Lucius Sergius Catilina (108 BC–62 BC), known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic, and in particular the power of the aristocratic Senate. Year 62 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome January 5 — The forces of the conspirator English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person The 1st century BC started the first day of 100 BC and ended the last day of 1 BC. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome.
One of the most enigmatic figures of Roman history, Catiline has been obscured by the invective of his historians. The two chief sources for information on Catiline possessed numerous reasons to depict him in the worst possible light. Marcus Tullius Cicero, his most bitter political enemy, spared no denunciation particularly in his Catiline Orations, and Gaius Sallustius attributed some of the vilest crimes to him in his moralistic monograph, Bellum Catilinae. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman The Catiline Orations or Catilinarian Orations were speeches given in 63 BC by Marcus Tullius Cicero, the Consul For the philosopher see Sallustius; for other uses see Sallust (disambiguation. Thus, many of the gravest accusations such as human sacrifice are likely fabrications employed to further their author's designs. However, Catiline's conspiracy is one of the most famous events of the turbulent final decades of the Roman Republic.
Catiline was born in 108 BC to one of the oldest patrician families in Rome. Although his family was of consular heritage, they were then declining in both social and financial fortunes. Virgil later gave the family an ancestor, Sergestus, who had come with Aeneas to Italy, presumably because they were notably ancient; but they had not been prominent for centuries. Publius Vergilius Maro ( October 15, 70 BCE &ndash September 21, 19 BCE later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or In Roman mythology, Sergestus was a friend of Aeneas. He was the ancestor of gens Sergia, a famous Patrician family of which Catilina This article is about the Roman hero For other uses see Aeneas (disambiguation. The last Sergius to be consul had been Gnaeus Sergius Fidenas Coxo in 380 BC. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire Events By place Persian empire Persia forces the Athenians to withdraw their general Chabrias from Egypt.  Later, these factors would dramatically shape Catiline's ambitions and goals as he would desire above all else to restore the political heritage of his family along with its financial power. 
An able commander, Catiline had a distinguished military career.  He served in the Social War with Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Cicero, under Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo in 89 BC. This article is about the conflict between Rome and her Italian allies between 91 and 88 BC For the Athenian conflict with its allies between 357 and 355 BC see Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo (died 87 BC whose Cognomen means " Cross eyed " is often referred to in English as Pompey Strabo to distinguish Year 89 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo and During Gaius Marius, Lucius Cornelius Cinna and Gnaeus Papirius Carbo's regime, Catiline played no major role, but he remained politically secure. Lucius Cornelius Cinna (d 84 BC was a four-time Consul of the Roman Republic, serving consecutive terms from 87 to 84 BC and a member of the ancient Roman He later supported Lucius Cornelius Sulla in the civil war of 84 BC–81 BC. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c Year 84 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome End of the First Mithridatic War. Year 81 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Sulla is appointed dictator Then in the early 70s BC he served abroad, possibly with Publius Servilius Vatia at Cilicia. Geography Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount Amanus ( Gavurdağı Mount) which separated it from Syria In 73 BC, he was brought to trial for adultery with the Vestal Virgin, Fabia, but Quintus Lutatius Catulus, the principal leader of the Optimates, testified in his favor, and eventually Catiline was acquitted. Year 73 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place British Isles Traditional date that Lud became King In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins ( sacerdos Vestalis) were the virgin Holy female Priests of Vesta, the Goddess of the Quintus Lutatius Catulus (c 120-61 BC sometimes called Capitolinus was the son of Quintus Lutatius Catulus. Optimates (singular optimas, The Best of Men, Italian: ottimati; also known as the priests or boni, the 
He was praetor in 68 BC and for the following 2 years was the propraetorian governor for Africa. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before Year 68 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Lucius Caecilius Metellus The Roman province of Africa was established after the Romans defeated Carthage in the Third Punic War.  Upon his return home in 66 BC, he presented himself as a candidate for the consular elections; however, he was prevented from becoming a candidate on technical grounds by the current consul, Lucius Volcanius Tullus. Year 66 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Manius Aemilius Lepidus and Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire  Subsequently, a delegation from his province appealed to the Senate alleging abuse of power while governor.  He was finally brought to trial in 65 BC, where he received the support of many of the most distinguished men in Rome, including many of the consulars. Year 65 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome In response to the illegal exercise of Citizen rights Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire  Even one of the consuls for 65 BC, Lucius Manlius Torquatus, demonstrated his support for Catiline. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire Year 65 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome In response to the illegal exercise of Citizen rights  Cicero also contemplated defending Catiline in court.  Eventually, Catiline was acquitted.
In all likelihood, Catiline was not involved in the so called First Catilinarian Conspiracy; however, several historical sources implicate him in it. There does not seem to be a single account that is represented in all of the sources, rather it seems that the accounts represent a collection of rumors accusing and implicating different political figures in attempts to tarnish their names. As it pertains to Catiline, much of the information originates in Cicero’s speech In Toga Candida which was given during his election campaign in 64 BC. Year 64 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Servilius Rullus, Roman Tribune Only fragments of this speech still exist.
The consuls-designate, Publius Autronius Paetus and Publius Cornelius Sulla, were prevented from entering office because of ambitus, electoral corruption, under the lex Calpurnia. Publius Autronius Paetus was a politician of the late Roman Republic who was involved in the conspiracy of Catiline. Publius Cornelius Sulla (d 45 BC was a politician of the late Roman Republic.  Thus, the two other leading candidates, Lucius Manlius Torquatus and Lucius Aurelius Cotta, were elected in a second election and were to enter office on January 1, 65 BC. Lucius Aurelius Cotta, when Praetor in 70 BC brought in a law for the reform of the jury lists by which the judices were to be eligible not from the senators New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 65 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome In response to the illegal exercise of Citizen rights Supposedly, Catiline, incensed because he was not allowed to stand for the consulship, conspired with Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso and the former consuls-designate to slaughter many of the senators and the new consuls the day they assumed office. Then they would name themselves the consuls for 65 BC and then Piso would have been sent to organize the provinces in Spain. Year 65 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome In response to the illegal exercise of Citizen rights Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.  Alternatively, Gaius Suetonius claims that Julius Caesar and Marcus Licinius Crassus directed the conspiracy, but he fails to mention Catiline's involvement. Marcus Licinius Crassus ( Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS (ca Instead of assuming the consulship, Crassus is accused of planning to become dictator and intending to name Caesar "magister equitum". Dictator was a Political office of the Roman Republic. The dictator was above the three branches of government in the Constitution of the Roman Republic The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases is a historical position of varying importance in several European nations 
Later, in 62 BC after Catiline's death, Cicero defended Publius Sulla in court after he was indicted for being a member of the second conspiracy. Year 62 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome January 5 — The forces of the conspirator In order to free his client of implication in the First Catilinarian Conspiracy, he places the blame solely on Catiline, who had conveniently waged war against the Republic in the previous months.  In the end, Publius Sulla was acquitted, Catiline's name was further tarnished, and Cicero received a large loan to purchase a home.  It is not clear who participated in this alleged conspiracy, as the different accounts accuse different people, but Catiline's association with it appears to have been developed after the Second Catilinarian Conspiracy. Cicero's accusations prior to 63 BC are likely unfounded, since Rome had no penalty for libel. Year 63 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Pompey conquers Phonecia, Coele-Syria Furthermore, Catiline had little motive to participate in this conspiracy, especially since he had been denied very little. He still held the aspiration of obtaining the consulship legitimately the next year, and the conspiracy involved the murder of the consul, Manlius Torquatus, who supported Catiline. It is unlikely that Catiline would have been involved in the First Catilinarian Conspiracy or if, indeed, it even existed at all.
During 64 BC Catiline was officially accepted as a candidate in the consular election for 63 BC. Year 64 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Servilius Rullus, Roman Tribune Year 63 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Pompey conquers Phonecia, Coele-Syria He ran alongside Gaius Antonius Hybrida whom some suspect may have been a fellow conspirator. Gaius Antonius Hybrida (flourished 2nd century BC & 1st century BC was a politician of the Roman Republic. Nevertheless, Catiline was defeated by Cicero and Antonius Hybrida in the consular election, largely because the Roman aristocracy feared Catiline and his economic plan.  The Optimates were particularly repulsed because he promoted the plight of the urban plebs along with his economic policy of tabulae novae, the universal cancellation of debts. Plebs were the general body of landowners of Roman Citizens in Ancient Rome. 
He was brought to trial later that same year, but this time it was for his role in the Sullan proscriptions. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c Not to be confused with prescription and other meanings of proscription. At the insistence of Cato the Younger, then quaestor, all men who had profited during the proscriptions were brought to trial. Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC&ndash46 BC known as Cato the Younger ( Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather ( Cato the Elder Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action For his involvement, Catiline was accused of killing his brother-in-law Marcus Marius Gratidianus, carrying this man’s severed head through the streets of Rome and then having Sulla add him to the proscription to make it legal. Marcus Marius Gratidianus (died 82 BC was a Roman Senator executed at the tomb of the Lutatian Gens. Other allegations claimed that he murdered several other notable men.  Despite this, Catiline was acquitted again, though some surmise that it was through the influence of Caesar who presided over the court.
Catiline chose to stand for the consulship again in the following year.  However, by the time of the consular election for 62 BC, Catiline had lost much of the political support he enjoyed during the previous year's election. Year 62 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome January 5 — The forces of the conspirator So, he was defeated by two other candidates, Decimus Junius Silanus and Lucius Licinius Murena, ultimately crushing his political ambitions. Lucius Licinius Murena, Roman Consul, was the son of Lucius Licinius Murena The only remaining chance of attaining the consulship would be through an illegitimate means, conspiracy or revolution. 
But at power or wealth, for the sake of which wars, and all kinds of strife, arise among mankind, we do not aim; we desire only our liberty, which no honorable man relinquishes but with life.
From Manlius' message to an approaching army as recorded in Sallust's Bellum Catilinae (XXXIII)
Catiline began to attach many other men of senatorial and equestrian rank to his conspiracy, and like him many of the other leading conspirators had faced similar political problems in the Senate.  Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, the most influential conspirator after Catiline, had held the rank of consul in 71 BC, but he was cast out of the senate by the censors during a political purge in the following year on the pretext of debauchery. Publius Cornelius Lentulus, nicknamed Sura, (d December 5, 63 BC was one of the chief figures in the Catiline conspiracy and also a stepfather of Events By place Rome Third Servile War ends — Slave uprising under leadership of Spartacus is crushed by a Roman army under A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic.  Autronius was also complicit in their plot, since he was banned from holding office in the Roman government. Another leading conspirator, Lucius Cassius Longinus who was praetor in 66 BC with Cicero, joined the conspiracy after he failed to obtain the consulship in 64 BC along with Catiline. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before Year 66 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Manius Aemilius Lepidus and Year 64 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Servilius Rullus, Roman Tribune By the time that the election came around, he was no longer even regarded as a viable candidate. Gaius Cethegus, a relatively young man at the time of the conspiracy, was noted for his violent nature. Cethegus is also a spider genus ( Dipluridae) Cethegus, the name of a Roman Patrician family of the Cornelian His impatience for rapid political advancement may account for his involvement in the conspiracy.  The ranks of the conspirators included a variety of other patricians and plebeians who had been cast out of the political system for various reasons. Many of them sought the restoration of their status as senators and their lost political power.
Promoting his policy of debt relief, Catiline initially also rallied many of the poor to his banner along with a large portion of Sulla’s veterans. Debt relief is the partial or total forgiveness of Debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth owed by individuals corporations or nations  Debt had never been greater than in 63 BC since the previous decades of war had led to an era of economic downturn across the Italian countryside. Year 63 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Pompey conquers Phonecia, Coele-Syria  Numerous plebeian farmers lost their farms and were forced to move to the city, where they swelled the numbers of the urban poor.  Sulla's veterans had spent and squandered the wealth they acquired from their years of service. Desiring to regain their fortunes, they were prepared to march to war under the banner of the "next" Sulla. Thus, many of the plebs eagerly flocked to Catiline and supported him in the hope of the absolution of their debts.
He sent Gaius Manlius, a centurion from Sulla’s old army, to manage the conspiracy in Etruria where he assembled an army. Centurion redirects here This article is about the Roman soldier Etruria &mdash usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia &mdash was a region of Central Italy, located in an area Other men were sent to take other important locations throughout Italy, and even a small slave revolt began in Capua. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Capua is a city in the Province of Caserta, Campania, Italy situated 25 km (16 mi north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of While civil unrest was felt throughout the countryside, Catiline made the final preparations for the conspiracy in Rome.  Their plans included arson and the murder of a large portion of the senators, after which they would join up with Manlius’ army. Finally, they would return to Rome and take control of the government. To set the plan in motion, Gaius Cornelius and Lucius Vargunteius were to assassinate Cicero early in the morning on November 7, 63 BC, but Quintus Curius, a senator, who would eventually become one of Cicero's chief informants warned Cicero of the threat through his mistress Fulvia. Events 1492 - The Ensisheim Meteorite the oldest Meteorite with a known date of impact strikes the Earth around noon in a Wheat Year 63 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Pompey conquers Phonecia, Coele-Syria Fortunately for Cicero, he escaped death that morning by placing guards at the entrance of his house who scared the conspirators away. 
On the following day, Cicero convened the Senate in the Temple of Jupiter Stator and surrounded it with armed guards. See also Temple of Jupiter Stator (2nd century BC The Temple of Jupiter Stator (Jupiter the Stayer was in the area of the Roman Forum.  Much to his surprise, Catiline was in attendance while Cicero denounced him before the Senate; however, the senators adjacent to Catiline slowly moved away from him during the course of the speech, the first of Cicero's four Catiline Orations. The Catiline Orations or Catilinarian Orations were speeches given in 63 BC by Marcus Tullius Cicero, the Consul Incensed at these accusations, Catiline exhorted the Senate to recall the history of his family and how it had served the republic, instructing them to not believe false rumors and to trust the name of his family. He finally accused them of placing their faith in a "homo novus", Cicero, over a "nobilis", himself. Supposedly, Catiline violently concluded that he would put out his own fire with the general destruction of all.  Immediately afterwards, he threw himself out of the Senate house, and he rushed home. That night, Catiline complied with Cicero's demand and fled Rome under the pretext that he was going into voluntary exile at Massilia because of his "mistreatment" by the consul; however, he arrived at Manlius’ camp in Etruria to further his designs of revolution. Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ 
Besides, soldiers, the same exigency does not press upon our adversaries, as presses upon us; we fight for our country, for our liberty, for our life; they contend for what but little concerns them, the power of a small party. Attack them, therefore, with so much the greater confidence, and call to mind your achievements of old.
From Catiline's speech to his army as recorded in Sallust's Bellum Catilinae (LVIII)
While Catiline was preparing the army, the conspirators continued with their plans. The conspirators observed that a delegation from the Allobroges were in Rome seeking relief from the oppression of their governor. The Allobroges were a warlike Celtic tribe in Gaul located between the Rhône River and the Lake of Geneva in what later became Savoy So, Lentulus Sura instructed Publius Umbrenus, a businessman with dealings in Gaul, to offer to free them of their miseries and to throw off the heavy yoke of their governor. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western He brought Publius Gabinius Capito, a leading conspirator of the equestrian rank, to meet them and the conspiracy was revealed to the Allobroges.  The envoys quickly took advantage of this opportunity and informed Cicero who then instructed the envoys to get tangible proof of the conspiracy. Five of the leading conspirators wrote letters to the Allobroges so that the envoys could show their people that there was hope in a real conspiracy. However, a trap had been laid. These letters were intercepted in transit to Gaul at the Mulvian Bridge. The Milvian (or Mulvian) Bridge (Ponte Molle or Ponte Milvio Latin: pons Milvius or pons Mulvius) in northern Rome  Then, Cicero had the incriminating letters read before the Senate the following day, and shortly thereafter these 5 conspirators were condemned to death without a trial despite an eloquent protest by Julius Caesar. Fearing that other conspirators might try to free Lentulus and the rest, Cicero had them strangled in the Tullianum immediately. The Mamertine Prison (also referred to as the Tullianum) was a prison ( carcer) located in the Forum Romanum in Ancient Rome. He even escorted Lentulus to the Tullianum personally.  After the executions, he announced to a crowd gathering in the Forum what had occurred. This page refers to the main forum in the center of Rome See Imperial forums or Other forums in Rome (below for other forums in Rome and Thus, an end was made to the conspiracy in Rome.
The failure of the conspiracy in Rome was a massive blow to Catiline. Upon hearing of the death of Lentulus and the others, many men deserted his army leaving him with some 10,000 men, about two Legions worth. He and his ill-equipped army began to march towards Gaul and then back towards Rome several times in vain attempts to avoid a battle. Inevitably, Catiline was forced to fight when Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer with three legions in the north blocked his escape. Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer may refer to Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer (people's tribune Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer (consul So, he chose to engage Antonius Hybrida’s army near Pistoria (now Pistoia) hoping that he would lose the battle and dishearten the other Republican armies. Pistoia is a city in the Tuscany region of Italy, the capital of a province of the same name, located about 30 km west and north of Florence The Battle of Pistoria was fought in January of 62 BC between the forces of the Roman Republic and Catiline, a senatorial conspirator who wished to  Catiline may have still believed that Antonius Hybrida was conspiring with him, which may have been true as Antonius Hybrida claimed to be ill on the day of the battle.  Nevertheless, Catiline himself bravely fought as a soldier on the front lines of the battle. Once he saw that there was no hope of victory, he threw himself into the thick of the fray. When the corpses were counted, all Catiline’s soldiers were found with frontal wounds, and his corpse was found far in front of his own lines.
Catiline was found far away from his own soldiers among the corpses of his enemies. It would have been a glorious death if he had thus fallen fighting for his country.—From Florus' Epitome de Tito Livio (II.xii)
After Catiline’s death, many of the poor still regarded him with respect and did not view him as the traitor and villain that Cicero claimed he was.  However, the patrician element of Rome certainly viewed him in a much darker light. At the insistence of Cicero, Sallust wrote an account of the conspiracy that epitomized Catiline as representative of all of the evils festering in the declining Roman republic. In his account, Sallust attributes countless crimes and atrocities to Catiline, but even he refuses to heap some of the most outrageous claims on him, particularly a ritual that involved the drinking of blood of a sacrificed child.  Later historians such as Florus and Dio Cassius, far removed from the original events, recorded the claims of Sallust and the aforementioned rumors as facts. Florus, Roman Historian, lived in the time of Trajan and Hadrian. Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus ( Greek:) (c 155 or 163/164 to after 229 known in English as Cassius Dio, Dio Cassius, or Dio was  Up until the modern era Catiline was equated to everything depraved and contrary to both the laws of the gods and men as Sallust so eloquently described.
He had many things about him which served to allure men to the gratification of their passions; he had also many things which acted as incentives to industry and toil. The vices of lust raged in him; but at the same time he was conspicuous for great energy and military skill. Nor do I believe that there ever existed so strange a prodigy upon the earth, made up in such a manner of the most various, and different and inconsistent studies and desires.
From Cicero's Pro Caelio (V)
While the Romans despised Catiline for everything he did, they still viewed his character with a degree of respect. Well after Catiline's death and the end of the threat of the conspiracy, even Cicero reluctantly admitted that Catiline was an enigmatic man who possessed both the greatest of virtues and the most terrible of vices. Catiline spoke with an eloquence that demanded loyalty from his followers and strengthened the resolve of his friends. Without doubt Catiline possessed a degree of courage that few have, and he died a particularly honorable death in Roman society. Unlike most Roman generals of the late republic, Catiline offered himself to his followers both as a general and as soldier on the front lines.
While history has viewed Catiline through the lenses of his enemies, some modern historians have reassessed Catiline. To some extent Catiline’s name has been freed from many of its previous associations, and even to some the name of Catiline has undergone a transformation from a traitor and villain to a heroic agrarian reformer. Thus, some view Catiline as a reformer such as the Gracchi who met similar resistance from the government. The Gracchi brothers were a pair of tribunes in 2nd century BC who attempted to pass Land reform legislation in Ancient Rome that would redistribute the major patrician However, many place him somewhere in between, a man who used the plight of the poor to suit his personal interests and a politician of the time no more corrupt than any other.
|NAME||Catilina, Lucius Sergius|
|DATE OF BIRTH||108 BC|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Rome, Italy|
|DATE OF DEATH||62 BC|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Pistoria, Italy|