Cassivellaunus was a historical British chieftain who led the defence against Julius Caesar's second expedition to Britain in 54 BC. The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages or British languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family the other being See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Year 54 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Appius Claudius Pulcher and He also appears in British legend as Cassibelanus, one of Geoffrey of Monmouth's kings of Britain, and in the Mabinogion and Welsh Triads as Caswallawn, son of Beli Mawr. Geoffrey of Monmouth ( Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c The Welsh Triads ( Welsh Trioedd Ynys Prydein, literally "Triads of the Island of Britain " are a group of related texts in Medieval Beli Mawr ( Beli the Great) was an ancestor Deity in Welsh mythology.
Cassivellaunus is the first British individual known to history. He appears in Julius Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War, having been given command of the combined British forces opposing Caesar's second invasion of Britain. Commentarii de Bello Gallico is Julius Caesar 's third-person account of his nine years of war in Gaul. Caesar does not mention Cassivellaunus's tribe, but his territory, north of the River Thames, corresponds with that later inhabited by the Catuvellauni. The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. The Catuvellauni were a Celtic Belgic tribe or state of south-eastern Britain before the Roman conquest.
Caesar tells us that Cassivellaunus had previously been at constant war with the British tribes, and had overthrown the king of the Trinovantes, the most powerful tribe in Britain at the time. The Trinovantes or Trinobantes were one of the Celtic Tribes that lived in pre- Roman Britain. The king's son, Mandubracius, fled to Caesar in Gaul. Mandubracius or Mandubratius was a king of the Trinovantes of south-eastern Britain in the 1st century BC. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western
Despite Cassivellaunus's harrying tactics, designed to prevent Caesar's army from foraging and plundering for food, Caesar advanced to the Thames. The only fordable point was defended and fortified with sharp stakes, but the Romans managed to cross it. Cassivellaunus dismissed most of his army and resorted to guerilla tactics, relying on his knowledge of the territory and the speed of his chariots.
Five British tribes, the Cenimagni, the Segontiaci, the Ancalites, the Bibroci and the Cassi, surrendered to Caesar and revealed the location of Cassivellaunus's stronghold at Wheathampstead , which Caesar proceeded to put under siege. The Iceni or Eceni were a Brythonic Tribe who inhabited an area of Britain corresponding roughly to the modern-day county of Norfolk The Segontiaci were a tribe of Iron Age Britain encountered by Julius Caesar during his second expedition to Britain in 55 BC The Ancalites were a Celtic tribe living around the Thames Valley area in the 1st century BC The Bibroci were a tribe of Iron Age Britain encountered by Julius Caesar during his second expedition to Britain in 55 BC The Cassi are one of five tribes encountered by Julius Caesar during his second expedition to Britain in 55 BC when he crossed the Thames at Kew Wheathampstead is a small village within the City and District of St Albans, in Hertfordshire, England. Cassivellaunus managed to get a message to the four kings of Kent, Cingetorix, Carvilius, Taximagulus and Segovax, to gather their forces and attack the Roman camp on the coast, but the Romans defended themselves successfully, capturing a chieftain called Lugotorix. KENT (1400 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Adult Standards/MOR format See also Cingetorix, Cingetorix (Gaul Cingetorix ( Celtic, "marching king" or "king of warriors" was one of the four kings Carvilius was one of the four kings of Kent during Caesar's second expedition to Britain in 54 BC, alongside Cingetorix, Segovax and Taximagulus was one of the four kings of Kent during Caesar's second expedition to Britain in 54 BC, alongside Cingetorix, Carvilius Segovax (possibly from Celtic sego "victory" was one of the four kings of Kent during Caesar's second expedition to Britain in 54 BC Lugotorix was a British chieftain who was captured after a failed attack by the four kings of Kent on Julius Caesar 's naval camp in 54 BC. On hearing of the defeat and the devastation of his territories, Cassivellaunus surrendered. The terms were mediated by Commius, Caesar's Gallic ally. Commius ( Commios, Comius, Comnios) was a historical king of the Belgic nation of the Atrebates, initially in Gaul, then Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Hostages were given and a tribute agreed. Mandubracius was restored to the kingship of the Trinovantes, and Cassivellaunus undertook not to wage war against him. All this achieved, Caesar returned to Gaul  where a poor harvest had caused unrest. The Roman legions did not return to Britain for another 97 years.
The Greek author Polyaenus relates an anecdote in his Stratagemata that Caesar overcame Cassivellaunus's defence of a river crossing by means of an armoured elephant. For the Wasp Genus, see Polyaenus (wasp Polyaenus (in  This outlandish claim probably derives from a confusion with the Roman conquest of 43 AD, when Claudius brought elephants to Britain. This page refers to the conquest begun in AD 43 For other Roman invasions see Caesar's invasions of Britain and Carausian Revolt. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus or Claudius I ( August 1, 10 BC &ndash October 13, AD 54 ( Tiberius Claudius Drusus from birth to 
|King of the Catuvellauni||Succeeded by|
Cassivellaunus appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 12th century work Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain), usually spelled Cassibelanus or Cassibelaunus. The Catuvellauni were a Celtic Belgic tribe or state of south-eastern Britain before the Roman conquest. Tasciovanus was a historical king of the Catuvellauni tribe before the Roman conquest of Britain. The Historia Regum Britanniae ( English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history  The younger son of the former king Heli, he becomes king of Britain upon the death of his elder brother Lud, whose own sons Androgeus and Tenvantius are not yet of age. Heli was a legendary king of the Britons as accounted in Geoffrey of Monmouth 's pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae. Lud, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth 's legendary History of the Kings of Britain and related medieval texts was a king of Britain in pre- Mandubracius or Mandubratius was a king of the Trinovantes of south-eastern Britain in the 1st century BC. Tasciovanus was a historical king of the Catuvellauni tribe before the Roman conquest of Britain. In recompense, Androgeus is made Duke of Kent and Trinovantum (London), and Tenvantius is made Duke of Cornwall. KENT (1400 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Adult Standards/MOR format Trinovantum, in medieval British legend is the name given to London in earliest times London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar
After his conquest of Gaul, Julius Caesar sets his sights on Britain, and sends a letter to Cassibelanus demanding tribute. Cassibelanus refuses, citing the Britons' and Romans' common Trojan descent (see Brutus of Britain), and Caesar invades at the Thames Estuary. Troy ( Greek: grc Τροία Troia, also, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium, Hittite: Wilusa or Brutus ( Brut, Brute, Welsh Bryttys) a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, was known in medieval British legend The Thames Estuary is the area in which the River Thames meets the waters of the North Sea. During the fighting, Cassibelanus's brother Nennius encounters Caesar and sustains a severe head wound. Nennius is a prince of Britain at the time of Julius Caesar 's invasions of Britain in Geoffrey of Monmouth 's legendary History of the Kings of Caesar's sword gets stuck in Nennius's shield, and when the two are separated in the mêlée, Nennius throws away his own sword and attacks the Romans with Caesar's, killing many, including the tribune Labienus. Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the  The Britons hold firm, and that night Caesar flees back to Gaul. Cassibelanus's celebrations are muted by Nennius's death from his head wound. He is buried with the sword he took from Caesar, which is named Crocea Mors (Yellow Death).
Two years later, Caesar invades again with a larger force. Cassibelanus, forewarned, had planted stakes beneath the waterline of the Thames which gut Caesar's ships, drowning thousands of men. The Romans are once again quickly put to flight.
The leaders of the Britons gather in Trinovantum to thank the gods for their victory with many animal sacrifices and celebrate with sporting events. During a wrestling bout, Cassibelanus's nephew Hirelglas is killed by Androgeus's nephew Cuelinus. Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two people in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of the opponent Cassibelanus demands that Androgeus turn his nephew over to him for trial, but Androgeus refuses, insisting he should be tried in his own court in Trinovantum. Cassibelanus threatens war, and Androgeus appeals to Caesar for help.
Caesar invades a third time, landing at Richborough. Richborough ( pronounced /ˈrɪtʃb(ərə/ is a settlement north of Sandwich on the east coast of the county of Kent, England. As Cassibelaunus's army meets Caesar's, Androgeus attacks Cassibelaunus from the rear with five thousand men. His line broken, Cassibelanus retreats to a nearby hilltop. After two days siege, Androgeus appeals to Caesar to offer terms. Cassibelanus agrees to pay tribute of three thousand pounds of silver, and he and Caesar become friends.
Six years later, Cassibelanus dies and is buried in York. York ( is an historic Walled city sited at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. Androgeus has gone to Rome with Caesar, so Tenvantius succeeds as king of Britain.
|Legendary kings of Britain||Succeeded by|
Cassivellaunus appears in the Welsh Triads, the Mabinogion, and Welsh versions of Geoffrey's Historia, as Caswallawn, son of Beli Mawr. Lud, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth 's legendary History of the Kings of Britain and related medieval texts was a king of Britain in pre- The following list of legendary kings of Britain derives predominantly from Geoffrey of Monmouth 's circa 1136 work Historia Regum Britanniae ("the Tasciovanus was a historical king of the Catuvellauni tribe before the Roman conquest of Britain. The Welsh Triads ( Welsh Trioedd Ynys Prydein, literally "Triads of the Island of Britain " are a group of related texts in Medieval Beli Mawr ( Beli the Great) was an ancestor Deity in Welsh mythology. In the Second Branch of the Mabinogi, he appears as a usurper, who seizes the throne of Britain while the rightful king, Bran the Blessed, is at war in Ireland. The Four Branches of the Mabinogi are the best known tales from the medieval Welsh prose collection known as the Mabinogion. Bran the Blessed ( Welsh: Bendigeidfran, literally "Blessed Crow" is a giant and king of Britain in Welsh mythology. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Using a magic cloak which renders him invisible, he kills the seven stewards Bran has left in charge, while the eighth, Bran's son Caradog, dies of bewilderment at the sight of a disembodied sword killing his men. Caradog ap Bran is the son of Bran the Blessed in Welsh mythology.  He then appears in the Third Branch, in which Bran's followers offer their submission to him to avoid fighting. The Four Branches of the Mabinogi are the best known tales from the medieval Welsh prose collection known as the Mabinogion.  He is also mentioned in the tale Lludd and Llefelys, which features his two brothers Lludd Llaw Eraint (Geoffrey's Lud) and Llefelys. Lludd Llaw Eraint, "Lludd of the Silver Hand" son of Beli Mawr, is a legendary hero from Welsh mythology. Llefelys ( Middle Welsh Orthography Llevelys Lleuelys) is a character in Welsh mythology appearing in the tale of Lludd and Llefelys
Caswallawn is referenced frequently in the Welsh Triads. The Welsh Triads ( Welsh Trioedd Ynys Prydein, literally "Triads of the Island of Britain " are a group of related texts in Medieval Triad 51 describes his conflict with "Afarwy" (Mandubracius/Androgeus) as described in Geoffrey of Monmouth, while Triad 95 references the story of Caradawg son of Bran's death as told in the Mabinogion.  However, other triads (35, 36, 38, 59, 67, and 71) refer to a tradition about Caswallawn not drawn from either Roman nor existing medieval sources.  Triad 38 names his horse as Meinlas ("Slender Gray") and calls him one of the Three Bestowed Horses of the Island of Britain; this is echoed in Triad 59, in which the decision to allow the Romans to land in Britain in exchange for Meinlas is called one of the Three Unfortunate Counsels of the Island of Britain.  Triad 35 indicates that Caswallawn left Britain with 21,000 men in pursuit of Caesar and never returned. 
Triads 67 and 71 portray Caswallawn as a great lover, who competed with Caesar over the beautiful Fflur. He is named as one of the Three Golden Shoemakers of the Island of Britain in relation to his trip to Rome seeking his love; contexts suggests he disguised himself as a shoemaker.  A later collection of triads compiled by the 18th century Welsh antiquarian Iolo Morganwg gives an expanded version of this tradition, including that Caswallawn had abducted Fflur from Caesar in Gaul, killing 6,000 Romans, and Caesar invaded Britain in response. Iolo Morganwg (or Morgannwg in modern spelling ˈjolo morˈganːug was the Bardic name of Edward Williams ( March 10 1747 &ndash  As with the rest of Morganwg's Triads, however, the provenance of these references is suspect. However, the 12th century poet Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr knew of some version of the Fflur story, writing that Caesar's love for her was costly. Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr (fl ca 1155-1200 (English="Cynddelw the Great Poet" was one of the most prominent Welsh poets of the 12th century 
Welsh scholar Rachel Bromwich suggests the fragmentary allusions to Caswallawn in the Triads relate to a narrative of the character that has been lost. Rachel Bromwich (born 1915 is a British scholar Her focus is on Medieval Welsh literature, which she taught at the University of Wales Institute Cardiff  This may have been in the form of a romance detailing the king's adventures, but would have been largely uninfluenced by the classical accounts.