Catholic is an adjective derived from the Greek adjective 'καθολικός' / 'katholikos', meaning "general" or "universal" (cf. In Grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a Noun or Pronoun, giving more information about the Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon).
Methodists and Presbyterians believe their denominations owe their origins to the Apostles and the early Church, but do not claim descent from ancient Church structures such as the episcopate. Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Neither of these Churches, however, denies that they are a part of the catholic (universal) Church.
A letter written by Ignatius to Christians in Smyrna  around 106 A.D. is the earliest surviving witness to the use of the term Catholic Church (Letter to the Smyrnaeans, 8). Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus) (ca 35-110 was the third Bishop and Patriarch of Antioch and possibly a student of the Apostle John This article is on the Ancient Greek city of Smyrna principally in connection with the ruins remaining to this day The Letter to the Smyrnaeans (often simply called To the Smyrnaeans) was written by Saint Ignatius of Antioch around AD 110 By Catholic Church Ignatius designated the Christian Church in its universal aspect, excluding heretics, such as those who disavow "the Eucharist to be the flesh of our Saviour Jesus Christ, which suffered for our sins, and which the Father, of His goodness, raised up again" (Smyrnaeans, 7). He called such people "beasts in the shape of men, whom you must not only not receive, but, if it be possible, not even meet with" (Smyrnaeans, 4). The term is also used in the Martyrdom of Polycarp in 155 and in the Muratorian fragment, about 177. The Martyrdom of Polycarp is one of the works of the Apostolic Fathers, and as such is one of the very few genuine such writings from the actual age of the persecutions The Muratorian fragment is a copy of perhaps the oldest known list of the books of the New Testament.
St Cyril of Jerusalem (circa 315-386) urged those he was instructing in the Christian faith: "If ever thou art sojourning in cities, inquire not simply where the Lord's House is (for the other sects of the profane also attempt to call their own dens houses of the Lord), nor merely where the Church is, but where is the Catholic Church. Saint Cyril of Jerusalem (Κύριλλος Α΄ Ἱεροσολύμων was a distinguished theologian of the early Church (ca For this is the peculiar name of this Holy Church, the mother of us all, which is the spouse of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God" (Catechetical Lectures, XVIII, 26). 
The term Catholic Christians entered Roman Imperial law when Theodosius I, Emperor from 379 to 395, reserved that name for adherents of "that religion which was delivered to the Romans by the divine Apostle Peter, as it has been preserved by faithful tradition and which is now professed by the Pontiff (Pope) Damasus and by Peter, Bishop of Alexandria . Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ . . as for the others, since in our judgement they are foolish madmen, we decree that they shall be branded with the ignominious name of heretics, and shall not presume to give their conventicles the name of churches. " This law of 27 February 380 was included in Book 16 of the Codex Theodosianus. Events 1560 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation Events By Place Roman Empire January / February – Emperor Theodosius I is baptized. The Codex Theodosianus ( Book of Theodosius) was a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire under the Christian emperors since 312  It established Catholic Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire.
The use of the term Catholic to distinguish the "true" church from heretical groups is found also in Augustine who wrote:
A contemporary of Augustine, St. Vincent of Lerins, wrote in 434 under the pseudonym Peregrinus a work known as the Commonitoria ("Memoranda"). Saint Vincent of Lérins (in Latin, Vincentius) was a Gallic author of early Christian writings While insisting that, like the human body, church doctrine develops while truly keeping its identity (sections 54-59, chapter XXIII), he stated: "[I]n the Catholic Church itself, all possible care must be taken, that we hold that faith which has been believed everywhere, always, by all. For that is truly and in the strictest sense 'Catholic,' which, as the name itself and the reason of the thing declare, comprehends all universally. This rule we shall observe if we follow universality, antiquity, consent. We shall follow universality if we confess that one faith to be true, which the whole church throughout the world confesses; antiquity, if we in no wise depart from those interpretations which it is manifest were notoriously held by our holy ancestors and fathers; consent, in like manner, if in antiquity itself we adhere to the consentient definitions and determinations of all, or at the least of almost all priests and doctors" (section 6, end of chapter II).
The term Catholic Church is normally associated with the church that is led by the Roman Pontiff, currently Pope Benedict XVI, and whose over one billion adherents are about half of the estimated 2.1 billion Christians. Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger The world's principal Religions and spiritual traditions may be classified into a small number of major groups or world religions'. Other Christian denominations also lay claim to the description Catholic, including the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Churches possessing the historic episcopate (bishops).
In some countries, Catholic is included in the official name of a particular parish church, school, hospice or other institution belonging to the Roman Catholic Church, to distinguish it from those of other denominations. A parish is a Local church; it is an administrative unit typically found in episcopal or presbyterian churches Palliative care (from Latin palliare to cloak is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of Disease Symptoms Denominationalism|List of Christian denominations|Church (disambiguation A Christian denomination is an identifiable religious body under a common name structure and doctrine within For example, the name St. Mark's Catholic Church seeks to make clear that it is not an Anglican or Lutheran church. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs In other countries, such as England, it would be more usual to use Roman Catholic Church in this context.
Many of those, who apply the term Catholic Church to all Christians indiscriminately, object to this use of the term to designate what they view as only one denomination within what they see as the "whole" Catholic Church. However, the Roman Catholic Church considers itself to be The Catholic Church, with all others as non-Catholics, and regularly refers to itself as The Catholic Church. This practice is in application of the belief that not all who claim to be Christians are part of the Catholic Church - a belief that goes back to Ignatius of Antioch, the earliest known writer to use the term Catholic Church.
Though normally distinguishing itself from other churches by calling itself the Catholic Church, it accepts the description Roman Catholic Church in its relations with some of them. Even outside documents drawn up jointly with these churches, it has sometimes in view of the central position it attributes to the See of Rome, adopted the adjective "Roman", as in the papal encyclicals Divini illius Magistri and Humani generis. Another example is its self-description as the "Holy, Catholic, Apostolic and Roman Church" in the 24 April 1870 Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith of the First Vatican Council. Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Pastor Aeternus of June 29, 1868. In all of these documents it refers to itself also simply as the Catholic Church.
As noted, in addition to the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East all see themselves as "one holy catholic and apostolic Church" of the Nicene Creed. Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ‘Ittā Qaddishtā wa-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi Church (disambiguation Christian Church and the word church are used to denote both a Christian association of people and a Place of worship Anglicans and Old Catholics together see themselves as a communion within that one church, and Lutherans see themselves as "a reform movement within the greater Church catholic".
Roman Catholics view the Bishop of Rome as the "Successor of Peter" to serve as universal pastor to the entire Church. Eastern Orthodox Christians do recognize the primacy of the Bishop of Rome (i. e. , the Pope) but only in the sense of a primacy of honour, not one of jurisdiction, among the Patriarchates of Constantintinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Anglicans and Old Catholics accept that the Bishop of Rome is primus inter pares among all primates, but they embrace Conciliarism as a necessary check on what they consider to be the "excesses" of Ultramontanism. Primate (from the Latin Primus, "first" is a title or rank bestowed on some Bishops in certain Christian churches Conciliarism, or the conciliar movement, was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Roman Catholic Church which held that final authority Ultramontanism is a religious philosophy within the Catholic Church that places strong emphasis on the prerogatives and powers of the Pope.
Roman Catholics, Orthodox Christians (in general), and the Assyrian Church of the East each recognize the "validity" of each other's Eucharist (Mass or Divine Liturgy), and of the holy orders of their respective priesthoods and episcopate. The Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names is a Christian Sacrament by which in a common interpretation those The Mass is the Eucharistic celebration in the Latin liturgical rites of the Roman Catholic Church. The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. The Roman Catholic Church, on the other hand, considers Anglican Holy Orders to be "null and void," as declared by Pope Leo XIII in his Bull Apostolicae curae. Pope Leo XIII ( March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903) born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope Beginning with the Encyclical Letter Saepius officio of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York in response to Apostolicae curae, Anglicans have steadfastly rejected this claim. In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead Canterbury ( ˈkæntəbɹ̩i is a City in eastern Kent in the South East region of England. York ( is an historic Walled city sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. At present, Old Catholics are in full communion with the worldwide Anglican Communion, including full exchange of clergy and participation in each other's ordinations (including episcopal consecrations), and many Lutheran Churches are in communion with some Anglican provinces. Full communion is a term used in Christian Ecclesiology to describe the relationship of communion, with mutually recognized sharing of the same essential See also Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is an international association of national Anglican churches Although there were several statements made by a couple of Orthodox leaders in the early 20th century giving hope to Anglican clergy that their priestly orders would eventually be recognized as valid by the Orthodox, today there is little variance among Orthodox patriarchs and metropolitans on the validity of Anglican Orders. As with the Roman Catholic Church, today the Orthodox churches universally require ordination to the priesthood for Anglican clergy that convert to Orthodoxy, evidencing the prevailing Orthodox view that the Anglican liturgy is non-sacramental in nature. Recent decisions by various Anglican/Episcopal bishops to ordain women to the priesthood and to the episcopate have rendered any hope of formal ecclesiastical union with Orthodoxy (from the Orthodox point of view) a moot point.
Thus, for example, in an emergency, when no Roman Catholic priest is available, a Roman Catholic may, under canon law, receive the Holy Eucharist and receive absolution from an Orthodox priest, but not from an Anglican priest. This also means that if an Episcopal or an Anglican male priest converts to the Roman Catholic Church, the Roman Catholic Church confers ordination on him (in its view, for the first time) and excludes women from Holy Orders. This divergence of belief is a considerable block to greater unity, in spite of substantial progress in ecumenical dialogues between Anglicans and Roman Catholics since the Second Vatican Council. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church.
Recent historic ecumenical efforts on the part of Roman Catholic Church have focused on healing the rupture between the Western (Latin or Catholic) Christian Church and the main body of the Eastern ("Greek" or "Orthodox") Christian Church. Before he was incapacitated with a degenerative illness, Pope John Paul II often spoke of his great desire that the Catholic Church "once again breathe with both lungs," thus emphasizing that the Catholic Church seeks to restore full communion with the separated "Eastern" and "Oriental" Christian Churches. Pope
After the rupture in the Catholic Church in 1054 between East and West, a brief reunification took place in the mid-15th century at the Council of Florence. The present Pope (Benedict XVI) has stated his intentions in restoring full unity with the Orthodox. From the Roman Catholic standpoint, almost all of the ancient theological differences have been satisfactorily addressed (the Filioque clause, the nature of purgatory, etc. ), and the experience of the Eastern Catholic Churches in communion with Rome has shown that the eventual reunion will not mean a "Latinization" of the Eastern Churches.
Some Protestant Churches avoid using the term completely, to the extent among many Lutherans of reciting the Creed with the word Christian in place of Catholic.  The Orthodox Churches share some of the concerns about Roman Catholic papal claims, but disagree with some Protestants about the nature of the Church as one body. For some, to use the word "Catholic" at all is to appear to give credence to papal claims.