|Armand Jean du Plessis,|
Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu
Portrait of Cardinal Richelieu, 1637, Philippe de Champaigne
August 12, 1624 – December 4, 1642
|Monarch||Louis XIII of France|
|Succeeded by||Jules Cardinal Mazarin|
|Born||September 9, 1585|
|Died||December 4, 1642 (aged 57)|
|Alma mater||Collège de Navarre|
Armand Cardinal de Richelieu
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (September 10, 1585 – December 4, 1642), was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. Philippe de Champaigne ( 26 May 1602 - 12 August 1674) was a Baroque era painter of the French school. The Prime Minister of France ( Premier ministre français) in Fifth Republic is the functional Head of the government and Council of Ministers Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. For the cognac see Louis XIII de Rémy Martin. Louis XIII ( September 27, 1601 – May 14, 1643) Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino ( July 14 1602 &ndash March 9 1661) was an accomplished French statesman Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Early Modern France is the Early modern period of French history from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval The College of Navarre ( Collège de Navarre) was one of the Colleges of the historic University of Paris. A cleric ( Ancient Greek κληρικός - klērikos clergyman (pl A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. A statesman or stateswoman or statesperson is usually a Politician or other notable figure of State who has had a long and respected career in Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime The Church of France, sometimes called the "eldest daughter of the Church" owing to its early communion (second century with the bishop of Rome is part of the worldwide A style of office, or honorific, is a term which by Tradition or Law precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or Title, or to the Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime A statesman or stateswoman or statesperson is usually a Politician or other notable figure of State who has had a long and respected career in
Consecrated as a bishop in 1607, he later entered politics, becoming a Secretary of State in 1616. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Secretary of State is a commonly used title for a Government Official. Richelieu soon rose in both the Church and the state, becoming a cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. For the cognac see Louis XIII de Rémy Martin. Louis XIII ( September 27, 1601 – May 14, 1643) He remained in office until his death in 1642; he was succeeded by Jules Cardinal Mazarin. Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino ( July 14 1602 &ndash March 9 1661) was an accomplished French statesman
The Cardinal de Richelieu was often known by the title of the King's "Chief Minister" or "First Minister". As a result, he is sometimes considered to be the world's first Prime Minister, in the modern sense of the term. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. He sought to consolidate royal power and crush domestic factions. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong, centralized state. Centralization (or centralisation) is the process by which the activities of an organization particularly those regarding decision-making become concentrated within His chief foreign policy objective was to check the power of the Austro-Spanish Habsburg dynasty. Foreign Policy is a bimonthly American Magazine founded in 1970 by Samuel P Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Although he was a cardinal, he did not hesitate to make alliances with Protestant rulers in attempting to achieve this goal. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. His tenure was marked by the Thirty Years' War that engulfed Europe. For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War.
As an advocate for Samuel de Champlain and of the retention of Québec, he founded the Compagnie des Cent-Associés and saw the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye return Quebec to French rule under Champlain, after the settlement had been captured by the Kirkes in 1629. Samuel de Champlain (c 1575 - 25 December 1635) "The Father of New France " was a French navigator geographer cartographer Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk The Company of One Hundred Associates was a business enterprise created at a time when all territories explored by the French and seized as a part of the French colonial The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on March 29, 1632. Sir David Kirke (c 1597 &ndash 1654 was an adventurer colonizer and governor for the king of England. This in part allowed the colony to eventually develop into the heartland of Francophone culture in North America. The adjective francophone (alternately Francophone) means French -speaking typically as primary language whether referring to individuals groups or places
Richelieu was also famous for his patronage of the arts; most notably, he founded the Académie française, the learned society responsible for matters pertaining to the French language. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual L'Académie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. A learned society is an Organization that exists to promote an Academic discipline or group of disciplines French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Richelieu is also known by the sobriquet l'Éminence rouge ("the Red Eminence"), from the red shade of a cardinal's vestments and the style "eminence" as a cardinal. A sobriquet is a Nickname or a fancy name usually a familiar name given by others as distinct from a Pseudonym assumed as a disguise but a nickname which is familiar Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions especially the Latin Rite and other Roman Catholics A style of office, or honorific, is a term which by Tradition or Law precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or Title, or to the A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church.
He is also a leading character in The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas, père and its subsequent film adaptations, portrayed as a main antagonist, and a powerful ruler, even more powerful than the king himself. The Three Musketeers ( Les Trois Mousquetaires) is a Novel by Alexandre Dumas père.
Born in Paris, Richelieu was the fourth of five children and the last of three sons. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city His family, although belonging only to the lesser nobility of Poitou, was somewhat prominent: his father, François du Plessis, seigneur de Richelieu, was a soldier and courtier who served as the Grand Provost of France; his mother, Susanne de La Porte, was the daughter of a famous jurist. Poitou was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers. A provost (introduced into Scots from French) is the ceremonial head of many Scottish local authorities. When he was five years old, his father died fighting in the French Wars of Religion, leaving the family in debt; with the aid of royal grants, however, the family was able to avoid financial difficulties. The French Wars of Religion (1562 to 1598 between French Catholics and Protestants ( Huguenots involved both civil infighting At the age of nine, young Richelieu was sent to the College of Navarre in Paris to study philosophy. The College of Navarre ( Collège de Navarre) was one of the Colleges of the historic University of Paris. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Thereafter, he began to train for a military career.
King Henry III had rewarded Richelieu's father for his participation in the Wars of Religion by granting his family the bishopric of Luçon. Henry III of France (Henri III Henryk ( September 19 1551 – August 2, 1589) The family appropriated most of the revenues of the bishopric for private use; they were, however, challenged by clergymen who desired the funds for ecclesiastical purposes. Ecclesiology (from Greek grc ἐκκλησίᾱ ekklēsiā, "congregation church" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the In order to protect the important source of revenue, Richelieu's mother proposed to make her second son, Alphonse, the bishop of Luçon. Alphonse-Louis du Plessis de Richelieu (1582-1653 was a French Carthusian, bishop and Cardinal. Alphonse, who had no desire to become a bishop, instead became a Carthusian. The Carthusian Order, also called the Order of St Bruno, is a Roman Catholic religious order of enclosed monastics. Thus, it became necessary that the younger Richelieu join the clergy. He was not at all averse to the prospect of becoming a bishop; he was a frail and sickly child who preferred to pursue academic interests.
In 1606, King Henry IV nominated Richelieu to become Bishop of Luçon. Henry IV (Henri IV ( 13 December 1553 &ndash 14 May 1610) ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and as Henry III As Richelieu had not yet reached the official minimum age, it was necessary that he journey to Rome to obtain a special dispensation from the Pope. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The agreement of the Pope having been secured, Richelieu was consecrated bishop in April 1607. Soon after he returned to his diocese in 1608, Richelieu was heralded as a reformer; he became the first bishop in France to implement the institutional reforms prescribed by the Council of Trent between 1545 and 1563. For other uses see Reform (disambiguation Reform means beneficial change or sometimes more specifically reversion to a pure original The Council of Trent was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church.
At about this time, Richelieu became a friend of François Leclerc du Tremblay (better known as "Père Joseph" or "Father Joseph"), a Capuchin friar, who would later become a close confidant. François Leclerc du Tremblay ( 4 November 1577 &ndash 17 December 1638) also known as Père Joseph, was a French Capuchin friar The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin ( OFM Cap; in England and Ireland, O Because of his closeness to Richelieu, and the grey colour of his robes, Father Joseph was also nicknamed l'Éminence grise ("the Grey Eminence"). An éminence grise ( French for " grey eminence " is a powerful advisor or decision-maker who operates secretly or unofficially Later, Richelieu often used him as an agent during diplomatic negotiations. Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states
In 1614, the clergymen of Poitou elected Richelieu as one of their representatives to the States-General. In France under the Ancien Regime, the States-General or Estates-General (French états généraux) was a Legislative assembly There, he was a vigorous advocate of the Church, arguing that it should be exempt from taxes and that bishops should have more political power. As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described A tax exemption is an exemption from all or certain Taxes of a state or nation in which part of the taxes that would normally be collected from an individual or an organization He was the most prominent clergyman to support the adoption of the decrees of the Council of Trent throughout France; the Third Estate (commoners) was his chief opponent in this endeavour. The Estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society usually distinguishing Nobility, Clergy, and Commoners recognized in the Middle Ages At the end of the assembly, the First Estate (the clergy) chose him to deliver the address enumerating its petitions and decisions. The Estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society usually distinguishing Nobility, Clergy, and Commoners recognized in the Middle Ages Soon after the dissolution of the States-General, Richelieu entered the service of King Louis XIII's wife, Anne of Austria, as her almoner. For the queen consort of Sigismund III of Poland see Anna of Austria (1573-1598 For the queen consort of Philip II of Spain see Anna of Austria Almoner (from the Greek ελεημοσύνη westernized as eleemosyna 'alms' via Latin Almosunartius and French known in English since circa 1300 is a chaplain or church
Richelieu advanced politically by faithfully serving Concino Concini, the most powerful minister in the kingdom. Concino Concini Count della Penna Marquis and Maréchal d'Ancre (Florence 1575 - Paris 24 April 1617 was an Italian politician best known for being a minister of In 1616, Richelieu was made Secretary of State, and was given responsibility for foreign affairs. Like Concini, the Bishop was one of the closest advisors of Louis XIII's mother, Marie de Médicis. Marie de' Medici ( April 26, 1575 &ndash July 3, 1642) was Queen consort of France. The Queen had become Regent of France when the nine-year old Louis ascended the throne; although her son reached the legal age of majority in 1614, she remained the effective ruler of the realm. However, her policies, and those of Concini, proved unpopular with many in France. As a result, both Marie and Concini became the targets of intrigues at court; their most powerful enemy was Charles de Luynes. Charles d'Albert duc de Luynes ( August 5, 1578 - December 15, 1621) was Constable of France and the first Duke of Luynes In April 1617, in a plot arranged by Luynes, King Louis XIII ordered that Concini be arrested, and killed should he resist; Concini was consequently assassinated, and Marie de Médicis overthrown. His patron having died, Richelieu also lost power; he was dismissed as Secretary of State, and was removed from the court. In 1618, the King, still suspicious of the Bishop of Luçon, banished him to Avignon. Avignon (/aviɲɔ̃/ in French) ( Provençal: Avinhon in classical norm or Avignoun in Mistralian norm is a commune There, Richelieu spent most of his time writing; he composed a catechism entitled L'Instruction du chrétien. A catechism (ˈkætəkɪzəm κατηχισμός is a summary or exposition of Doctrine, traditionally used in Christian religious teaching from New Testament
In 1619, Marie de Médicis escaped from her confinement in the Château de Blois, becoming the titular leader of an aristocratic rebellion. The Royal Château de Blois is located in the Loir-et-Cher département in the Loire Valley, in France. The King and the duc de Luynes recalled Richelieu, believing that he would be able to reason with the Queen. Richelieu was successful in this endeavour, mediating between her and her son. Complex negotiations bore fruit when the Treaty of Angoulême was ratified; Marie de Médicis was given complete freedom, but would remain at peace with the King. The Treaty of Angoulême was signed on August 10, 1619 between Queen Marie de Medici and her son King Louis XIII of France in Angoulême The Queen was also restored to the royal council.
After the death of the King's favourite, the duc de Luynes, in 1621, Richelieu began to rise to power quickly. In historical writings when used in reference to a person favourite ( British English and the English of Commonwealth Countries or favorite ( American Next year, the King nominated Richelieu for a cardinalate, which Pope Gregory XV accordingly granted on 19 April 1622. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. Pope Gregory XV ( January 9 or January 15, 1554 – July 8, 1623) born Alessandro Ludovisi, was pope from 1621 succeeding Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Crises in France, including a rebellion of the Huguenots, rendered Richelieu a nearly indispensable advisor to the King. The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the eighteenth After he was appointed to the royal council of ministers in April 1624, he intrigued against the chief minister, Charles, duc de La Vieuville. In August of the same year, La Vieuville was arrested on charges of corruption, and Cardinal Richelieu took his place as the King's principal minister.
Cardinal Richelieu's policy involved two primary goals: centralization of power in France and opposition to the Habsburg dynasty (which ruled in both Austria and Spain). A centralized government is the Form of government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which Local governments are subject Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Shortly after he became Louis' principal minister, he was faced with a crisis in the Valtellina, a valley in Lombardy (northern Italy). Valtellina or the Valtelline Valley; (Valtellina Veltlin Vuclina is a valley in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, bordering Switzerland Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest In order to counter Spanish designs on the territory, Richelieu supported the Protestant Swiss canton of Grisons, which also claimed the strategically important valley. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the states of the Federal state of Switzerland. Graubünden or Grisons ( German:, gʁaʊˈbyndən Italian: Grigioni; Romansh: Grischun) is the largest and easternmost The Cardinal deployed troops to Valtellina, from which the Pope's garrisons were driven out. Richelieu's decision to support a Protestant canton against the Pope won him many enemies in predominantly Catholic France.
In order to further consolidate power in France, Richelieu sought to suppress the influence of the feudal nobility. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed In 1626, he abolished the position of Constable of France and ordered all fortified castles to be razed, excepting only those needed to defend against invaders. The Constable of France (connétable de France from Latin comes stabuli for " Count of the stables" as the First Officer of the Crown was one Thus, he stripped the princes, dukes, and lesser aristocrats of important defences that could have been used against the King's armies during rebellions. As a result, Richelieu was hated by most of the nobility.
Another obstacle to the centralization of power was religious division in France. The Huguenots, one of the largest political and religious factions in the country, controlled a significant military force, and were in rebellion. The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the eighteenth Moreover, the King of England, Charles I, declared war on France in an attempt to aid the Huguenot faction. The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. In 1627, Richelieu ordered the army to besiege the Huguenot stronghold of La Rochelle; the Cardinal personally commanded the besieging troops. The Siege of La Rochelle was a result of a war between the French royal forces of Louis XIII of France and the Huguenots of La Rochelle in 1627-1628 English troops under the Duke of Buckingham led an expedition to help the citizens of La Rochelle, but failed abysmally. George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham ( 28 August 1592 &ndash 23 August 1628) (surname ˈvɪlɚz ("villers" was the Favourite The city, however, remained firm for over a year before capitulating in 1628.
Although the Huguenots suffered a major defeat at La Rochelle, they continued to fight, led by Henri, duc de Rohan. Henri II viscount of Rohan ( August 21, 1579 &ndash April 13, 1638) later duke of Rohan, French soldier writer Protestant forces, however, were defeated in 1629; Rohan submitted to the terms of the Peace of Alais. The Peace of Alais, sometimes called the Edict of Alès or the Edict of Grace, was a treaty signed between the Huguenots and King Louis As a result, religious toleration for Protestants, which had first been granted by the Edict of Nantes in 1598, was permitted to continue; however, the Cardinal abolished their political rights and protections. The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant the Calvinist Protestants of Rohan was not executed (as were leaders of rebellions later in Richelieu's tenure); in fact, he later became a commanding officer in the French army.
Habsburg Spain exploited the French conflict with the Huguenots to extend its influence in northern Italy. It funded the Huguenot rebels in order to keep the French army occupied, meanwhile expanding its Italian dominions. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Richelieu, however, responded aggressively; after La Rochelle capitulated, he personally led the French army to northern Italy to restrain Spain.
In the next year, Richelieu's position was seriously threatened by his former patron, Marie de Médicis. Marie believed that the Cardinal had robbed her of her political influence; thus, she demanded that her son dismiss the chief minister. Louis XIII was not, at first, averse to such a course of action, as he personally disliked Richelieu. The persuasive statesman convinced his master of the wisdom in his plans, however. On November 11, 1630, Marie de Médicis and the King's brother, Gaston, duc d'Orléans, secured the King's agreement for the dismissal. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Gaston Jean-Baptiste de France, duc d'Orléans, ( April 25, 1608 &ndash February 2, 1660, Blois) was the third son of Richelieu, however, was aware of the plan, and quickly convinced the King to repent. This day, known as the Day of the Dupes, was the only one on which Louis XIII took a step toward dismissing his minister. Day of Dupes is the name given to the day in November of 1630 on which the enemies of Cardinal Richelieu believed that they had succeeded in persuading Louis Thereafter, the King was unwavering in his political support for him; the courtier was created duc de Richelieu and was made a Peer of France. Peerage of France (Pairie de France was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages.
Meanwhile, Marie de Médicis was exiled to Compiègne. Exile means to be away from one's home (ie city state or country while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return Compiègne is a commune in the Oise département of France, of which it is a Sous-préfecture. Both Marie and the duc d'Orléans continued to conspire against Richelieu, but their schemes came to nothing. The nobility, also, remained powerless. The only important rising was that of Henri, duc de Montmorency in 1632; Richelieu, ruthless in suppressing opposition, ordered the duke's execution. Henri II de Montmorency (1595 - October 30 1632) son of duke Henry I, succeeded to the title in 1614 having previously been made Grand admiral Richelieu's harsh measures were designed to intimidate his enemies. He also ensured his political security by establishing a large network of spies in France as well as in other European countries.
Before Richelieu's ascent to power, most of Europe had become involved in the Thirty Years' War. For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War. In 1629, the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II humbled many of his Protestant opponents in Germany, thereby greatly increasing his power. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Ferdinand II Holy Roman Emperor ( July 9, 1578 &ndash February 15, 1637) of the House of Habsburg, reigned as Ferdinand II Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Richelieu, alarmed by Ferdinand's influence, incited Sweden to attack. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. He also agreed to aid the Swedes with financial subsidies. In Economics, a subsidy (also known as a subvention is a form of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sector France was not openly at war with the Empire, so aid was given secretly. In the meantime, France and Spain continued to remain hostile over the latter kingdom's ambitions in northern Italy. At that time Northern Italy was a major strategic asset in Europe's balance of powers, serving as a terrestrial link between the Habsburgs' two branches in Germany and Spain. Had the imperial armies dominated this region, France's very existence would have been endangered, as it would have been encircled by Habsburg territories. The Spanish Habsburgs were trying to get papal approval for a "universal monarchy. When, in 1630, French ambassadors in Regensburg agreed to make peace with Habsburg Spain, Richelieu refused to uphold them. Regensburg ( also Ratisbon, Ratisbona Řezno originally Castra Regina) is a City (population 131000 in 2007 in Bavaria, Germany The agreement would have prohibited French interference in the hostilities in Germany. Thus, Richelieu advised Louis XIII to refuse to ratify the treaty.
Because he openly aligned France with Protestant powers, Richelieu was denounced by many as a traitor to the Roman Catholic Church. Military hostilities, at first, were disastrous for the French, with many victories going to Spain and the Empire. Neither side, however, could obtain a decisive advantage, and the conflict lingered on until after Richelieu's death.
Military expenses put a considerable strain on the King's revenues. In response, Richelieu raised the gabelle (a tax on salt) and the taille (a tax on land). The following article is about a Tax. If you are looking for information about a literary character see A Tale of Two Cities. Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants Taille was also a name used in the time of Johann Sebastian Bach for the Baroque Cor anglais. Land in Economics comprises all naturally occurring resources whose supply is inherently fixed (i The taille was enforced to provide funds to raise armies and wage war. The clergy, nobility, and high bourgeoisie were either exempt or could easily avoid payment, so the burden fell on the poorest segment of the nation. To collect taxes more efficiently, and to keep corruption to a minimum, Richelieu bypassed local tax officials, replacing them with intendants — officials in the direct service of the Crown. The title of intendant (intendant Spanish intendente) has been used in a number of countries through history Richelieu's financial scheme, however, caused unrest among the peasants; there were several uprisings between 1636 and 1639. Richelieu crushed the revolts violently, and dealt with the rebels harshly.
Towards the end of his life, Richelieu alienated many people, including Pope Urban VIII. Pope Richelieu was displeased by the Pope's refusal to name him the papal legate in France; in turn, the Pope did not approve of the administration of the French church, or of French foreign policy. A Papal Legate – from the Latin authentic Roman title Legatus – is a personal representative of the Pope to Foreign nations or to some part of the Catholic Foreign Policy is a bimonthly American Magazine founded in 1970 by Samuel P However, the conflict was largely healed when the Pope granted a cardinalate to Jules Mazarin, one of Richelieu's foremost political allies, in 1641. Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino ( July 14 1602 &ndash March 9 1661) was an accomplished French statesman Despite troubled relations with the Roman Catholic Church, Richelieu did not support the complete repudiation of papal authority in France, as was advocated by the Gallicanists. Gallicanism is the belief that popular civil authority&mdashoften represented by the Monarchs authority or the State 's authority&mdashover the Catholic
As he neared his death, Richelieu faced a plot that threatened to remove him from power. The cardinal had introduced a young man named Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, marquis de Cinq-Mars to Louis XIII's court. Henri Coiffier de Ruzé Marquis de Cinq-Mars (1620 &ndash September 12, 1642) was a Favourite of King Louis XIII of France The Cardinal had been a friend of Cinq-Mars' father. More importantly, Richelieu hoped that Cinq-Mars would become Louis' favourite, so that he could indirectly exercise greater influence over the monarch's decisions. Cinq-Mars had become the royal favourite by 1639, but, contrary to Cardinal Richelieu's belief, he was not easy to control. The young marquis realized that Richelieu would not permit him to gain political power. In 1641, he participated in the comte de Soissons' failed conspiracy against Richelieu, but was not discovered. Louis of Bourbon-Soissons, Count of Soissons, (1604-1641 was the son of Charles de Bourbon Comte de Soissons and Anne de Montafié. Next year, he schemed with leading nobles (including the King's brother, the duc d'Orléans) to raise a rebellion; he also signed a secret agreement with the King of Spain, who promised to aid the rebels. Richelieu's spy service, however, discovered the plot, and the Cardinal received a copy of the treaty. Cinq-Mars was promptly arrested and executed; although Louis approved the use of capital punishment, he grew more distant from Richelieu as a result.
In the same year, however, Richelieu's health was already failing. He suffered greatly from eye strain and headaches, among other ailments. As he felt his death approaching, he named as his successor one of his most faithful followers, Jules Cardinal Mazarin. Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino ( July 14 1602 &ndash March 9 1661) was an accomplished French statesman Although Mazarin was originally a representative of the Holy See, he had left the Pope's service to join that of the King of France. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Mazarin succeeded Richelieu when the latter died. Richelieu is interred at the church of the Sorbonne. Burial, also called interment and inhumation, is the act of placing a person or object into the ground
Richelieu was a famous patron of the arts. The arts is a broad subdivision of Culture, composed of many expressive disciplines. Himself an author of various religious and political works (most notably his Political Testament), he funded the literary careers of many writers. He was a lover of the theatre, which was not considered a respectable art form during that era. Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one Among the individuals he patronized was the famous playwright Pierre Corneille. Pierre Corneille ( June 6, 1606 – October 1, 1684) was a French tragedian who was one of the three great seventeenth Century French Richelieu was also the founder and patron of the Académie française, the pre-eminent French literary society. L'Académie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. The institution had previously been in informal existence; in 1635, however, Cardinal Richelieu obtained official letters patent for the body. Letters patent are a type of Legal instrument in the form of an Open letter issued by a Monarch or Government, granting an office right The Académie française includes forty members, promotes French literature, and continues to be the official authority on the French language. Richelieu served as the Académie's "protector"; since 1672, that role has been fulfilled by the French head of state.
In 1622, Richelieu was elected the proviseur or principal of the Sorbonne. The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century He presided over the renovation of the college's buildings, and over the construction of its famous chapel, where he is now entombed. A chapel is a holy place or area of Worship for Christians, which may be attached to an institution such as a large church, a College, a As he was Bishop of Luçon, his statue stands outside the Luçon cathedral.
Richelieu oversaw the construction of his own palace in Paris, the Palais-Cardinal. The palace, renamed the Palais Royal after Richelieu's death, now houses the French Constitutional Council, the Ministry of Culture, and the Conseil d'État. The Constitutional Council ( Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958 This article is about the present-day French institution For institutions with the same name during the Ancien Régime in France see Conseil du Roi. The architect of the Palais-Cardinal, Jacques Lemercier, also received a commission to build a château and a surrounding town in Indre-et-Loire; the project culminated in the construction of the Château Richelieu and the town of Richelieu. Jacques Lemercier ( Pontoise c 1585 &ndash Paris January 13, 1654) was a French Architect and Engineer Indre-et-Loire is a department in west-central France named after the Indre and the Loire rivers To the château, he added one of the largest art collections in Europe. Most notably, he owned Slaves (sculptures by the Italian Michelangelo Buonarroti), as well as paintings by Peter Paul Rubens, Nicolas Poussin and Titian. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all Nicolas Poussin (15 June 1594 – 19 November 1665 was a French painter in the classical style Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c 1485 &ndash August 27 1576 better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian
Richelieu's tenure was a crucial period of reform for France. Earlier, the nation's political structure was largely feudal, with powerful nobles and a wide variety of laws in different regions. Parts of the nobility periodically conspired against the King, raised private armies, and allied themselves with foreign powers. This system gave way to centralized power under Richelieu. Local and even religious interests were subordinated to those of the whole nation, and of the embodiment of the nation — the King. Equally critical for France was Richelieu's foreign policy, which helped restrain Habsburg influence in Europe. Richelieu did not survive until the end of the Thirty Years' War. However, the conflict ended in 1648, with France emerging in a far better position than any other power, and the Holy Roman Empire entering a period of decline. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in
Richelieu's successes were extremely important to Louis XIII's successor, King Louis XIV. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent He continued Richelieu's work of creating an absolute monarchy; in the same vein as the Cardinal, he enacted policies that further suppressed the once-mighty aristocracy, and utterly destroyed all remnants of Huguenot political power with the Edict of Fontainebleau. Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything The Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685 was an Edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes of Moreover, Louis took advantage of his nation's success during the Thirty Years' War to establish French hegemony in continental Europe. Hegemony (hɨˈdʒɛməni (Amer /hɨˈɡɛməni/ (Brit (ἡγεμονία hēgemonía) is a concept that has been used to describe and explain the dominance of one social Thus, Richelieu's policies were the requisite prelude to Louis XIV becoming the most powerful monarch, and France the most powerful nation, in all of Europe during the late seventeenth century.
Richelieu is also notable for the authoritarian measures he employed to maintain power. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union He censored the press, established a large network of internal spies, forbade the discussion of political matters in public assemblies such as the Parlement de Paris (a court of justice), and had those who dared to conspire against him prosecuted and executed. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor This article is for the Ancien Régime institution For the post-Revolutionary and present-day institution see French Parliament. The Canadian historian and philosopher John Ralston Saul has referred to Richelieu as the "father of the modern nation-state, modern centralised power [and] the modern secret service. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page John Ralston Saul CC (born June 19, 1947) is a Canadian author and Essayist. For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy This article is about the form of gov policing For other meanings see Secret Service (disambiguation. "
Richelieu's motives are the focus of much debate among historians; some see him as a patriotic supporter of the monarchy, while others view him as a power-hungry cynic. (Voltaire even argued that Richelieu started wars to make himself indispensable to the King. François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French ) The latter image gained further currency due to Alexandre Dumas' The Three Musketeers, of which Richelieu is a major character and one of the main villains. The Three Musketeers ( Les Trois Mousquetaires) is a Novel by Alexandre Dumas père. The novel, and subsequent film adaptations, depicts Richelieu as a power-hungry, unscrupulous, and avaricious minister.
Despite such arguments, Richelieu remains an honoured personality in France, particularly for his stubborn refusal to let courtly intrigues and foreign interests dominate the government. He has given his name to a battleship and a battleship class. Design Derived from the ''Dunkerque'' class Richelieu and ''Jean Bart'', as well as the unfinished Clemenceau and Gascogne, The French government planned to use his name for an aircraft carrier but the ship was finally named after Charles de Gaulle. Development Construction The carrier replaced ''Foch'', a conventionally-powered aircraft carrier in 2001 Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French General and statesman who led the Free French
His legacy is also important for the world at large; his ideas of a strong nation-state and aggressive foreign policy helped create the modern system of international politics. The notions of national sovereignty and international law can be traced, at least in part, to Richelieu's policies and theories, especially as enunciated in the Treaty of Westphalia that ended the Thirty Years' War. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards The term Peace of Westphalia refers to the two peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, signed on May 15 and October 24 of For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War.
One aspect of his legacy which has remained less renowned is his involvement with Samuel de Champlain, and his fledgling colony along the St. Lawrence River. The retention and promotion of Québec under Richelieu allowed it — and through the settlement's strategic location, the St-Lawrence - Great Lakes gateway into the North American interior — to develop into a French empire in North America—parts of which would eventually become modern Canada and Louisiana. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America
During the French Revolution, Richelieu's body was removed from its tomb for reburial elsewhere, and the mummified front of his head, having been removed and replaced during the original embalming process, was stolen. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Embalming, in most modern Cultures is the Art and Science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall Decomposition It ended up in the possession of Nicholas Armez of Brittany by 1796, and he occasionally exhibited the well-preserved face. Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into His nephew, Louis-Philippe Armez, inherited it and also occasionally exhibited it and lent it out for study. In 1866, Napoleon III persuaded Armez to return the face to the government for reinterrment with the rest of Richelieu's body (Murphy, 1995). Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President
Many sites and landmarks were named to honor Cardinal Richelieu. They include: