|Ancient Region of Anatolia|
|State existed:||11-6th c. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black BC|
Caria (Turkish Karya, Ancient Greek, Καρία) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Carian language was the language of the Carians. It was an Anatolian language, apparently closer to Lycian than to Lydian. Halicarnassus (Άλικαρνᾱσσός &mdash Halikarnassós or Ἁλικαρνασσός &mdash Alikarnassós Halikarnas modern In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa The Roman province of Asia, also called Phrygia was an administrative unit added to the late Republic. Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Geography Physical Ionia was of small extent not exceeding 90 geographical miles in length from north to south with a breadth varying from 40 to 55 miles but to this Mycale (also Mycǎlé, Mukalê, Mykale and Mycali, Ancient Greek Μυκαλή; called Samsun Daği and "Sidyma" redirects here For the Moth Genus named thus see Sidyma (moth. In antiquity Phrygia (Φρυγία was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there. The Ionians ( Greek:, Iōnes singular) were one of the three populations into which the Ancient Greeks considered the population of Hellenes to have been The Dorians or Dorian Greeks ( Greek:, Dōrieis singular, Dōrieus were The eponymous inhabitants of Caria were known as Carians, and they had arrived in Caria before the Greeks. The Carians ( Greek: Κάρες Kares) were the inhabitants of Caria. They were described by Herodotos as being of Minoan descent, while the Carians themselves maintained that they were Anatolian mainlanders intensely engaged in seafaring and were akin to the Mysians and the Lydians. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash Seamanship is the art of operating a ship or boat It involves a knowledge of a variety of topics and development of specialised skills including Navigation and international The Mysians (Mysi were the inhabitants of Mysia, a region in northwestern Asia Minor. Defining Lydia Aside from a legend related by Herodotus, who states that the name Lydia came from king Lydus at the time of the fall of Troy The Carians did speak an Anatolian language, which does not necessarily reflect their geographic origin, as Anatolian once may have been widespread. The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language Also closely associated with the Carians were the Leleges, which could be an earlier name for Carians or for a people who had preceded them in the region and continued to exist as part of their society in a reputedly second-class status. The Leleges were one of the aboriginal peoples of southwest Anatolia (compare " Pelasgians quot who were already there when the Indo-European Hellenes
Cramer's detailed catalog of Carian towns in classical Greece is based entirely on ancient sources. In the context of the art architecture and culture of Ancient Greece, the classical period corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries  The multiple names of towns and geomorphic features, such as bays and headlands, reveal an ethnic layering consistent with the known colonization.
Coastal Caria begins with Didyma south of Miletus, but Miletus had been placed in the pre-Greek Caria. Didyma (Greek Δίδυμα was an ancient Ionian sanctuary the modern Didim, Turkey, containing a Miletus (mī lē' təs ( Ancient Greek: Μίλητος literally Transliterated Milētos, Latin Miletus) was an Ancient South of it is the Iassicus Sinus (Güllük Körfezi) and the towns of Iassus and Bargylia, giving an alternative name of Bargyleticus Sinus to Güllük Körfezi, and nearby Cindye, which the Carians called Andanus. For the village in Azerbaijan see Güllük Azerbaijan. Güllük, is a small harbor town with own municipality within the district of After Bargylia is Caryanda or Caryinda, and then on the Bodrum Peninsula Myndus (Mentecha or Muntecha), 56 miles (90 km) miles from Miletus. Bodrum (from Petronium; formerly Halicarnassus (Halikarnas Ancient Greek: Ἁλικαρνασσός) is a Turkish Myndus or Myndos (Μύνδος was an ancient Greek city of Caria in Asia Minor, built on the Bodrum Peninsula and is the site of A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand In the vicinity is Naziandus, exact location unknown.
On the tip of the Bodrum Peninsula (Cape Termerium) is Termera (Telmera, Termerea), and on the other side Ceramicus Sinus (Gökova Körfezi). The Gulf of Gökova (Gökova körfezi Gulf of Kerme ( Turkish: Kerme körfezi Greek: Κεραμεικός κόλπος Latin: Ceramicus It "was formerly crowded with numerous towns. " Halicarnassus, a Dorian Greek city, was planted there among six Carian towns: Theangela, Sibde, Medmasa, Euranium, Pedasa or Pedasum, and Telmissus. Halicarnassus (Άλικαρνᾱσσός &mdash Halikarnassós or Ἁλικαρνασσός &mdash Alikarnassós Halikarnas modern These with Myndus and Synagela, Syagela or Souagela, where the tomb of Car is located, constitute the eight Lelege towns. Car ( Greek: Καρ is an Ancient Greek name attributed to two individuals in Greek mythology. Also on the north coast of the Ceramicus Sinus is Ceramus and Bargasus. Ceramus or Keramos (Κέραμος was a city on the north coast of the Ceramic Gulf &mdashnamed for this city&mdashin Caria, in southwest Asia Minor
On the south of the Ceramicus Sinus is the Carian Chersonnese, or Triopium Promontory (Cape Krio), also called Doris after the Dorian colony of Cnidus. Deveboynu Cape ( Deveboynu Burnu in Turkish, ancient name Krio) is a Promontory in southwest Turkey, on the Aegean Sea, The Dorians or Dorian Greeks ( Greek:, Dōrieis singular, Dōrieus were Cnidus or Knidos ( Greek: Κνίδος /Knidos at the modern-day locality called Tekir in Turkey) was an ancient Greek At the base of the peninsula (Datça Peninsula) is Bybassus or Bybastus from which an earlier names, the Bybassia Chersonnese, had been derived. The Datça or Reşadiye Peninsula formerly called the Dorian Peninsula or the Cnidos Peninsula ( Chersonisos Cnidia) is an 80 km-long narrow It was now Acanthus and Doulopolis ("slave city").
South of the Carian Chersonnese is Doridis Sinus, the "Gulf of Doris" (Gulf of Symi), the locale of the Dorian Confederacy. Symi ( Greek: Σύμη also transliterated Syme or Simi) is a small but historic Greek island and municipality. There are three bays in it: Bubassius, Thymnias and Schoenus, the last enclosing the town of Hyda. In the gulf somewhere are Euthene or Eutane, Pitaeum, and an island: Elaeus or Elaeussa near Loryma. Elaeus is a Greek city in Thracian Chersonese, hometown of the mythological hero Protesilaus. Loryma is a Roman Catholic Titular see in the former Roman province of Caria, in Asia Minor (now Anatolia, Asian Turkey On the south shore is the Cynossema, or Onugnathos Promontory, opposite Symi. Symi ( Greek: Σύμη also transliterated Syme or Simi) is a small but historic Greek island and municipality.
South of there is Peraea, a section of the coast under Rhodes. Rhodes (Ρόδος Ródos, ˈɾo̞ðo̞s Rodi ردوس Rodos; Ladino: Rodi or Rodes) is a Greek island It includes Loryma or Larymna in Oedimus Bay, Gelos, Tisanusa, the headland of Paridion, Panydon or Pandion (Cape Marmorice) with Physicus, Physca or Physcus, also acalled Cressa (Marmaris). Loryma is a Roman Catholic Titular see in the former Roman province of Caria, in Asia Minor (now Anatolia, Asian Turkey Marmaris is a port city and a tourist destination on the Mediterranean coast located in southwest Turkey, in the Muğla Province. Beyond Cressa is the Calbis River (Dalyan River). Dalyan is a town in Muğla Province located between the well-known districts of Marmaris and Fethiye on the south-west coast of Turkey. On the other side is Caunus (near Dalyan), with Pisilis or Pilisis and Pyrnos between. Kaunos ( Carian: Kbid; Lycian: Khbide
Then follow some cities that some assign to Lydia and some to Caria: Calynda on the Indus River, Crya, Carya, Carysis or Cari and Alina in the Gulf of Glaucus (Katranci Bay or the Gulf of Makri), the Glaucus River being the border. Fethiye is a City and district of Muğla Province in the Aegean region of Turkey with about 68000 Inhabitants Other Carian towns in the gulf are Clydae or Lydae and Aenus.
At the base of the east end of Latmus near Selimiye was the district of Euromus or Eurome, possibly Europus, formerly Idrieus and Chrysaoris (Stratonicea), apparently the ethnic center of non-Hellenic Caria. Latmus ( Ancient Greek Λάτμος, Latmos Turkish Beşparmak Dağı) is a ridge of many spurs running in an east-west direction along the the Stratonikeia ( Greek: Στρατoνικεια or Στρατoνικη; or per Stephanus of Byzantium: Στρατονίκεια) The name Chrysaoris once applied to all of Caria; moreover, Euromus was originally settled from Lycia. "Sidyma" redirects here For the Moth Genus named thus see Sidyma (moth. Its towns are Tauropolis, Plarassa and Chrysaoris. These were all incorporated later into Mylasa. Milas (ancient Mylasa Μύλασα) is an ancient city in southwestern Turkey. Connected to the latter by a sacred way is Labranda. Around Stratonicea is also Lagina or Lakena as well as Tendeba and Astragon. Lagina (Λαγίνα is an ancient cult site of important archaeological and touristic value dating from the Carian period and extended under the Seleucid kings
Further inland towards Aydin is Alabanda, noted for its marble and its scorpions, Orthosia, Coscinia or Coscinus on the upper Maeander and Halydienses, Alinda or Alina. Aidın (Αϊδίνιο is a city in and the seat of Aydın Province in Turkey 's Aegean Region. Alabanda &ndash also hê Alabanda, ta Alabanda, Alabandeus, Alabandensis, Alabandenus, and for a time Antiochia of the Chrysaorians Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of Scorpions are eight-legged Carnivorous Arthropods They are members of the order Scorpiones within the class Arachnida. Coscinia is a genus of moth in the family Arctiidae. The Büyük Menderes River (historically the Maeander also spelled Meander) Turkish: Büyük Menderes Nehri, Ancient Greek: At the confluence of the Maeander and the Harpasus is Harpasa (Arpaz). Confluence, in Geography, describes the meeting of two or more Bodies of water. Harpasa in a Roman Catholic titular see in the former Roman province of Caria, Suffragan of the Archbishopric of Stauropolis. At the confluence of the Maeander and the Orsinus, Corsymus or Corsynus is Antioch on the Maeander and on the Orsinus in the mountains a border town with Phrygia, Gordiutichos ("Gordius' Fort") near Geyre. Antiochia on the Maeander also Antioch on the Maeander ( Greek: Αντιόχεια του Μαίανδρου Latin: Antiochia ad Mæandrum earlier In antiquity Phrygia (Φρυγία was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey. Geyre is the ruins of the ancient city Aphrodisias in the province of Aydın. Founded by the Pelasgi Leleges and called Ninoe it became Megalopolis ("Big City") and Aphrodisias, sometime capital of Caria. The name Pelasgians (from Ancient Greek grc Πελασγοί Pelasgoí, singular Πελασγός Pelasgós) was used by some ancient Greek The Leleges were one of the aboriginal peoples of southwest Anatolia (compare " Pelasgians quot who were already there when the Indo-European Hellenes
Other towns on the Orsinus are Timeles and Plarasa. Tabae was at various times attributed to Phrygia, Lydia and Caria and seems to have been occupied by mixed nationals. Tabae is a Catholic Titular see. The original diocese was in Caria, a Suffragan of Stauropolis; according to Strabo it was located Caria also comprises the headwaters of the Indus and Eriya or Eriyus and Thabusion on the border with the small state of Cibyra.
The name of Caria appears in a number of early languages: Hittite Karkija (a member state of the Assuwa league, ca. Hittite or Nesili is the Extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern The Assuwa league was a confederation of states in western Anatolia, defeated by the Hittites under an earlier Tudhaliya I around 1400 BC. 1250 BC), Babylonian Karsa, Elamite and Old Persian Kurka. Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital Elamite is an Extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites. The Old Persian language is one of the two attested Old Iranian languages (besides Avestan) According to some accounts, the land was originally called "Phoenicia", because a Phoenician colony settled there in early times. Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun Allegedly, the region would have then received the name of Caria from Kar, a legendary early king of the Carians. Kar was the Legendary first king of the Carians. He may have been an ancient Phoenician
Caria arose as a Neo-Hittite kingdom around the 11th century BC. The states that are called Neo-Hittite, or more recently Syro-Hittite, were Luwian, Aramaic and Phoenician -speaking political entities of The coast of Caria was part of the Dorian hexapolis (six-cities) when the Dorians arrived after the Trojan War in the last and southernmost waves of Greek migration to western Anatolia's coastline and occupied former Mycenaean settlements such us Knidos and Halicarnassos (present-day Bodrum). The Dorians or Dorian Greeks ( Greek:, Dōrieis singular, Dōrieus were In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her Cnidus or Knidos ( Greek: Κνίδος /Knidos at the modern-day locality called Tekir in Turkey) was an ancient Greek Bodrum (from Petronium; formerly Halicarnassus (Halikarnas Ancient Greek: Ἁλικαρνασσός) is a Turkish Herodotus, the famous historian was born in Halicarnassus during the 5th century BC. The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. But Greek colonization touched only the coast and the interior remained Carian organized in a great number of villages grouped in local federations.
The Iliad records that at the time of the Trojan War, the city of Miletus belonged to the Carians, and was allied to the Trojan cause. The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her Miletus (mī lē' təs ( Ancient Greek: Μίλητος literally Transliterated Milētos, Latin Miletus) was an Ancient Troy ( Greek: grc Τροία Troia, also, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium, Hittite: Wilusa or
Lemprière notes that "As Caria probably abounded in figs, a particular sort has been called Carica, and the words In Care periculum facere, having been proverbially used to signify the encountering of danger in the pursuit of a thing of trifling value. John Lemprière (c 1765 Jersey, &ndash February 1, 1824, London) English classical scholar Lexicographer, Theologian Ficus is a Genus of about 850 Species of woody Trees Shrubs Vines Epiphytes and hemi-epiphytes in the family "
Caria was then incorporated into the Persian Achaemenid empire as a satrapy in 545 BC. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of See also the related deity Satrapes. Satrap (Persian ساتراپ was the name given to the governors of the Provinces of ancient Events and trends 546 BC — Croesus, Lydian king, is defeated by Cyrus of Persia near the River Halys The most important town was Halicarnassus, from where its sovereigns reigned. Halicarnassus (Άλικαρνᾱσσός &mdash Halikarnassós or Ἁλικαρνασσός &mdash Alikarnassós Halikarnas modern Other major towns were Latmus, refounded as Heracleia under Latmus, Antiochia, Myndus, Laodicea, Alinda and Alabanda. Latmus ( Ancient Greek Λάτμος, Latmos Turkish Beşparmak Dağı) is a ridge of many spurs running in an east-west direction along the the Antiochia on the Maeander also Antioch on the Maeander ( Greek: Αντιόχεια του Μαίανδρου Latin: Antiochia ad Mæandrum earlier Myndus or Myndos (Μύνδος was an ancient Greek city of Caria in Asia Minor, built on the Bodrum Peninsula and is the site of Denizli is a growing industrial city in the eastern end of the alluvial valley formed by the river Büyük Menderes, where the plain reaches an elevation of about a hundred Alinda (Ἄλινδα was an ancient inland city of Caria in Anatolia. Alabanda &ndash also hê Alabanda, ta Alabanda, Alabandeus, Alabandensis, Alabandenus, and for a time Antiochia of the Chrysaorians
Halicarnassus was the location of the famed Mausoleum dedicated to Mausolus, a satrap of Caria between 377–353 BC by his wife, Artemisia. The Tomb of Mausolus, Mausoleum of Mausolus or Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (in Greek,) was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus Mausolus ( Greek: Μαύσωλος; also Maussollus) was ruler of Caria (377&ndash353 BC See also the related deity Satrapes. Satrap (Persian ساتراپ was the name given to the governors of the Provinces of ancient Events By place Persian empire Mausolus is appointed as the Persian Satrap of Caria. Events By place Persian Empire Mausolus, King and Persian Satrap of Caria, dies and is succeeded in Artemisia II of Caria (in Greek, Ἀρτεμισία; d 350 BC was a sister the wife and the successor of the king Mausolus. The monument became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and from which the Romans named any grand tomb a mausoleum. The Seven Wonders of the World (or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) is a well known list of seven remarkable constructions of Classical antiquity.
Caria was conquered by Alexander III of Macedon in 334 BC with the help of the former queen of the land Ada of Caria who had been dethroned by the Persian Empire and actively helped Alexander in his conquest of Caria on condition of being reinstated as queen. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Macedon or Macedonia ( Greek grc Μακεδονία grc-Latn Makedonía) was the name of a kingdom centered in the northern-most Events By place Persian Empire The king of Caria, Pixodarus, dies and is succeeded by his son-in-law Orontobates. Ada of Caria (Ἄδα in Greek ( fl 377 – 326 BC) was Satrap of Caria in the 4th century BC The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia After their capture of Caria, she declared Alexander as her heir.
As part of the Roman Empire the name of Caria was still used for the geographic region but the territory administratively belonged to the province of Asia. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Roman province of Asia, also called Phrygia was an administrative unit added to the late Republic. During the administrative reforms of the 4th century this province was abolished and divided into smaller units. Caria became a separate province as part of the Diocese of Asia.
In the 7th century provinces were abolished and the new theme system was introduced.
The Greek population of the coast of Anatolia persisted through the fall of Constantinople in 1453 CE and went on under the Ottoman Empire. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish In the early 20th century as a result of various social conflicts and power vacuum, the Ottoman Empire came under the rule of the Three Pashas who first socially and then militarily attacked populations they considered foreign. " The Three Pashas " also known as the " dictatorial triumvirate " of the Ottoman Empire included the Ottoman Minister of the interior, Mehmed The Greeks of the western coast suffered pogroms and were reduced to second-class citizens. A pogrom is a form of Riot directed against a particular group whether ethnic religious or other and characterized by destruction of their Homes Businesses
Subsequently the three pashas were removed from power, court-martialed and sentenced to death in absentia but meanwhile the Ottoman Empire had been on the losing side in World War I and lost sovereignity to the Entente Powers. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Entente Powers (from Triple Entente) were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. They were not long under the Entente, conducted a Turkish War of Independence resulting in a new Turkish Republic under the presidency of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk starting in 1923. The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı May 19, 1919 October 29, 1923) refers to the political and military resistance developed Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 &ndash 10 November 1938 was an army officer revolutionary Statesman
Atatürk set about resolving the ethnic difficulties he inherited, making the decision to westernize Turkey and seeking the assistance of westerners, notably of president Woodrow Wilson. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. Together they hammered out a border between Turkey and the new state of Armenia. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Part of the difficulty was to make the border ethnically tidy; that is, with Turks on one side and Armenians on the other, and the same difficulties applied to the border between Turkey and Greece. As a result of the Treaty of Lausanne a decision was made to tidy the border by moving populations to either side of it. The Treaty of Lausanne ( July 24, 1923) was a Peace treaty signed in Lausanne that settled the Anatolian part of the Partitioning In the resulting Population exchange between Greece and Turkey the population of Greeks in western Anatolia greatly diminished, as did the population of Turks on the Aegean Islands and mainland Greece. The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey is the first large-scale population exchange, or agreed mutual expulsion in the 20th century
The exchange ended a 3000-year Greek presence in Anatolia; however, modern Turkey cherishes the ruins and culture of ancient times, having turned much of the coast into national parks and granting licenses to western archaeologists. Modern Turkish scholarship also is significant. Many of the names remain intact or they have been converted to local tongue; for example, Caria:Geyre; Myndos: Menteşe. Geyre is the ruins of the ancient city Aphrodisias in the province of Aydın.
|Historical regions of Anatolia|
|Aeolis | Cappadocia | Caria | Cilicia | Bithynia | Galatia | Ionia | Lycaonia | Lycia | Lydia | Mysia | Pamphylia | Paphlagonia | Phrygia | Pisidia | Pontos | Troad|