Fossil range: Late Cretaceous - Present
Catfish (order Siluriformes) are a very diverse group of bony fish. The Cretaceous (kriːˈteɪʃəs, usually abbreviated 'K' for its German translation "Kreide" is a geologic period and system, reaching from the end of Chordates ( Phylum Chordata) are a group of Animals that includes the Vertebrates together with several closely related Invertebrates Osteichthyes (ˌɒstiːˈɪkθiːz also called bony fish, are a taxonomic Class of Fish that includes the ray-finned fish ( Actinopterygii Ostariophysi is the second-largest Superorder of Fish. Members of this superorder are called ostariophysans. The stream catfishes are family Akysidae of Catfishes Distribution and habitat Akysids are known from across a large area in Southeast Amblycipitidae is a family of Catfishes commonly known as torrent catfishes. Loach catfishes, Amphiliidae, are a family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes Anchariidae is a family of Catfishes order. This small family contains two genera, Ancharius and Gogo Andinichthyidae is an extinct family of Catfish. Species There are 3 species in 3 genera Genus Andinichthys Gayet In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. The Ariidae or ariid catfish are Catfish that mainly live in marine waters with many Freshwater and Brackish water species The Aspredinidae are a small South American family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes also known as the banjo catfishes. Astroblepus is a Genus of Catfish (order Siluriformes which contains 54 Species. The driftwood catfishes are Catfishes of the family Auchenipteridae. Austroglanis is the only genus in the Catfish family Austroglanididae. Bagridae are a family of Catfish that originate from Africa and Asia from Japan to Borneo. Callichthyidae is a family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes called armored catfishes due to the two rows of bony plates (or scutes running Cetopsidae is a small family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes commonly called the whale catfishes. Chaca is the only Genus in the Catfish family Chacidae. These fish are commonly known as squarehead catfishes, frogmouth Airbreathing catfishes are Fishes comprising the family Clariidae of order Siluriformes. The Claroteidae are a family of Catfish (Order Siluriformes found in Africa. Cranoglanis is the only Genus of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes in the family Cranoglanididae, the armorhead catfishes Diplomystes is a Genus of the family Diplomystidae ( velvet catfishes) a primitive family of Catfishes ( order Doradidae is a family of Catfishes also known as thorny catfishes or talking catfishes. Erethistidae are a family of Catfishes that originate from southern Asia. Heptapteridae is a family of Catfish that originate from Mexico to South America. Hypsidoris is an extinct genus of Catfish, classified within its own family Hypsidoridae, from the Eocene period In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. The Ictaluridae, sometimes called Ictalurids, are a family of Catfish native to North America, where they are important food fish and sometimes as The Chiapas catfish, Lacantunia enigmatica, is an unusual species of Catfish (Order Siluriformes newly described in 2005 from the Lacantún River Loricariidae is the largest family of Catfish (Order Siluriformes with almost 700 species and new species being described each year Electric catfish is the common name for the Catfish ( order Siluriformes family Malapteruridae. The Mochokidae are a family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes that are known as the squeakers and Upside-down catfish. Nematogenys inermis is a kind of catfish and the only extant Species in the family Nematogenyiidae. The shark catfishes are a family Pangasiidae of Catfishes found in fresh and brackish waters across southern Asia, from Pakistan Pimelodidae, commonly known as the long-whiskered catfish es is a family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes The eeltail catfish are a family ( Plotosidae) of Catfish whose tails are elongated in an Eel -like fashion Pseudopimelodidae is a small family of Catfishes Some of these fish are popular aquarium fish The schilbid catfishes ( Schilbeidae) are a family of Catfishes native to Africa and southern Asia. Scoloplax is the only Genus in the Catfish ( order Siluriformes family Scoloplacidae, the spiny dwarf catfishes Sheatfishes or freshwater catfishes are a family ( Siluridae) of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes Sisoridae is a family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes These Asian catfish live in fast-moving waters and often have adaptations that allow them to Trichomycteridae is a family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes commonly known as the pencil or parasitic catfishes. Incertae sedis ( Latin for "of uncertain placement" abbreviated "inc Conorhynchos conirostris is a Species of Catfish ( order Siluriformes Horabagrus is a small Genus of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes Phreatobius cisternarum is a Species of Catfish in the Genus Phreatobius. This article is about the taxonomic rank for the sequence of species in a taxonomic list see Taxonomic order In scientific classification used The Actinopterygii (the plural form of Actinopterygius) comprise the class of the ray-finned fishes. Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two Named for their prominent barbels, which give the image of cat-like whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the heaviest, the Mekong giant catfish in Southeast Asia and the longest, the wels catfish of Eurasia, to detritivores (species that eat dead material on the bottom), and even to a tiny parasitic species commonly called the candiru, Vandellia cirrhosa. A barbel on a Fish is a slender whiskerlike tactile organ near the Mouth. WikipediaManual of Style (spelling, articles should conform to one overall spelling style of English typically the one most linked to the article topic (if it is geographic The Mekong giant catfish, Pangasianodon gigas, is a Species of Catfish ( order Siluriformes The wels catfish ( or) is a scaleless fresh and brackish water Catfish recognizable by its broad flat head and wide mouth Detritivores, also known as detritus feeders or saprophages, are Heterotrophs that obtain Nutrients by consuming Detritus (decomposing Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between Organisms of different Species. Candiru or candirú (also canero or toothpick fish) refers to parasitic freshwater Catfish of a number of genera in There are armour-plated types and also naked types, neither having scales. Despite their common name, not all catfish have prominent barbels; what defines a fish as being in the order Siluriformes are in fact certain features of the skull and swimbladder. Catfish are of considerable commercial importance; many of the larger species are farmed or fished for food, and some are exploited for sport fishing, including a kind known as noodling. Aquaculture is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms including Molluscs Crustaceans and aquatic plants For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. Food is any substance usually composed primarily of Carbohydrates Fats water and/or Proteins that can be eaten or drunk by an Recreational fishing, also called sport fishing, is Fishing for Pleasure or Competition. For other meanings see Noodle (disambiguation. Noodling is a Southern US practice of Fishing for Catfish using Many of the smaller species, particularly the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby. Members of the South American Corydoras Genus are Freshwater Temperate and Tropical Catfish in the armored catfish Fishkeeping is a popular Hobby concerned with keeping Fish in the home Aquarium or garden Pond.
Catfish belong to a superorder called the Ostariophysi, which also includes the Cypriniformes, Characiformes, Gonorynchiformes and Gymnotiformes, a superorder characterized by the Weberian apparatus. Ostariophysi is the second-largest Superorder of Fish. Members of this superorder are called ostariophysans. The Cypriniformes are an order of ray-finned fish, including the Carps Minnows Loaches and relatives The Characiformes are an order of ray-finned fish, comprising the characins and their allies Gonorynchiformes is an order of ray-finned fish that includes the important food source the Milkfish ( Chanos chanos, family Chanidae The Gymnotiformes is a lineage of Ostariophysan Teleost Electric fishes Common names found in the literature include the Neotropical electric The Weberian apparatus is made up of a set of bones known as Weberian ossicles, a chain of small bones that connect the auditory system to the Gas bladder of Some place Gymnotiformes as a sub-order of Siluriformes, however this is not as widely accepted. Currently, the Siluriformes are said to be the sister group to the Gymnotiformes, though this has been debated due to more recent molecular evidence. Cladistics is the hierarchical classification of Species based on evolutionary ancestry  As of 2007 there are about 36 extant catfish families, and about 3,023 extant species have been described. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Extant is a term commonly used to refer to Taxa (such as Species, genera or families) that are still in existence (living  This makes the catfish order the second or third most diverse vertebrate order; in fact, 1 out of every 20 vertebrate species is a catfish. Vertebrates are members of the Subphylum Vertebrata, Chordates with backbones or spinal columns The grouping sometimes includes 
The taxonomy of catfishes is quickly changing. In a 2007 paper, Horabagrus, Phreatobius, and Conorhynchos were not classified under any current catfish families. Horabagrus is a small Genus of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes Phreatobius cisternarum is a Species of Catfish in the Genus Phreatobius. Conorhynchos conirostris is a Species of Catfish ( order Siluriformes  There is disagreement on the family status of certain groups; for example, Nelson (2006) lists Auchenoglanididae and Heteropneustidae as separate families, while the All Catfish Species Inventory (ACSI) includes them under other families. Also, FishBase and the Integrated Taxonomic Information System lists Parakysidae as a separate family, while this group is included under Akysidae by both Nelson (2006) and ACSI. FishBase is a comprehensive Database of information about Fish. Integrated Taxonomic Information System ( ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the Taxonomy of biological Species The stream catfishes are family Akysidae of Catfishes Distribution and habitat Akysids are known from across a large area in Southeast  Many sources do not list the recently revised family Anchariidae. Anchariidae is a family of Catfishes order. This small family contains two genera, Ancharius and Gogo  The family Horabagridae, including Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius, and Platytropius, is also not shown by some authors but presented by others as a true group.  Thus, the actual number of families differs between authors. The species count is in constant flux due to taxonomic work as well as description of new species. Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification The word comes from the Greek, taxis (meaning 'order' 'arrangement' and, nomos On the other hand, our understanding of catfishes should increase in the next few years due to work by the ACSI. 
The rate of description of new catfishes is at an all-time high. Between 2003 and 2005, over 100 species have been named, a rate three times faster than that of the past century.  In June, 2005, researchers named the newest family of catfish, Lacantuniidae, only the third new family of fish distinguished in the last 70 years (others being the coelacanth in 1938 and the megamouth shark in 1983). The Chiapas catfish, Lacantunia enigmatica, is an unusual species of Catfish (Order Siluriformes newly described in 2005 from the Lacantún River Coelacanth (ˈsiːləkænθ adaptation of Modern Latin Cœlacanthus > cœl-us + acanth-us from Greek κοῖλ-ος + ἄκανθ-α) is the common name for The megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, is an extremely rare and unusual species of deepwater Shark. The new species in Lacantuniidae, Lacantunia enigmatica, was found in the Lacantun river in Chiapas, Mexico. The Chiapas catfish, Lacantunia enigmatica, is an unusual species of Catfish (Order Siluriformes newly described in 2005 from the Lacantún River The Chiapas catfish, Lacantunia enigmatica, is an unusual species of Catfish (Order Siluriformes newly described in 2005 from the Lacantún River Chiapas is the southernmost state of Mexico, located towards the southeast of the country 
Based on morphological data, Diplomystidae is usually considered to be the most primitive of catfishes and the sister group to the remaining catfishes, grouped in a clade called Siluroidei. The term morphology in Biology refers to the outward appearance ( Shape, Structure, Colour, Pattern) of an Organism Diplomystes is a Genus of the family Diplomystidae ( velvet catfishes) a primitive family of Catfishes ( order Cladistics is the hierarchical classification of Species based on evolutionary ancestry A clade is a taxonomic group comprising a single Common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor Recent molecular evidence contrasts the prevailing hypothesis, where the suborder Loricarioidei are the sister group to all catfishes, including Diplomystidae (Diplomystoidei) and Siluroidei; though they were not able to reject the past hypothesis, the new hypothesis is not unsupported. Siluroidei was found to be monophyletic without Loricarioid families or Diplomystidae with molecular evidence; morphological evidence is unknown that supports Siluroidei without Loricarioidea. 
Below is a list of family relationships by different authors. Lacantuniidae is included in the Sullivan scheme based on recent evidence that places it sister to Claroteidae. The Claroteidae are a family of Catfish (Order Siluriformes found in Africa. 
A large number of species of catfishes have been named from complete or partial skeletal fossils or even from only otoliths. Loricarioidea is a superfamily of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes Sisoroidea is a superfamily of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes Ailia is a genus of Catfish in the Schilbeidae family Horabagrus is a small Genus of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes Rita is a Genus of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes of the family Bagridae.  19 valid genera and 72 species are based exclusively on fossil remains.  There are two fossil families, Andinichthyidae, from the Lower Maastrichtian to Paleocene, as well as Hypsidoridae, from the Middle Eocene. Andinichthyidae is an extinct family of Catfish. Species There are 3 species in 3 genera Genus Andinichthys Gayet The Maastrichtian is the last stage of the Cretaceous period, and therefore of the Mesozoic era. The Paleocene or Palaeocene, "early dawn of the recent" is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65 Hypsidoris is an extinct genus of Catfish, classified within its own family Hypsidoridae, from the Eocene period The Eocene epoch (558 ± 02 - 339 ± 01 Ma) is a major division of the Geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Palaeogene period in 
The earliest known catfish are known from the late Campanian-early Maastrichtian of Argentina. The Campanian is a stage on the Geologic time scale occurring from 83 For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics.  Catfish fossils are known from every continent except Australia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.  Fossils of the Eocene period have been found from Seymour Island in Antarctica. For Baltra Island, also called South Seymour Island, in the Galápagos Islands group see Baltra Island.  The order dispersed early throughout the continents primarily through land bridges.  Australian species of catfish are all species from families that can enter saltwater; these fish traveled to Australia through saltwater, and then reverted to a freshwater lifestyle.
The catfish must have spread through Africa to Asia during the late Jurassic if they were to reach Asia. The Jurassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about Ma (million years ago to  Ma that is from the end of the Triassic to the beginning  During the Cretaceous period, the rift between South America and Africa would be forming; this may explain the contrast in families between the two continents. Most of the freshwater catfish of the two continents appear to be completely unrelated. Their relatively low diversity in Africa may explain why some primitive fish families coexist with them while they are absent in South America, where the more primitive fish may have been driven extinct.  The earliest they could have spread into Central America was the late Miocene. The Miocene is a geological epoch of the Neogene period and extends from about 23 
Extant catfish species live in inland or coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica. Catfish have inhabited all continents at one time or another.  Catfish are most diverse in tropical South America, Africa, and Asia. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a  More than half of all catfish species live in the Americas. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America They are the only ostariophysans that have entered freshwater habitats in Madagascar, Australia, and New Guinea. Ostariophysi is the second-largest Superorder of Fish. Members of this superorder are called ostariophysans. Freshwater is a word that refers to bodies of water such as Ponds lakes rivers and streams containing low concentrations of dissolved Salts and other Total dissolved Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the world's second largest island, having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known 
They are found primarily in freshwater environments of all kinds, though most inhabit shallow, running water habitats.  Representatives of a at least eight families are hypogean (live underground) with three families that are also troglobitic (inhabiting caves). A troglobite is an Animal that lives entirely in the dark parts of Caves Such creatures have become specifically adapted for life in total darkness and over time A troglobite is an Animal that lives entirely in the dark parts of Caves Such creatures have become specifically adapted for life in total darkness and over time Thus, catfishes are some of the most successful cave colonizers among fishes.  One such species is Phreatobius cisternarum, known to live underground in phreatic habitats. Phreatobius cisternarum is a Species of Catfish in the Genus Phreatobius. The term phreatic is used in Earth sciences to refer to matters relating to ground water below the static Water table (the word originates from the Greek  Numerous species from the families Ariidae and Plotosidae, and a few species from among the Aspredinidae and Bagridae, are also found in marine environments. The Ariidae or ariid catfish are Catfish that mainly live in marine waters with many Freshwater and Brackish water species The eeltail catfish are a family ( Plotosidae) of Catfish whose tails are elongated in an Eel -like fashion The Aspredinidae are a small South American family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes also known as the banjo catfishes. Bagridae are a family of Catfish that originate from Africa and Asia from Japan to Borneo. 
Most catfish are benthic in nature, meaning they normally associate with the bottom of the water column. The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a Body of water such as an Ocean or a Lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface A water column is a conceptual column of water from surface to bottom sediments  However, variety of other lifestyles are also represented among the catfishes. A few species are pelagic in nature. Any water in the sea that is not close to the bottom is in the pelagic zone. 
A wide range of feeding behaviors and diets are represented by the catfishes. In the family Trichomycteridae alone, there are species that feed on algae, fish scales, mucus, carrion, insects, or even blood in the infamous candirú. Trichomycteridae is a family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes commonly known as the pencil or parasitic catfishes. Algae ( sing. alga are a large and diverse group of simple typically Autotrophic organisms ranging from Unicellular to Multicellular forms Lepidophagy is a specialised Feeding behaviour in Fish that involves eating of scales of other fish Mucophagy is feeding on Mucus of Fishes or Invertebrates There are mucophagous Parasites such as some Sea lice that attach themselves Candiru or candirú (also canero or toothpick fish) refers to parasitic freshwater Catfish of a number of genera in  Panaque and some species of Hypostomus are unique among catfishes in that are the only fishes able to eat and digest wood. The genus Panaque contains a small number of small to medium sized South American armoured catfishes that are notable for being among the very few vertebrates Hypostomus is the largest Genus of the Armored catfish family Loricariidae. Not to be confused with Xylophagia Xylophagy is a term used in Ecology to describe the habits of an Herbivorous animal  Members of the aspredinid genus Amaralia are known to specialize in feeding on loricariid eggs. The Aspredinidae are a small South American family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes also known as the banjo catfishes. Amaralia is a Genus of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes of the family Aspredinidae. Loricariidae is the largest family of Catfish (Order Siluriformes with almost 700 species and new species being described each year 
Representatives of several catfish families utilize their pectoral spines to produce stridulatory sounds by rubbing a ridged process of the pectoral spine within the cleithral groove, including members of Aspredinidae, Mochokidae, Doradidae, Pimelodidae, and Ictaluridae. Stridulation is the act of producing Sound by rubbing together certain body parts Catfishes make a "creaking" sound during defense or appeasement behavior when being attacked by conspecifics. Conspecificity is a concept in Biology. Two or more individual Organisms Populations or Taxa are termed conspecific if they belong They also vocalize when they are captured or prodded. 
In catfishes, fertilization of eggs can be internal, external, or even include sperm passage through female digestive tracts, the so called sperm drinking type of fertilization. For soil improvement see Fertilization (soil. The term sperm is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα sperma (meaning "seed" and refers to the male reproductive cells.  Internal insemination is probable in all species of Auchenipteridae. Insemination is the introduction of sperm into the female Uterus of a Mammal or the Oviduct of an Oviparous (egg-laying animal during  Catfishes express varying levels of care reproductive strategies. In loricariids, parental care is usually well-developed and the male guards the eggs and sometimes the larvae, either carrying eggs or having the eggs attached to the underside of rocks or in cavities.  In most of Ariidae, if not all species, the male is a mouthbrooder; he carries the relatively large eggs in his mouth until the young hatch. Mouthbrooding, also known as oral incubation and buccal incubation, is the care given by some groups of animals to their offspring by holding them in the mouth of 
Most catfish are adapted for a benthic lifestyle. In general, they are negatively buoyant, which means that they will usually sink rather than float due to a reduced gas bladder and a heavy, bony head. In Physics, buoyancy ( BrE IPA: /ˈbɔɪənsi/ is the upward Force on an object produced by the surrounding liquid or gas in which it is gas bladder (also fish maw, less accurately swim bladder or air bladder) is an internal organ that contributes to the ability of a Fish  Catfish have a variety of body shapes, though most have a cylindrical body with a flattened ventrum to allow for benthic feeding. A cylinder is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes the Surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given Straight line, the axis In fields of Anatomy, anatomical terms of location are descriptive terms to help identify relative positions or directions within a species 
A flattened head allows for digging through the substrate as well as perhaps serving as a hydrofoil. A hydrofoil is a Boat with wing-like foils mounted on struts below the hull. Most have a mouth that can expand to a large size and contains no incisiform teeth; catfish generally feed through suction or gulping rather than biting and cutting prey. Incisors (from Latin incidere, "to cut" are the first kind of Tooth in Heterodont Mammals They are located in the Premaxilla Suction is the flow of a fluid into a partial Vacuum, or region of low pressure  However, some families, notably Loricariidae and Astroblepidae, have a suckermouth that allows them to fasten themselves to objects in fast-moving water. Loricariidae is the largest family of Catfish (Order Siluriformes with almost 700 species and new species being described each year Astroblepus is a Genus of Catfish (order Siluriformes which contains 54 Species. In fishes a suckermouth is a ventrally orientated (inferior mouth adapted for grazing on algae and small organisms that grow on submerged objects Catfish also have a maxilla reduced to a support for barbels; this means that they are unable to protrude their mouths as other fish such as carp. The Anatomy of Fish is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of Water, which is much denser than air holds a relatively small amount of dissolved A barbel on a Fish is a slender whiskerlike tactile organ near the Mouth. Carp is a common name for various Freshwater Fish of the family Cyprinidae, a very large 
Catfish may have up to four pairs of barbels: nasal, maxillary (on each side of mouth), and two pairs of chin barbels, although pairs of barbels may be absent, depending on the species. Because their barbels are more important in detecting food, the eyes on catfish are generally small. Like other ostariophysans, they are characterized by the presence of a Weberian apparatus. Ostariophysi is the second-largest Superorder of Fish. Members of this superorder are called ostariophysans. Ostariophysi is the second-largest Superorder of Fish. Members of this superorder are called ostariophysans.  Their well-developed Weberian apparatus and reduced gas bladder allow for improved hearing as well as sound production. gas bladder (also fish maw, less accurately swim bladder or air bladder) is an internal organ that contributes to the ability of a Fish 
Catfish have no scales; their bodies are often naked. In most biological nomenclature a scale ( Greek lepid, Latin squama) is a small rigid plate that grows out of an Animal In some species, the mucus-covered skin is used in cutaneous respiration, where the fish breathes through its skin. In vertebrates mucus is a slippery secretion produced by and covering Mucous membranes It is a viscous Colloid containing Antiseptic enzymes (such as The skin is the outer covering of living tissue of an animal (or plant In Animal physiology, respiration is the transport of Oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues and the transport of Carbon dioxide  In some catfish, the skin is covered in bony plates called scutes; some form of body armor has evolved a number of times within the order. In loricarioids and in the Asian genus Sisor, the armor is primarily made up of one or more rows of free dermal plates. Loricarioidea is a superfamily of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes Sisor is a Genus of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes of the family Sisoridae. The dermis is a layer of Skin beneath the epidermis that consists of Connective tissue, and cushions the body from stress and strain Similar plates are found in large specimens of Lithodoras. Lithodoras dorsalis is the only Species in the Genus Lithodoras of the Catfish ( order Siluriformes These plates may be supported by vertebral processes, as in scoloplacids and in Sisor, but the processes never fuse to the plates or form any external armor. A vertebra (plural vertebrae) is an individual Irregular bone in the spinal or Vertebral column ( aka ischis a flexuous and flexible column In Anatomy, a process ( Latin: processus) is a projection or outgrowth of tissue from a larger body Scoloplax is the only Genus in the Catfish ( order Siluriformes family Scoloplacidae, the spiny dwarf catfishes By contrast, in the subfamily Doumeinae (family Amphiliidae) and in hoplomyzontines (Aspredinidae), the armor is formed solely by expanded vertebral processes that form plates. Loach catfishes, Amphiliidae, are a family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes The Aspredinidae are a small South American family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes also known as the banjo catfishes. Finally, the lateral armor of doradids, Sisor, and hoplomyzontines consists of hypertrophied lateral line ossicles with dorsal and ventral lamina . Doradidae is a family of Catfishes also known as thorny catfishes or talking catfishes. In Fish, the lateral line is a Sense organ used to detect movement and vibration in the surrounding water The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are the three smallest Bones in the human body 
All catfish, except members of Malapteruridae (electric catfish), possess a strong, hollow, bonified leading spine-like ray on their dorsal and pectoral fins. Electric catfish is the common name for the Catfish ( order Siluriformes family Malapteruridae. A dorsal fin is a Fin located on the backs of some Fishes Whales Dolphins and Porpoises as well as the (extinct The Anatomy of Fish is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of Water, which is much denser than air holds a relatively small amount of dissolved As a defense, these spines may be locked into place so that they stick outwards, which can inflict severe wounds.  In several species catfish can use these fin rays to deliver a stinging protein if the fish is irritated. Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl  This venom is produced by glandular cells in the epidermal tissue covering the spines. This article is about the class of Biotoxins For other uses see Venom (disambiguation and Venomous (disambiguation. A gland is an organ in an animal's body that synthesizes a substance for release such as Hormones or Breast milk, often into the Bloodstream Epidermis is the outermost layer of the Skin. It forms the waterproof protective wrap over the body's surface and is made up of stratified squamous Epithelium with  In members of the family Plotosidae, and of the genus Heteropneustes, this protein is so strong it may hospitalize humans unfortunate enough to receive a sting; in Plotosus lineatus, the stings may result in death. The eeltail catfish are a family ( Plotosidae) of Catfish whose tails are elongated in an Eel -like fashion Heteropneustes is a Genus of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes of the family Clariidae. 
Juvenile catfishes, like most fishes, have relatively large heads, eyes and posterior median fins in comparison to larger, more mature individuals. These juveniles can be readily placed in their families, particularly those with highly derived fin or body shapes; in some cases identification of the genus is possible. As far as known for most catfish, features that are often characteristic of species such as mouth and fin positions, fin shapes, and barbel lengths show little difference between juveniles and adults. For many species, pigmentation pattern is also similar in juveniles and adults. Thus, juvenile catfishes generally resemble and develop smoothly into their adult form without distinct juvenile specializations. Exceptions to this are the ariid catfishes, where the young retain yolk sacs late into juvenile stages, and many pimelodids, which may have elongated barbels and fin filaments or coloration patterns. 
Sexual dimorphism is reported in about half of all families of catfish. Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different Sex in the same Species.  The modification of the anal fin into an intromittent organ (in internal fertilizers) as well as accessory structures of the reproductive apparatus (in both internal and external fertilizers) have been described in species belonging to 11 different families. The Anatomy of Fish is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of Water, which is much denser than air holds a relatively small amount of dissolved The penis (plural penises, penes 
Catfish have one of the greatest range in size within a single order of bony fish. The Actinopterygii (the plural form of Actinopterygius) comprise the class of the ray-finned fishes.  Many catfish have a maximum length of under 12 cm.  Some of the smallest species of Aspredinidae and Trichomycteridae reach sexual maturity at only 1 centiimetre (0. The Aspredinidae are a small South American family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes also known as the banjo catfishes. Trichomycteridae is a family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes commonly known as the pencil or parasitic catfishes. 4 in). Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. 
The wels catfish, Silurus glanis, is the only native catfish species of Europe, besides the much smaller related Aristotle's catfish found in Greece. The wels catfish ( or) is a scaleless fresh and brackish water Catfish recognizable by its broad flat head and wide mouth UserPolbot. --> Aristotle's catfish ( Silurus aristotelis) is a species of Fish in the Siluridae Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Mythology and literature record wels catfish of astounding proportions, yet to be proven scientifically. The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" The average size of the species is about 1. 2–1. 6 m (3. 9–5. 2 ft), and fish more than 2 m (6. 6 ft) are very rare. The largest specimens on record measure more than 2. 5 m (8. 2 ft) in length and sometimes exceeded 100 kg (220 lb).
The largest Ictalurus furcatus, caught in the Mississippi River on May 22, 2005, weighed 124 lb (56. The blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, is one of the largest species of North American Catfish. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to Events 334 BC - The Greek army of Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of the Granicus. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 2 kg). The largest flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, ever caught was in Independence, Kansas, weighing 123 lb 9 oz (56. The flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, also called the yellow cat, opelousas, mud cat and shovelhead cat, are large North Independence is a city in Montgomery County, Kansas, United States. 0 kg). However, these records pale in comparison to a giant Mekong catfish caught in northern Thailand in May 1, 2005 and reported to the press almost 2 months later that weighed 293 kg (646 lb). The Mekong giant catfish, Pangasianodon gigas, is a Species of Catfish ( order Siluriformes The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This is the largest giant Mekong catfish caught, but only since Thai officials started keeping records in 1981.  The giant Mekong catfish are not well studied since they live in developing countries and it is quite possible that they can grow even larger.
In many catfishes, the humeral process is a bony process extending backward from the pectoral girdle immediately above the base of the pectoral fin. The pectoral girdle is the set of bones which connect the upper limb to the axial skeleton on each side It lies beneath the skin where its outline may be determined by dissecting the skin or probing with a needle. 
The retina of catfish are composed of single cones and large rods. The vertebrate retina is a light sensitive part inside the inner layer of the Eye. Cone cells, or cones, are Photoreceptor cells in the Retina of the Eye which function best in relatively bright Light. Rod cells, or rods, are Photoreceptor cells in the Retina of the Eye that can function in less intense Light than can the other type Many catfish have a tapetum lucidum which may help enhance photon capture and increase low-light sensitivity. The tapetum lucidum ( Latin: "bright tapestry" plural tapeta lucida) is a layer of tissue in the Eye of many Vertebrate animals that In Physics, the photon is the Elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena Double cones, though present in most teleosts are absent from catfish. Teleostei is one of three infraclasses in class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes 
The anatomical organization of the testis in catfish is variable among the families of catfish, but the majority of them present fringed testis: Ictaluridae, Claridae, Auchenipteridae, Doradidae, Pimelodidae, and Pseudopimelodidae. The testicle (from Latin testiculus, diminutive of testis, meaning "witness" virility plural testes) is the male  In the testes of some species of Siluriformes, organs and structures such as a spermatogenic cranial region and a secretory caudal region are observed, in addition to the presence of seminal vesicles in the caudal region.  The total number of fringes and their length are different in the caudal and cranial portions between species. In fields of Anatomy, anatomical terms of location are descriptive terms to help identify relative positions or directions within a species  Fringes of the caudal region may present tubules, in which the lumen is filled by secretion and spermatozoa. A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( pl spermatozoa) from the Ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed and ζῷον (living being and more commonly known  Spermatocysts are formed from cytoplasmic extensions of Sertoli cells; the release of spermatozoa is allowed by breaking of the cyst walls. A Sertoli cell (a kind of Sustentacular cell) is a 'nurse' cell of the testes which is part of a Seminiferous tubule. 
The occurrence of seminal vesicles, in spite of their interspecific variability in size, gross morphology and function, has not been related to the mode of fertilization. The seminal vesicles ( glandulae vesiculosae) are a pair of simple tubular glands posteroinferior to the Urinary bladder of males They are typically paired, multi-chambered, and connected with the sperm duct, and have been reported to play a glandular and a storage function. Seminal vesicle secretion may include steroids and steroid glucuronides, with hormonal and pheromonal functions, but it appears to be primarily constituted of mucoproteins, acid mucopolysaccharides, and phospolipids. A steroid is a Terpenoid Lipid characterized by a Carbon skeleton with four fused rings generally arranged in a 6-6-6-5 fashion 
Fish ovaries may be of two types: gymnovarian or cystovarian. In the first type, the oocytes are released directly into the coelomic cavity and then eliminated. The coelom (pronounced "seal-um" is a fluid filled cavity formed within the Mesoderm. In the second type, the oocytes are conveyed to the exterior through the oviduct. Oviduct is also another name for Fallopian tube In Oviparous Animals (those that lay eggs, the passage from the ovaries  Many catfish are cystovarian in type, including Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, P. fasciatum, Lophiosilurus alexandri, and Loricaria lentiginosa. Pseudoplatystoma is a Genus of several South American Catfish species of family Pimelodidae. Pseudoplatystoma is a Genus of several South American Catfish species of family Pimelodidae. Lophiosilurus alexandri is a Species of Catfish ( order Siluriformes of the family Pseudopimelodidae, and the only 
Catfish have been widely caught and farmed for food for hundreds of years in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. Judgments as to the quality and flavor vary, with some food critics considering catfish as being excellent food, others dismiss them as watery and lacking in flavour.  In Central Europe, catfish were often viewed as a delicacy to be enjoyed on feast days and holidays. Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Catfish are not Kosher, because the adult fish have no scales. See also Kashrut Kosher foods are those that conform to the regulations of Jewish religion Migrants from Europe and Africa to the United States brought along this tradition, and in the southern United States catfish is an extremely popular food. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive The most commonly eaten species in the United States are the channel catfish and blue catfish, both of which are common in the wild and increasingly widely farmed. Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, are North America 's most numerous Catfish species The blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, is one of the largest species of North American Catfish. Catfish is eaten in a variety of ways; in Europe it is often cooked in similar ways to carp, but in the United States it is typically crumbed with cornmeal and fried. Carp is a common name for various Freshwater Fish of the family Cyprinidae, a very large Cornmeal is Flour ground from dried corn, and is a common Staple food.  In Indonesia catfish is a very popular food. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. They are usually served grilled in street stalls called warung and eaten with vegetables, the dish is called Pecel Lele (Lele is the Indonesian word for catfish). A warung (old spelling waroeng) is a type of small family owned business &mdash often a casual usually outdoor Restaurant &mdash in Indonesia. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The iridescent shark is a common food fish in parts of Asia. Despite its name iridescent shark, Pangasius hypophthalmus is not a Shark, but a Catfish. Vietnamese catfish cannot be legally marketed as catfish in the US, and is subsequently referred to as swai. 
Catfish are easy to farm in warm climates, leading to inexpensive and safe food at local grocers. Catfish are easy to farm in warm climates leading to inexpensive and safe food at local grocers Ictalurids are cultivated in North America (especially in the Deep South, with Mississippi being the largest domestic catfish producer). The Ictaluridae, sometimes called Ictalurids, are a family of Catfish native to North America, where they are important food fish and sometimes as The Deep South is a descriptive category of cultural and geographic subregions in the American South. Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States  Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) supports a $450 million/yr aquaculture industry. Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, are North America 's most numerous Catfish species  Catfish raised in inland tanks or channels are considered safe for the environment, since their waste and disease should be contained and not spread to the wild. 
In Asia, many catfish species are important as food. Several walking catfish (Clariidae) and shark catfish (Pangasiidae) species are heavily cultured in Africa and Asia. other name freshwater catfishThe walking catfish, Clarias batrachus, is a species of Freshwater Airbreathing catfish found primarily in Southeast The shark catfishes are a family Pangasiidae of Catfishes found in fresh and brackish waters across southern Asia, from Pakistan Exports of one particular shark catfish species from Vietnam, Pangasius bocourti, has met with pressures from the U. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The basa fish, Pangasius bocourti, is a type of Catfish in the family Pangasiidae. S. catfish industry. In 2003, The United States Congress passed a law preventing the imported fish from being labeled as catfish. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses  As a result, the Vietnamese exporters of this fish now label their products sold in the U. S. as "basa fish. " Trader Joe's has labeled frozen fillets of Vietnamese Pangasius Hypothalmus as "striper. "
There is a large and growing ornamental fish trade, with hundreds of species of catfish, such as Corydoras and armored suckermouth catfish (often called plecos), being a popular component of many aquaria. Members of the South American Corydoras Genus are Freshwater Temperate and Tropical Catfish in the armored catfish Loricariidae is the largest family of Catfish (Order Siluriformes with almost 700 species and new species being described each year Youngplecojpg|175px|thumb|A young pleco attached to the side of the aquarium glass An aquarium (plural aquariums or aquaria) is a Vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which Water -dwelling Plants Other catfish commonly found in the aquarium trade are banjo catfish, talking catfish, and long-whiskered catfish. The Aspredinidae are a small South American family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes also known as the banjo catfishes. Doradidae is a family of Catfishes also known as thorny catfishes or talking catfishes. Pimelodidae, commonly known as the long-whiskered catfish es is a family of Catfishes ( order Siluriformes
Representatives of the genus Ictalurus have been misguidedly introduced into European waters in the hope of obtaining a sporting and food resource. A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic However, the European stock of American catfishes has not achieved the dimensions of these fishes in their native waters, and have only increased the ecological pressure on native European fauna. Fauna is all of the Animal life of any particular region or time Walking catfish have also been introduced in the freshwaters of Florida, with the voracious catfish becoming a major alien pest there. other name freshwater catfishThe walking catfish, Clarias batrachus, is a species of Freshwater Airbreathing catfish found primarily in Southeast Flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, is also a North American pest on Atlantic slope drainages. The flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, also called the yellow cat, opelousas, mud cat and shovelhead cat, are large North  Pterygoplichthys species, released by aquarium fishkeepers, have also established feral populations in many warm waters around the world. Pterygoplichthys (from the Greek πτέρυγ- ( pteryg-) meaning "wing" ( hoplon) - weapon and ἰχθύς ( ichthys A feral organism is one that has escaped from Domestication and returned partly or wholly to its wild state