, capital or capital Goods or real capital refers to items of extensive value 
Older English sources like King James Version of the Bible refer to livestock in general as cattle (as opposed to the word deer which then was used for wild animals). Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin A deer is a Ruminant Mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. Additionally other species of the genus Bos are sometimes called wild cattle. Bos is the Genus of wild and domestic Cattle. Bos can be divided into four subgenera: Bos, Bibos Today, the modern meaning of "cattle", without any other qualifier, is usually restricted to domesticated bovines.
In general, the same words are used in different parts of the world but with minor differences in the definitions. Hereford Cattle are a widely used breed in Temperate areas mainly for beef production The terminology described here contrasts the differences in definition between the United States and other British influenced parts of world such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and the United Kingdom. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the British people, or Britons, are the native inhabitants of Great Britain and their descendants or citizens of the United Kingdom, of the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
An intact (i. e. not castrated) adult male is called a bull. Castration (also referred to as Gelding, Neutering, Fixing, orchiectomy, and orchidectomy is any action surgical, chemical An adult female who has had one or two calves (depending on regional usage) is called a cow. Young cattle are called calves until they are weaned, then weaners until they are a year old in some areas, in other areas, particularly with beef cattle, they may be known as feeder-calves or simply feeders. A calf (kɑːf plural calves, /kɑːvz/ is the young of various species of Mammal. Weaning is the process of gradually introducing a Mammal Infant, either human or animal to what will be its adult diet and withdrawing the supply of its mother's After that, they are referred to as yearlings if between one and two years of age, or by gender. A young female before she has had a calf of her own is called a heifer (pronounced /ˈhɛfɚ/, "heffer"). A young female that has had only one calf is occasionally called a first-calf heifer. A castrated male is called a steer in the United States, and is called a bullock in other parts of the world; although in North America this term refers to a young bull. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A castrated male (occasionally a female or in some areas a bull) kept for draft purposes is called an ox (plural oxen). Oxen (singular ox) are Cattle trained as draft animals. Often they are adult castrated males In North America, draft cattle under four years old are called working steers. In the extremely uncommon situation where an adult bull is castrated, it becomes a stag. In all cattle species, a female who is the twin of a bull usually becomes an infertile partial intersex, and is a freemartin. Intersexuality is the state of a living thing of a gonochoristic species whose Sex chromosomes, Genitalia, and/or Secondary sex characteristics A freemartin or free-martin (sometimes martin heifer) is a female bovine or Ovine with a masculinized behavior and non-functioning Some Australian, Canadian, New Zealand and Scottish farmers use the term cattlebeast. Neat (horned oxen, from which "neatsfoot oil" is derived), beef (young ox) and beefing (young animal fit for slaughtering) are obsolete terms, although poll or polled cattle is still a term in use for naturally hornless animals, or in some areas cattle that have been disbudded. Polled livestock (or pollards) are Livestock of normally-horned species that are lacking horns either naturally or as a result of humans removing them Cattle raised for human consumption are called beef cattle. Within the beef cattle industry in parts of the United States, the older term beef (plural beeves) is still used to refer to an animal of either gender. Cows of certain breeds that are kept for the milk they give are called dairy cows. The adjective applying to cattle in general is usually bovine. The terms "bull", "cow" and "calf" are also used by extension to denote the gender of other large animals, including whales, hippopotamuses, camels, elk and elephants. Whales are marine mammals which are neither Dolphins (ie members of the families Delphinidae or Platanistoidae) nor Porpoises Orcas The hippopotamus ( Hippopotamus amphibius) from the Greek ἱπποπόταμος ( hippopotamos, ιππος hippos meaning "horse" Camels are Even-toed ungulates within the Genus Camelus. The Dromedary, one-humped or Arabian camel has a single hump and the The elk, or wapiti ( Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest Species of Deer in the world and one of the largest Mammals in Elephants ( family: Elephantidae) are large land Mammals of the order Proboscidea.
Cattle is both a plural and a mass noun, but there is no singular equivalent: it is a plurale tantum. In Linguistics, a mass noun (also uncountable noun or non-count noun) is a common Noun that presents entities as an unbounded mass A plurale tantum (plural pluralia tantum) is a noun that appears only in the Plural form and does not have a singular variant though it may still refer Thus one may refer to "three cattle" or "some cattle", but not "one cattle". There is no universally used singular equivalent in modern English to "cattle", other than the gender and age-specific terms such as cow, bull, steer and heifer. Strictly speaking, the singular noun for the domestic bovine was "ox. However, "ox" today is rarely used in this general sense. An ox today generally denotes a draft beast, most commonly a castrated male (but is not to be confused with the unrelated wild musk ox). A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks The muskox ( Ovibos moschatus) is an Arctic Mammal of the Bovidae family noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted by males
"Cow" has been in general use as a singular for the collective "cattle" in spite of the objections of those who point out that it is a female-specific term, rendering phrases such as "that cow is a bull" absurd. The Brahman (named for the sacred cow of Hinduism) or Brahma is a breed of Zebu However, it is easy to use when a singular is needed and the gender is not known, as in "There is a cow in the road". Further, any herd of fully mature cattle in or near a pasture is statistically likely to consist mostly of cows, so the term is probably accurate. Pasture is land with Herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of Ungulate Livestock as part of a Farm or Ranch. Other than the few bulls needed for breeding, the vast majority of male cattle are castrated as calves and slaughtered for meat before the age of three years. Thus, in a pastured herd, any calves or herd bulls usually are clearly distinguishable from the cows due to distinctively different sizes and clear anatomical differences.
Colloquially, more general non-specific terms may denote cattle when a singular form is needed. A colloquialism is an expression not used in formal speech, writing or Paralinguistics. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. Australian, New Zealand and British farmers use the term "beast" or "cattle beast". For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located "Bovine" is also used in Britain. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The term "critter" is common in the western United States and Canada, particularly when referring to young cattle. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page In some areas of the American South (particularly the Appalachian region), where both dairy and beef cattle are present, an individual animal was once called a "beef critter", though that term is becoming archaic.
Cattle raised for human consumption are called "beef cattle". Beef cattle are Cattle raised for Meat production (as distinguished from Dairy cattle) Within the beef cattle industry in parts of the United States, the term "beef" (plural "beeves") is still used in its archaic sense to refer to an animal of either gender. Cows of certain breeds that are kept for the milk they give are called "dairy cows" or "milking cows" (formerly "milch cows" – "milch" was pronounced as "milk"). Dairy Cattle, generally of the species Bos taurus, are Domesticated Animals bred to produce large quantities of Milk Most young male offspring of dairy cows are generally sold for veal, and may be referred to as veal calves. Veal is the Meat of In some places, a cow kept to provide milk for one family is called a "house cow". Obsolete terms for cattle include "neat" (this use survives in "neatsfoot oil", extracted from the feet and legs of cattle), and "beefing" (young animal fit for slaughter). thumb|Neatsfoot oil Neatsfoot oil is a yellow Oil rendered and purified from the feet (but not the hooves and Shin bones of Cattle
An onomatopoeia imitating one of the commonest sounds made by cattle is "moo", and this sound is also called lowing. Onomatopoeia (also spelled onomatopœia, from Greek: ονοματοποιΐα is a Word or a grouping of words that imitates the sound it is describing This is a list of animal sounds, Sounds made by Animals First verbs used to label animal sounds are listed followed by figures of speech that imitate those sounds There are a number of other sounds made by cattle, including calves bawling and bulls bellowing (a high-pitched yodeling call). Yodeling (or yodelling, jodeling) is a form of Singing that involves singing an extended note which rapidly and repeatedly changes in pitch from the The bullroarer makes a sound similar to a territorial call made by bulls. The bullroarer, rhombus, or turndun, is an ancient ritual musical instrument and means of communicating over extended distances
Cattle have one stomach, with four compartments. In Human anatomy, the stomach is a J-shaped hollow muscular organ of the Gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of Digestion, following They are the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum, the rumen being the largest compartment. The rumen, also known as a paunch, forms the larger part of the Reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the Alimentary canal of Ruminant This article is about an anatomical part The reticulum is the second chamber in the Alimentary canal of a Ruminant animal The omasum, also known as the bible, the fardel The abomasum, also known as the maw, and the rennet-bag Cattle sometimes consume metal objects which are deposited in the reticulum, the smallest compartment, and this is where hardware disease occurs. Hardware disease is a common term for Bovine traumatic Gastritis and traumatic reticulitis The reticulum is known as the "Honeycomb. " The omasum's main function is to absorb water and nutrients from the digestible feed. The omasum is known as the "Many Plies. " The abomasum is like the human stomach; this is why it is known as the "true stomach".
Cattle are ruminants, meaning that they have a digestive system that allows use of otherwise indigestible foods by repeatedly regurgitating and rechewing them as "cud. Physiologically a ruminant is a Mammal of the order Artiodactyla that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first stomach known Digestion is the breaking down of chemicals in the body into a form that can be absorbed " The cud is then reswallowed and further digested by specialised microorganisms in the rumen. CUD is an acronym sometimes used to describe the genetic disorder Primary carnitine deficiency. A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually The rumen, also known as a paunch, forms the larger part of the Reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the Alimentary canal of Ruminant These microbes are primarily responsible for decomposing cellulose and other carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids that cattle use as their primary metabolic fuel. Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4 Carbohydrates (from ' Hydrates of Carbon ' or saccharides ( Greek σάκχαρον meaning " Sugar " are the most Volatile fatty acids are Fatty acids with a Carbon chain of six carbons or fewer Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life. The microbes inside of the rumen are also able to synthesize amino acids from non-protein nitrogenous sources such as urea and ammonia. In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Urea is an Organic compound with the Chemical formula ( N[[hydrogen H]]22 C[[oxygen O]] Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor As these microbes reproduce in the rumen, older generations die and their carcasses continue on through the digestive tract. These carcasses are then partially digested by the cattle, allowing it to gain a high quality protein source. These features allow cattle to thrive on grasses and other vegetation. Poaceae or Gramineae is a family in the Class Liliopsida of the flowering plants. Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region it refers to the Ground cover provided by plants
The gestation period for a cow is nine months. A newborn calf weighs 25 to 45 kg (55 to 100 lb). Large steers can weigh as much as 1,800 kg (4,000 pounds), 600 to 900 kg (1,300 to 1,900 lb) being more common for adults. Cattle usually live to about 15 years (occasionally as much as 25 years).
A common misconception about cattle (particularly bulls) is that they are enraged by the color red (something provocative is often said to be "like a red rag to a bull"). This is incorrect, as cattle are red-green color-blind. Color blindness, a Color vision deficiency is the inability to perceive differences between some of the Colors that others can distinguish  The myth arose from the use of red capes in the sport of bullfighting; in fact, two different capes are used. Bullfighting or Tauromachy (from Greek ταυρομαχία - tauromachia, "bull-fight" is a traditional spectacle of Spain The capote is a large, flowing cape that is magenta and yellow. The more famous muleta is the smaller, red cape, used exclusively for the final, fatal segment of the fight. Muleta is the name of a stick the red cloth used in the final third ( tercio de muleta or de muerte) of a Bullfight hangs from It is not the color of the cape that angers the bull, but rather the movement of the fabric that irritates the bull and incites it to charge.
Although cattle cannot distinguish red from green, they do have two kinds of color receptors in their retinas (cone cells) and so are theoretically able to distinguish some colors, probably in a similar way to other red-green color-blind or dichromatic mammals (such as dogs, cats, horses and up to ten percent of male humans). The vertebrate retina is a light sensitive part inside the inner layer of the Eye. Cone cells, or cones, are Photoreceptor cells in the Retina of the Eye which function best in relatively bright Light. Color blindness, a Color vision deficiency is the inability to perceive differences between some of the Colors that others can distinguish 
Cattle occupy a unique role in human history, domesticated since at least the early Neolithic. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos They are raised for meat (beef cattle), dairy products and hides. In modern English usage meat most often refers to Animal tissue used as food mostly Skeletal muscle and associated Fat, but it may also refer Beef cattle are Cattle raised for Meat production (as distinguished from Dairy cattle) Dairy Cattle, generally of the species Bos taurus, are Domesticated Animals bred to produce large quantities of Milk Hides are Skins obtained from animals for human use Examples of animal hide sources are Deer and Cattle typically used for producing Leather, They are also used as draft animals and in certain sports. A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively Some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth, and cattle raiding consequently one of the earliest forms of theft.
Cattle are often raised by allowing herds to graze on the grasses of large tracts of rangeland. Different cattle feeding production systems have separate advantages and disadvantages Raising cattle in this manner allows the use of land that might be unsuitable for growing crops. The most common interactions with cattle involve daily feeding, cleaning and milking. In Agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any Foodstuff that is used specifically to feed Domesticated Livestock, such as Milking is the act of removing Milk from the Mammary glands of an animal typically cows ( Cattle) and Goats A rarely used term for the milking Many routine husbandry practices involve ear tagging, dehorning, loading, medical operations, vaccinations and hoof care, as well as training for agricultural shows and preparations. An Ear tag is a plastic or metal object used for identification of domestic Livestock and other animals A horn is a pointed projection of the Skin on the head of various Mammals consisting of a covering of horn ( Keratin and other Proteins Veterinary surgery is Surgery performed on animals by Veterinarians Most veterinarians perform surgery but it is also possible to specialize in surgery by becoming A cloven hoof is a Hoof split into two toes This is found on members within the Mammalian order Artiodactyla. There are also some cultural differences in working with cattle- the cattle husbandry of Fulani men rests on behavioural techniques, whereas in Europe cattle are controlled primarily by physical means like fences. Ethology ( from Greek ἦθος ethos, "character" and λόγος logos, "knowledge") is the scientific study of Animal A fence is a freestanding structure designed to restrict or prevent movement across a boundary  Breeders utilise cattle husbandry to reduce M. bovis infection susceptibility by selective breeding and maintaining herd health to avoid concurrent disease. See Tuberculosis Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing (16 to 20 hour generation time Aerobic bacterium and the causative This article focuses on selective breeding in domesticated animals 
Cattle are farmed for beef, veal, dairy, leather and they are less commonly used simply to maintain grassland for wildlife- for example, in Epping Forest, England. Epping Forest is an area of ancient Woodland in south-east England, straddling the border between north-east Greater London and Essex. They are often used in some of the most wild places for livestock. Depending on the breed, cattle can survive on hill grazing, heaths, marshes, moors and semi desert. Modern cows are more commercial than older breeds and, having become more specialized, are less versatile. For this reason many smaller farmers still favor old breeds, like the dairy breed of cattle Jersey. Jersey cattle are a small honey-brown breed of Dairy cattle. Originally bred on the British Channel Island of Jersey, the breed is popular for the
In Portugal, Spain, Southern France and some Latin American countries, bulls are used in the activity of bullfighting; a similar activity, Jallikattu, is seen in South India; in many other countries this is illegal. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Southern France (or the South of France) colloquially known as Le Midi, is a loosely defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that Bullfighting or Tauromachy (from Greek ταυρομαχία - tauromachia, "bull-fight" is a traditional spectacle of Spain Jallikattu - ஜல்லிகட்டு is a wild bull taming Sport played in Tamil Nadu as a part of Pongal celebration South India is the area encompassing India 's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union Other activities such as bull riding are seen as part of a rodeo, especially in North America. Bull riding is a Rodeo Sport that involves a rider getting on a large bull and attempting to stay mounted for at least 8 seconds while the animal attempts Rodeo (ˈroʊdioʊ or /roʊˈdeɪoʊ/ is a sport which arose out of the working practices of cattle herding in Spain, Mexico, and later the United States Bull-leaping, a central ritual in Bronze Age Minoan culture (see Bull (mythology)), still exists in southwestern France. Bull-leaping (also taurokathapsia, from Greek grc ταυροκαθάψια is a motif of Middle Bronze Age figurative art notably of The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Appearances of the Bull (also known as Taurus) in Mythology and worship are widespread in the ancient world This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. In modern times, cattle are also entered into agricultural competitions. Cattle judging is the process of Judging a series of cattle and pronouncing a first second and third place animal based on each animal's qualities These competitions can involve live cattle or cattle carcasses.
In terms of food intake by humans, consumption of cattle is less efficient than of grain or vegetables with regard to land use, and hence cattle grazing consumes more acreage than such other agricultural production.  Nonetheless, cattle and other forms of domesticated animals can sometimes help to utilize plant resources in areas not easily amenable to other forms of agriculture. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture These factors were not as important in earlier times prior to the Earth's large human population. Overpopulation refers to a condition where an Organism 's numbers exceed the Carrying capacity of its Habitat. 
A 400-page United Nations report from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) states that cattle farming is "responsible for 18% of greenhouse gases. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security " The production of cattle to feed and clothe humans stresses ecosystems around the world, and is assessed to be one of the top three environmental problems in the world on a local to global scale. 
The report, entitled Livestock's Long Shadow, also surveys the environmental damage from sheep, chickens, pigs and goats. But in almost every case, the world's 1. 5 billion cattle are cited as the greatest adverse impact with respect to climate change as well as species extinction. Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. The report concludes that, unless changes are made, the massive damage reckoned to be due to livestock may more than double by 2050, as demand for meat increases. One of the cited changes suggests that intensification of the livestock industry may be suggested, since intensification leads to less land for a given level of production. 
Some microbes respire in the cattle gut by an anaerobic process known as methanogenesis (producing the gas methane). A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually Methanogenesis or biomethanation is the formation of Methane by Microbes known as Methanogens Organisms capable of producing methane have been Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. Cattle emit a large volume of methane, 95% of it through eructation or burping, not flatulence. Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. Flatulence is the production of a mixture of gases in the digestive tract of Mammals that are byproducts of the digestion process  As the carbon in the methane comes from the digestion of vegetation produced by photosynthesis, its release into the air by this process would normally be considered harmless, because there is no net increase in carbon in the atmosphere — it's removed as carbon dioxide from the air by photosynthesis and returned to it as methane. Photosynthesis is a Metabolic pathway that converts Light Energy into Chemical energy. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Photosynthesis is a Metabolic pathway that converts Light Energy into Chemical energy. Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, having a warming effect 23 to 50 times greater, and according to Takahashi and Young "even a small increase in methane concentration in the atmosphere exerts a potentially significant contribution to global warming". Greenhouse gases are gaseous constituents of the atmosphere bothnatural and anthropogenic that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared  Further analysis to the methane gas produced by livestock as a contributor to the increase in greenhouse gases is provided by Weart.  Research is underway on methods of reducing this source of methane, by the use of dietary supplements, or treatments to reduce the proportion of methanogenetic microbes, perhaps by vaccination. Vaccination is the administration of Antigenic material (the Vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease 
Cattle are fed a concentrated high-corn diet which produces rapid weight gain, but this has side effects which include increased acidity in the digestive system. In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are When improperly handled, manure and other byproducts of concentrated agriculture also have environmental consequences. Manure is Organic matter used as Organic fertilizer in Agriculture. 
Grazing by cattle at low intensities can create a favourable environment for native herbs and forbs; however, in most world regions cattle are reducing biodiversity due to overgrazing driven by food demands by an expanding human population. A(n herb (ˈhɝb or /ˈɝb/ see pronunciation differences) is a plant that is valued for qualities such as medicinal properties flavor scent or the like Forbs are Herbaceous Flowering plants that are not Graminoids ( grasses, sedges and rushes) Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to Livestock Grazing for extended periods of time or without sufficient recovery periods Overpopulation refers to a condition where an Organism 's numbers exceed the Carrying capacity of its Habitat. 
Oxen (singular ox) are large and heavyset breeds of Bos taurus cattle trained as draft animals. A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks Often they are adult, castrated males. Castration (also referred to as Gelding, Neutering, Fixing, orchiectomy, and orchidectomy is any action surgical, chemical Usually an ox is over four years old due to the need for training and to allow it to grow to full size. Oxen (singular ox) are Cattle trained as draft animals. Often they are adult castrated males Oxen are used for plowing, transport, hauling cargo, grain-grinding by trampling or by powering machines, irrigation by powering pumps, and wagon drawing. The plough ( American spelling plow; both plaʊ is a Tool used in Farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops A wagon (in British English, sometimes waggon) or dray is a heavy four-wheeled Vehicle. Oxen were commonly used to skid logs in forests, and sometimes still are, in low-impact select-cut logging. Oxen are most often used in teams of two, paired, for light work such as carting. "CARTS" redirects here For the transportation system see Capital Area Rural Transportation System, or Chautauqua CARTS. In the past, teams might have been larger, with some teams exceeding twenty animals when used for logging.
An ox is nothing more than a mature bovine with an "education. " The education consists of the animal's learning to respond appropriately to the teamster's (ox driver's) signals. These signals are given by verbal commands or by noise (whip cracks) and many teamsters were known for their voices and language. In North America, the commands are (1) get up, (2) whoa, (3) back up, (4) gee (turn right) and (5) haw (turn left). Oxen must be painstakingly trained from a young age. Their teamster must provide as many as a dozen yokes of different sizes as the animals grow. A wooden yoke is fastened about the neck of each pair so that the force of draft is distributed across their shoulders. A yoke is a wooden beam which is used between a pair of Oxen to allow them to pull a load (oxen almost always work in pairs From calves, oxen are chosen with horns since the horns hold the yoke in place when the oxen lower their heads, back up, or slow down (particularly with a wheeled vehicle going downhill). Yoked oxen cannot slow a load like harnessed horses can; the load has to be controlled downhill by other means. The gait of the ox is often important to ox trainers, since the speed the animal walks should roughly match the gait of the ox driver who must work with it.
U. S. ox trainers favored larger breeds for their ability to do more work and for their intelligence. Because they are larger animals, the typical ox is the male of a breed, rather than the smaller female. Females are potentially more useful producing calves and milk. Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes.
Oxen can pull harder and longer than horses, particularly on obstinate or almost un-movable loads. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. This is one of the reasons that teams drag logs from forests long after horses had taken over most other draft uses in Europe and North America. Though not as fast as horses, they are less prone to injury because they are more sure-footed and do not try to jerk the load.
An "ox" is not a unique breed of bovine, nor have any "blue" oxen lived outside the folk tales surrounding Paul Bunyan, the mythical American logger. History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological Paul Bunyan is a Mythological Lumberjack who appears in Tall tales of American folklore. A possible exception and antecedent to this legend is the Belgian Blue breed which is known primarily for its unusual musculature and at times exhibits unusual white/blue, blue roan, or blue coloration. Belgian Blue Cattle are a Beef breed from Belgium, known in French as Race de la Moyenne et Haute Belgique The unusual musculature of the breed is believed to be due to a natural mutation of the gene that codes for the protein Myostatin, which is responsible for normal muscle atrophy. Myostatin (formerly known as Growth differentiation factor 8) is a Growth factor that limits Muscle tissue growth i
Many oxen are used worldwide, especially in developing countries. Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties In the Third World oxen can lead lives of misery, as they are frequently malnourished. Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically Oxen are driven with sticks and goads when they are weak from malnutrition. The goad is a traditional farming implement used to spur or guide lifestock usually Oxen which are pulling a Plough or a Cart; used also to round Malnutrition is a general term for a medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet. When there is insufficient food for humans, animal welfare has low priority. Animal welfare refers to the viewpoint that it is morally acceptable for humans to use nonhuman animals for food in animal research, as clothing and in entertainment
Ox is also used for various cattle products, irrespective of age, sex or training of the beast – for example, ox-blood, ox-liver, ox-kidney, ox-heart, ox-hide.
Cows are venerated within the Hindu religion of India. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country According to Vedic scripture they are to be treated with the same respect 'as one's mother' because of the milk they provide; "The cow is my mother. This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period see Hinduism and Indian religions for details The bull is my sire. " They appear in numerous stories from the Puranas and Vedas, for example the deity Krishna is brought up in a family of cowherders, and given the name Govinda (protector of the cows). For other meanings see Purana (disambiguation. The Puranas ( Sanskrit: sa पुराण purāṇa, "of ancient times" "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari kṛṣṇa in IAST, ˈkr̩ʂɳə in classical Sanskrit is a deity worshiped across many traditions of Hinduism Govinda and Gopāla are Names of Krishna, referring to his youthful occupation as a Cowherd. Also Shiva is traditionally said to ride on the back of a bull named Nandi. Shiva:(pronunciation; Sanskrit: शिव Śiva, lit "Auspicious one" One of the Trimurtis Shiva is the supreme God in the Shaiva Bulls in particular are seen as a symbolic emblem of selfless duty and religion. Duty (from "due" that which is owing O Fr deu did past participle of devoir Lat A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos In ancient rural India every household had a few cows which provided a constant supply of milk and a few bulls that helped as draft animals. Many Hindus feel that at least it was economically wise to keep cattle for their milk rather than consume their flesh for one single meal.
Gandhi explains his feelings about cow protection as follows:
"The cow to me means the entire sub-human world, extending man's sympathies beyond his own species. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January Man through the cow is enjoined to realize his identity with all that lives. Why the ancient rishis selected the cow for apotheosis is obvious to me. A rishi (ṛṣi denotes a Vedic poet by whom Vedic hymns were composed or according to post-Vedic tradition a "sage" to whom they were "originally revealed" (Ṛṣis The cow in India was the best comparison; she was the giver of plenty. Not only did she give milk, but she also made agriculture possible. The cow is a poem of pity; one reads pity in the gentle animal. She is the second mother to millions of mankind. Protection of the cow means protection of the whole dumb creation of God. The appeal of the lower order of creation is all the more forceful because it is speechless. "
Cattle are represented in heraldry by the bull. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms.
The world cattle population is estimated to be about 1. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Kaunas ( ˈkoʊnəs is the second largest City in Lithuania and a former temporary capital. Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Bielsk Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship Bielsk Podlaski is an Urban Gmina (Polish gmina miejska) (Town in Bielsk County, Podlaskie Voivodeship Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The Simmental or Simmenthal breed originated in western Switzerland. 3 billion head. India is the nation with the largest number of cattle, about 400 million, followed by Brazil and China, with about 150 million each, and the United States, with about 100 million. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Africa has about 200 million head of cattle, many of which are herded in traditional ways and serve partly as tokens of their owner's wealth. Europe has about 130 million head of cattle (CT 2006, SC 2006).
Cattle today are the basis of a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. The international trade in beef for 2000 was over $30 billion and represented only 23 percent of world beef production. (Clay 2004). The production of milk, which is also made into cheese, butter, yogurt, and other dairy products, is comparable in economic size to beef production and provides an important part of the food supply for many of the world's people. Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. Cheese is a Food made from Milk, usually the milk of cows, Buffalo, Goats or sheep, by coagulation. Butter is a Dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented Cream or Milk. Yoghurt, yogurt, yoghourt, youghurt or yogourt (see spelling below is a Cattle hides, used for leather to make shoes and clothing, are another widespread product. Leather is a material created through the Tanning of hides and Skins of Animals primarily Cattlehide The Tanning process A shoe is an item of Footwear. Shoes may vary from a simple Flip-flop to a complex Boot. Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather Cattle remain broadly used as draft animals in many developing countries, such as India. Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country