The term carcinogen refers to any substance, radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of cancer or in the facilitation of its propagation. A radionuclide is an Atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled This may be due to ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. In classical genetics the genome of a Diploid Organism including Eukarya refers to a full set of chromosomes or genes in a Gamete, thereby Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life. Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they emit. Gamma rays (denoted as &gamma) are a form of Electromagnetic radiation or light emission of frequencies produced by sub-atomic particle interactions Alpha particles (named after and denoted by the first letter in the Greek alphabet, α consist of two Protons and two Neutrons bound together into a Common examples of carcinogens are inhaled asbestos, certain dioxins, and tobacco smoke. Asbestos is a group of Minerals with long thin fibrous Crystals The word "asbestos" (῾ἀσβεστος is derived from a Greek adjective Not to be confused with Dioxane or Digoxin. Dioxin is a heterocyclic, organic, antiaromatic compound Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana.
Cancer is a disease where damaged cells of the patient's body do not undergo programmed cell death, but their growth is no longer controlled and their metabolism is altered. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled Programmed cell-death ( PCD) is death of a cell in any form mediated by an intracellular program Carcinogens may increase the risk of getting cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells, which interferes with biological processes, and induces the uncontrolled, malignant division, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living Organisms It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living and is often called Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Usually DNA damage, if too severe to repair, leads to programmed cell death, but if the programmed cell death pathway is damaged, then the cell cannot prevent itself from becoming a cancer cell. Programmed cell-death ( PCD) is death of a cell in any form mediated by an intracellular program
There are many natural carcinogens. Aflatoxin B1, which is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus growing on stored grains, nuts and peanut butter, is an example of a potent, naturally-occurring microbial carcinogen. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring Mycotoxins that are produced by many species of Aspergillus, a Fungus, most notably Aspergillus A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Aspergillus flavus is a Mold Fungus. It is a Pathogen, associated with Aspergillosis of the Nut is a general term for the large dry oily Seeds or Fruit of some Plants. Peanut butter is a food paste made primarily from ground roasted Peanuts with or without added oil A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually Certain viruses such as Hepatitis B and human papilloma viruses have been found to cause cancer in humans. A human papillomavirus ( HPV) is a Papillomavirus that infects the skin and Mucous membranes of Humans Approximately 130 HPV types have been The first one shown to cause cancer in animals is Rous sarcoma virus, discovered in 1910 by Peyton Rous. Rous sarcoma virus is a Retrovirus and is the first Oncovirus to have been described it causes Sarcoma in chickens Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting (Francis Peyton Rous ( October 5, 1879 &ndash February 16, 1970) born in Baltimore Maryland in 1879 and received his B
Benzene, kepone, EDB, asbestos, and the waste rock of oil shale mining have all been classified as carcinogenic. Benzene, or benzol, is an organic Chemical compound and a known Carcinogen with the molecular formula C 6 H 6 Kepone, also known as chlordecone, is a Carcinogenic ref> chemical description Insecticide related to Mirex, used between 1966 and Asbestos is a group of Minerals with long thin fibrous Crystals The word "asbestos" (῾ἀσβεστος is derived from a Greek adjective As far back as the 1930s, industrial smoke and tobacco smoke were identified as sources of dozens of carcinogens, including benzopyrene, tobacco-specific nitrosamines such as nitrosonornicotine, and reactive aldehydes such as formaldehyde — which is also a hazard in embalming and making plastics. The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. Benzopyrene, C20H12 is a five-ring Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is Mutagenic and highly Carcinogenic It is a crystalline Nitrosamines are Chemical compounds of the Chemical structure R1N(-R2-N=O some of which are carcinogenic. An aldehyde is an organic compound containing a terminal Carbonyl group. Formaldehyde is a Chemical compound with the formula H2CO It is the simplest Aldehyde —an organic compound containing a terminal Carbonyl Embalming, in most modern Cultures is the Art and Science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall Decomposition Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Vinyl chloride, from which PVC is manufactured, is a carcinogen and thus a hazard in PVC production. Vinyl chloride is the Organic compound with the formula CH2CHCl
Co-carcinogens are chemicals that do not separately cause cancer, but do so in specific combinations.
After the carcinogen enters the body, the body makes an attempt to eliminate it through a process called biotransformation. Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications made by an organism on a chemical compound The purpose of these reactions is to make the carcinogen more water-soluble so that it can be removed from the body. Solubility is the characteristic Physical property referring to the ability of a given substance the Solute, to dissolve in a Solvent. But these reactions can also convert a less toxic carcinogen into a more toxic one.
DNA is nucleophilic, therefore soluble carbon electrophiles are carcinogenic, because DNA attacks them. In Chemistry, a nucleophile (literally nucleus lover as in nucleus and phile) is a Reagent that forms a Chemical bond to For example, some alkenes are toxicated by human enzymes to produce an electrophilic epoxide. In Organic chemistry, an alkene, olefin, or olefine is an unsaturated Chemical compound containing at least one Carbon Toxication is the process of Metabolism in which the metabolite of a compound is more toxic than the parent drug or Chemical. In Chemistry, an electrophile (literally electron-lover) is a Reagent attracted to Electrons that participates in a chemical reaction by accepting DNA attacks the epoxide, and is bound permanently to it. This is the mechanism behind the carcinogenity of benzopyrene in tobacco smoke, other aromatics, aflatoxin and mustard gas. Benzopyrene, C20H12 is a five-ring Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is Mutagenic and highly Carcinogenic It is a crystalline
CERCLA identifies all radionuclides as carcinogens, although the nature of the emitted radiation (alpha, beta, or gamma, and the energy), its consequent capacity to cause ionization in tissues, and the magnitude of radiation exposure, determine the potential hazard. Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental policy officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act A radionuclide is an Atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. Alpha particles (named after and denoted by the first letter in the Greek alphabet, α consist of two Protons and two Neutrons bound together into a Beta particles are high-energy high-speed Electrons or Positrons emitted by certain types of Radioactive nuclei such as Potassium -40 Gamma rays (denoted as &gamma) are a form of Electromagnetic radiation or light emission of frequencies produced by sub-atomic particle interactions Ionization is the physical process of converting an Atom or Molecule into an Ion by adding or removing charged particles such as Electrons Carcinogenity of radiation depends of the type of radiation, type of exposure and penetration. For example, alpha radiation has low penetration and is not a hazard outside the body, but are carcinogenic when inhaled or ingested.
For example, Thorotrast, a (incidentally-radioactive) suspension previously used as a contrast medium in x-ray diagnostics, is a potent human carcinogen known because of its retention within various organs and persistent emission of alpha particles. Thorotrast is a suspension containing particles of the radioactive compound Thorium dioxide, ThO2 used as a Contrast medium in In Chemistry, A suspension is a Heterogenous fluid containing Solid particles that are sufficiently large for Sedimentation. Contrast medium Radiocontrast agents (also simply contrast agents or contrast materials) are compounds used to improve the visibility of internal bodily structures X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of Electromagnetic radiation. In Biology, an organ ( Latin: organum, "instrument tool" from Greek όργανον - organon "organ instrument Marie Curie, one of the pioneers of radioactivity, died of cancer caused by radiation exposure during her experiments.
Not all types of electromagnetic radiation are in fact carcinogenic. Low-energy waves on the electromagnetic spectrum are generally not, including radio waves, microwave radiation, infrared radiation, and visible light. The electromagnetic (EM spectrum is the range of all possible Electromagnetic radiation frequencies Radio waves are electromagnetic waves occurring on the Radio frequency portion of the Electromagnetic spectrum. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with Wavelengths ranging from 1 mm to 1 m or frequencies between 0 Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of Higher-energy radiation, including ultraviolet radiation (present in sunlight), x-rays, and gamma radiation, generally is carcinogenic, if received in sufficient doses. Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays Sunlight, in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the Electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of Electromagnetic radiation. Gamma rays (denoted as &gamma) are a form of Electromagnetic radiation or light emission of frequencies produced by sub-atomic particle interactions
Substances or foods irradiated with electrons or electromagnetic radiation (such as microwave, X-ray or gamma) are not carcinogenic. Food irradiation is the process of exposing food to Ionizing radiation in order to destroy Microorganisms Bacteria, Viruses or Insects No "radiation" remains, just like no light remains in a lens. (In contrast, non-electromagnetic neutron radiation produced inside nuclear reactors can make substances radioactive. Neutron radiation is a kind of Ionizing radiation which consists of Free neutrons Sources Neutrons may be emitted during either spontaneous )
Cooking food at high temperatures, for example grilling or barbecuing meats, can lead to the formation of minute quantities of many potent carcinogens that are comparable to those found in cigarette smoke (i. For the device used to cook see Grill (cooking, for other uses see Grill. barbeque block party Kansas cityjpg|thumb|right|275px|A barbecue on a trailer at a Block party in Kansas City. e. , benzopyrene). Benzopyrene, C20H12 is a five-ring Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is Mutagenic and highly Carcinogenic It is a crystalline  Charring of food resembles coking and tobacco pyrolysis, and produces similar carcinogens. Coke is a solid Carbonaceous material derived from Destructive distillation of low-ash low-sulfur Bituminous coal. Pyrolysis is the Chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of Oxygen or any other reagents except possibly Steam There are several carcinogenic pyrolysis products, such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, which are converted by human enzymes into epoxides, which attach permanently to DNA. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins An epoxide is a cyclic Ether with only three ring atoms This ring approximately is an Equilateral triangle, i Pre-cooking meats in a microwave oven for 2-3 minutes before grilling shortens the time on the hot pan, and removes heterocyclic amine (HCA) precursors, which can help minimize the formation of these carcinogens. A microwave oven, or a microwave, is a Kitchen appliance that cooks or heats Food by Dielectric heating. 
Reports from the Food Standards Agency have found that the known animal carcinogen acrylamide is generated in fried or overheated carbohydrate foods (such as french fries and potato chips). The Chemical compound acrylamide (acrylic Amide) has the Chemical formula C 3 H 5 N[[Oxygen O]] Carbohydrates (from ' Hydrates of Carbon ' or saccharides ( Greek σάκχαρον meaning " Sugar " are the most French fries ( North American English; sometimes not capitalized chips ( British English) fries or French-fried potatoes (formal A potato chip or crisp is a thin slice of Potato, deep fried or baked until Crisp.  Studies are underway at the FDA and European regulatory agencies to assess its potential risk to humans. The charred residue on barbecued meats has been identified as a carcinogen, along with many other tars. barbeque block party Kansas cityjpg|thumb|right|275px|A barbecue on a trailer at a Block party in Kansas City. Tar is a viscous black Liquid derived from the Destructive distillation of organic matter
Nevertheless, the fact that the food contains minute quantities does not necessarily mean that there is a significant hazard. The gastrointestinal tract sheds its outer layer continuously to protect itself from carcinomas, and has a high activity of detoxifying enzymes. A carcinoma is any Malignant Cancer that arises from epithelial cells.
Carcinogens can be classified as genotoxic or nongenotoxic. Genotoxins cause irreversible genetic damage or mutations by binding to DNA. Genotoxicity describes a deleterious action on a cell genetic material affecting its integrity Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known Genotoxins include chemical agents like N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea (MNU) or non-chemical agents such as ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation. N -Nitroso- N -methylurea (MNU is a highly potent Carcinogen, Mutagen, and Teratogen. Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays Image talkNew_radiation_symbol_ISO_21482svg for details --> Ionizing radiation Certain viruses can also act as carcinogens by interacting with DNA.
Nongenotoxins do not directly affect DNA but act in other ways to promote growth. These include hormones and some organic compounds. 
Further details can be found in the IARC Monographs.
A procarcinogen is a precursor to a carcinogen. One example is nitrites, for example when taken in by the diet. The nitrite Ion is NO2− The anion is bent being Isoelectronic with O3. They are not carcinogenic themselves, but turn into nitrosamines in the body, which are carcinogenic. Nitrosamines are Chemical compounds of the Chemical structure R1N(-R2-N=O some of which are carcinogenic.