|Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio|
Chalk portrait of Caravaggio by Ottavio Leoni, c. Ottavio Leoni (1578-1630 was an Italian painter and printmaker of the early- Baroque, active mainly in Rome. 1621.
|Birth name||Michelangelo Merisi|
|Born||28 September 1571|
|Died||18 July 1610 (aged 38)|
Porto Ercole, near Grosseto in Tuscany
|Works||see works by Caravaggio|
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (September 28, 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian artist active in Rome, Naples, Malta and Sicily between 1593 and 1610. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Events 390 BC - Roman - Gaulish Wars Battle of the Allia - a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, Grosseto is a town and Comune in the central Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of the Province of Grosseto. Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc The following is a list of paintings by the Italian artist Caravaggio, listed chronologically Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Events 390 BC - Roman - Gaulish Wars Battle of the Allia - a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of Activities to do with creating Art, practicing the Arts and/or demonstrating Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. He is commonly placed in the Baroque school, of which he was the first great representative. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc
Even in his own lifetime Caravaggio was considered enigmatic, fascinating, rebellious and dangerous. He burst upon the Rome art scene in 1600, and thereafter never lacked for commissions or patrons, yet handled his success atrociously. An early published notice on him, dating from 1604 and describing his lifestyle some three years previously, tells how "after a fortnight's work he will swagger about for a month or two with a sword at his side and a servant following him, from one ball-court to the next, ever ready to engage in a fight or an argument, so that it is most awkward to get along with him. " In 1606 he killed a young man in a brawl and fled from Rome with a price on his head. In Malta in 1608 he was involved in another brawl, and yet another in Naples in 1609, possibly a deliberate attempt on his life by unidentified enemies. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands By the next year, after a career of little more than a decade, he was dead.
Huge new churches and palazzi were being built in Rome in the decades of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, and paintings were needed to fill them. For other meanings (eg the word's use in place names see Palazzo (disambiguation. The Counter-Reformation Church searched for authentic religious art with which to counter the threat of Protestantism, and for this task the artificial conventions of Mannerism, which had ruled art for almost a century, no longer seemed adequate. The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Mannerism is a period of European art which emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. Caravaggio's novelty was a radical naturalism which combined close physical observation with a dramatic, even theatrical, approach to chiaroscuro, the use of light and shadow. Naturalism in art refers to the depiction of realistic objects in a natural setting Chiaroscuro ( Italian for light-dark) is a term in Art for a contrast between light and dark
Famous and extremely influential while he lived, Caravaggio was almost entirely forgotten in the centuries after his death, and it was only in the 20th century that his importance to the development of Western art was rediscovered. Yet despite this his influence on the new Baroque style which eventually emerged from the ruins of Mannerism, was profound. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Andre Berne-Joffroy, Paul Valéry’s secretary, said of him: "What begins in the work of Caravaggio is, quite simply, modern painting. Ambroise-Paul-Toussaint-Jules Valéry (French pɔl valeˈʁi October 30, 1871 – July 20, 1945) was a French Poet "
Caravaggio was born in Milan, where his father, Fermo Merisi, was a household administrator and architect-decorator to the Marchese of Caravaggio. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Caravaggio (also known locally as Careàs) is a town in the Province of Bergamo, in Lombardy, Italy, 40 kilometres east of Milan. His mother, Lucia Aratori, came from a propertied family of the same district. In 1576 the family moved to Caravaggio to escape a plague which ravaged Milan. Caravaggio’s father died there in 1577. It is assumed that the artist grew up in Caravaggio, but his family kept up connections with the Sforzas and with the powerful Colonna family, who were allied by marriage with the Sforzas, and destined to play a major role in Caravaggio's later life. Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan. The Colonna family was a powerful noble family in medieval and Renaissance Rome, supplying one Pope and many other leaders  In 1584 he was apprenticed for four years to the Lombard painter Simone Peterzano, described in the contract of apprenticeship as a pupil of Titian. Simone Peterzano (c 1540 - c 1596 was an Italian painter of the later Mannerism, native of Bergamo. Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c 1485 &ndash August 27 1576 better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian Caravaggio appears to have stayed in the Milan-Caravaggio area after his apprenticeship ended, but it is possible that he visited Venice and saw the works of Giorgione, whom he was later accused of aping, and of Titian. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Giorgione (c 1477 &ndash 1510 is the familiar name of Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco, an Italian painter a seminal artist of the High Renaissance Certainly he would have become familiar with the art treasures of Milan, including Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper, and with the regional Lombard art, a style which valued "simplicity and attention to naturalistic detail" and was closer to the naturalism of Germany than to the stylised formality and grandeur of Roman Mannerism. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer The Last Supper (Il Cenacolo or L'Ultima Cena) is a 15th century Mural painting in Milan created by Leonardo da Vinci for his patron Naturalism in art refers to the depiction of realistic objects in a natural setting Mannerism is a period of European art which emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520.
In mid-1592 Caravaggio arrived in Rome, “naked and extremely needy . . . without fixed address and without provision . . . short of money. ” A few months later he was performing hack-work for the highly successful Giuseppe Cesari, Pope Clement VIII’s favourite painter, “painting flowers and fruit” in his factory-like workshop. Giuseppe Cesari (c 1568 - July 3, 1640) was an Italian Mannerist painter, also named Il Giuseppino and Not to be confused with Antipope Clement VIII. Pope Clement VIII ( February 24, 1536 &ndash March 3, 1605 Known works from this period include a small Boy Peeling a Fruit (his earliest known painting), a Boy with a Basket of Fruit, and the Young Sick Bacchus, supposedly a self-portrait done during convalescence from a serious illness that ended his employment with Cesari. Boy Peeling Fruit is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610 painted circa 1592-1593 Boy with a Basket of Fruit, c1593 is a painting by Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merici da Caravaggio, currently in the Galleria The Young Sick Bacchus, dated between 1593-1594 is an early self-portrait by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, now in the Galleria Borghese in All three demonstrate the physical particularity — one aspect of his realism — for which Caravaggio was to become renowned: the fruit-basket-boy’s produce has been analysed by a professor of horticulture, who was able to identify individual cultivars right down to ". . . a large fig leaf with a prominent fungal scorch lesion resembling anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata). Canker and anthracnose are general terms for a large number of different Plant Diseases characterised by broadly similar Symptoms including the "
Caravaggio left Cesari in January 1594, determined to make his own way. His fortunes were at their lowest ebb, yet it was now that he forged some extremely important friendships, with the painter Prospero Orsi, the architect Onorio Longhi, and the sixteen year old Sicilian artist Mario Minniti. Onorio Longhi (1568 - 1619 was an Italian architect the father of Martino Longhi the Younger and the son of Martino Longhi the Elder. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Mario Minniti ( 8 December 1577 – 22 November 1640) was an Italian artist active in Sicily after 1606 Orsi, established in the profession, introduced him to influential collectors; Longhi, more balefully, introduced him to the world of Roman street-brawls; and Minniti served as a model and, years later, would be instrumental in helping Caravaggio to important commissions in Sicily.  The Fortune Teller, his first composition with more than one figure, shows Mario being cheated by a gypsy girl. The Fortune Teller is a painting by Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. The theme was quite new for Rome, and proved immensely influential over the next century and beyond. This, however, was in the future: at the time, Caravaggio sold it for practically nothing. The Cardsharps — showing another unsophisticated boy falling the victim of card cheats — is even more psychologically complex, and perhaps Caravaggio’s first true masterpiece. The Cardsharps (around 1594 is a painting by the Italian Baroque artist Caravaggio. Like the Fortune Teller it was immensely popular, and over 50 copies survive. The Fortune Teller is a painting by Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. More importantly, it attracted the patronage of Cardinal Francesco Maria Del Monte, one of the leading connoisseurs in Rome. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. Francesco Maria Del Monte, full name Francesco Maria Borbone Del Monte ( 5 July 1549 - 27 August, 1627) was an Italian cardinal For Del Monte and his wealthy art-loving circle Caravaggio executed a number of intimate chamber-pieces — The Musicians, The Lute Player, a tipsy Bacchus, an allegorical but realistic Boy Bitten by a Lizard — featuring Minniti and other boy models. The Musicians (c 1595 is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610 The Lute Player is a composition by the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio. Bacchus (c1595 is a painting by Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610 Boy Bitten by a Lizard is a painting by the Italian Baroque painter Caravaggio.  The possibly homoerotic ambience of these paintings has been the centre of considerable dispute amongst scholars and biographers since it was first raised in the later half of the 20th century. 
The realism returned with Caravaggio’s first paintings on religious themes, and the emergence of remarkable spirituality. The first of these was the Penitent Magdalene, showing Mary Magdalene at the moment when she has turned from her life as a courtesan and sits weeping on the floor, her jewels scattered around her. Penitent Magdalene, also known as Mary Magdalene, is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio, circa 1597 Saint Mary Magdalen or Mary Magdalene is described both in the canonical New Testament and in the New Testament apocrypha, as a devoted “It seemed not a religious painting at all . . . a girl sitting on a low wooden stool drying her hair . . . Where was the repentance . . . suffering . . . promise of salvation?” It was understated, in the Lombard manner, not histrionic in the Roman manner of the time. It was followed by others in the same style: Saint Catherine, Martha and Mary Magdalene, Judith Beheading Holofernes, a Sacrifice of Isaac, a Saint Francis of Assisi in Ecstasy, and a Rest on the Flight into Egypt. Saint Catherine of Alexandria (c 1598 is an oil painting by the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio. Martha and Mary Magdalene (c 1598) is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. Judith Beheading Holofernes (Judith and Holophernes completed in 1599, is an early religious painting by the Italian painter Caravaggio The Sacrifice of Isaac is the title of two paintings by the Italian master Caravaggio (1571-1610 Saint Francis of Assisi in Ecstasy (or The Ecstasy of Saint Francis) is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi Rest on the Flight into Egypt (c 1597 is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, in the Doria Pamphilj The works, while viewed by a comparatively limited circle, increased Caravaggio's fame with both connoisseurs and his fellow-artists. But a true reputation would depend on public commissions, and for these it was necessary to look to the Church.
In 1599, presumably through the influence of Del Monte, Caravaggio contracted to decorate the Contarelli Chapel in the church of San Luigi dei Francesi. The Contarelli Chapel, within the church of San Luigi dei Francesi in Rome, is famous for housing three paintings on the theme of Saint Matthew the Evangelist San Luigi dei Francesi is a church in Rome, not far from Piazza Navona. The two works making up the commission, the Martyrdom of Saint Matthew and Calling of Saint Matthew, delivered in 1600, were an immediate sensation. The Martyrdom of Saint Matthew (1599-1600 is a painting by the Italian master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. The Calling of Saint Matthew is a masterpiece by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio completed in 1599-1600 for the Contarelli Chapel in the church of Caravaggio’s tenebrism (a heightened chiaroscuro) brought high drama to his subjects, while his acutely observed realism brought a new level of emotional intensity. Tenebrism, from the Italian tenebroso ("murky" (also called dramatic illumination is a style of Painting using violent contrasts of Light Chiaroscuro ( Italian for light-dark) is a term in Art for a contrast between light and dark Opinion among Caravaggio’s artist peers was polarized. Some denounced him for various perceived failings, notably his insistence on painting from life, without drawings, but for the most part he was hailed as the saviour of art: "The painters then in Rome were greatly taken by this novelty, and the young ones particularly gathered around him, praised him as the unique imitator of nature, and looked on his work as miracles. "
Caravaggio went on to secure a string of prestigious commissions for religious works featuring violent struggles, grotesque decapitations, torture and death. For the most part each new painting increased his fame, but a few were rejected by the various bodies for whom they were intended, at least in their original forms, and had to be re-painted or find new buyers. The essence of the problem was that while Caravaggio’s dramatic intensity was appreciated, his realism was seen by some as unacceptably vulgar.  His first version of Saint Matthew and the Angel, featured the saint as a bald peasant with dirty legs attended by a lightly-clad over-familiar boy-angel, was rejected and had to be repainted as The Inspiration of Saint Matthew. Saint Matthew and the Angel ( 1602) is a painting from the Italian master Caravaggio (1571-1610 completed for the Contarelli Chapel in the church The Inspiration of Saint Matthew ( 1602) is a painting by the Italian master Caravaggio. Similarly, The Conversion of Saint Paul was rejected, and while another version of the same subject, the Conversion on the Way to Damascus, was accepted, it featured the saint’s horse’s haunches far more prominently than the saint himself, prompting this exchange between the artist and an exasperated official of Santa Maria del Popolo: “Why have you put a horse in the middle, and Saint Paul on the ground?” “Because!” “Is the horse God?” “No, but he stands in God’s light!”
Other works included Entombment, the Madonna di Loreto (Madonna of the Pilgrims), the Grooms' Madonna, and the Death of the Virgin. The Conversion of Saint Paul (or Conversion of Saul) by the Italian painter Caravaggio, is housed in the Odescalchi Balbi Collection The Conversion on the Way to Damascus ( Conversione di San Paolo) is a masterpiece by Caravaggio, painted in 1601 for the Cerasi Chapel Santa Maria del Popolo is a notable Augustinian church located in Rome. Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and The Entombment of Christ (1602&ndash1603 is a painting by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. The Madonna di Loreto (in Italian, Madonna dei Pellegrini or pilgrims is a famous painting (1604-1606 by the Italian Baroque master The Madonna and Child with St Anne (Dei Palafrenieri is one of the mature religious work of the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio, painted in 1605-1606 for an The Death of the Virgin (1606 is a painting completed by the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio. The history of these last two paintings illustrate the reception given to some of Caravaggio's art, and the times in which he lived. The Grooms' Madonna, also known as Madonna dei palafrenieri, painted for a small altar in Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome, remained there for just two days, and was then taken off. The Madonna and Child with St Anne (Dei Palafrenieri is one of the mature religious work of the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio, painted in 1605-1606 for an The Madonna and Child with St Anne (Dei Palafrenieri is one of the mature religious work of the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio, painted in 1605-1606 for an A cardinal's secretary wrote: "In this painting there are but vulgarity, sacrilege, impiousness and disgust. . . One would say it is a work made by a painter that can paint well, but of a dark spirit, and who has been for a lot of time far from God, from His adoration, and from any good thought. . . " The Death of the Virgin, then, commissioned in 1601 by a wealthy jurist for his private chapel in the new Carmelite church of Santa Maria della Scala, was rejected by the Carmelites in 1606. The Death of the Virgin (1606 is a painting completed by the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio. Caravaggio's contemporary Giulio Mancini records that it was rejected because Caravaggio had used a well-known prostitute as his model for the Virgin; Giovanni Baglione, another contemporary, tells us it was due to Mary's bare legs —a matter of decorum in either case. Giulio Mancini (1558-1630 was a noted physician art collector and writer on a range of subjects Giovanni Baglione (1566&ndash December 30 1643) was an Italian early Baroque painter and art historian Caravaggio scholar John Gash suggests that the problem for the Carmelites may have been theological rather than aesthetic, in that Caravaggio's version fails to assert the doctrine of the Assumption of Mary, the idea that the Mother of God did not die in any ordinary sense but was assumed into Heaven. This article is about the theological concept For the works of art with this title see Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Art and Roman Catholic Marian art. The replacement altarpiece commissioned (from one of Caravaggio's most able followers, Carlo Saraceni), showed the Virgin not dead, as Caravaggio had painted her, but seated and dying; and even this was rejected, and replaced with a work which showed the Virgin not dying, but ascending into Heaven with choirs of angels. Carlo Saraceni ( Venice 1579-Venice 16 June 1620) was an Italian early- Baroque painter whose reputation as a "first-class In any case, the rejection did not mean that Caravaggio or his paintings were out of favour. The Death of the Virgin was no sooner taken out of the church than it was purchased by the Duke of Mantua, on the advice of Rubens, and later acquired by Charles I of England before entering the French royal collection in 1671. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution.
One secular piece from these years is Amor Victorious, painted in 1602 for Vincenzo Giustiniani, a member of Del Monte’s circle. Amor Vincit Omnia (meaning "Love Conquers All" known in English by a variety of names including Amor Victorious, Victorious Cupid Marchese Vincenzo Giustiniani ( 13 September 1564 - 27 December 1637) was an aristocratic Italian banker art collector and The model was named in a memoir of the early 17th century as "Cecco", the diminutive for Francesco. He is possibly Francesco Boneri, identified with an artist active in the period 1610-1625 and known as Cecco del Caravaggio ('Caravaggio's Cecco'), carrying a bow and arrows and trampling symbols of the warlike and peaceful arts and sciences underfoot. Cecco del Caravaggio (active c1610-mid 1620s is the name used for a Baroque artist working in Rome in the early decades of the 17th century an important early follower of He is unclothed, and it is difficult to accept this grinning urchin as the Roman god Cupid – as difficult as it was to accept Caravaggio’s other semi-clad adolescents as the various angels he painted in his canvases, wearing much the same stage-prop wings. In Roman mythology, Cupid (Latin cupido) is the god of Erotic Love and Beauty. The point, however, is the intense yet ambiguous reality of the work: it is simultaneously Cupid and Cecco, as Caravaggio’s Virgins were simultaneously the Mother of Christ and the Roman courtesans who modeled for them.
Caravaggio led a tumultuous life. The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre located in Paris is the world's most visited art museum a historic monument and a national museum of France He was notorious for brawling, even in a time and place when such behavior was commonplace, and the transcripts of his police records and trial proceedings fill several pages. On 29 May 1606, he killed, possibly unintentionally, a young man named Ranuccio Tomassoni. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the  Previously his high-placed patrons had protected him from the consequences of his escapades, but this time they could do nothing. Caravaggio, outlawed, fled to Naples. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the There, outside the jurisdiction of the Roman authorities and protected by the Colonna family, the most famous painter in Rome became the most famous in Naples. His connections with the Colonnas led to a stream of important church commissions, including the Madonna of the Rosary, and The Seven Works of Mercy. The Madonna of the Rosary is a painting finished in 1607 by the Italian Baroque painter Caravaggio. The Seven Works of Mercy is an oil painting by Italian painter Caravaggio, circa 1607
Despite his success in Naples, after only a few months in the city Caravaggio left for Malta, the headquarters of the Knights of Malta, presumably hoping that the patronage of Alof de Wignacourt, Grand Master of the Knights, could help him secure a pardon for Tomassoni's death. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St Fra Alof de Wignacourt was Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller of St De Wignacourt proved so impressed at having the famous artist as official painter to the Order that he inducted him as a knight, and the early biographer Bellori records that the artist was well pleased with his success. Major works from his Malta period include a huge Beheading of Saint John the Baptist (the only painting to which he put his signature) and a Portrait of Alof de Wignacourt and his Page, as well as portraits of other leading knights. The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist is a painting finished in 1608 by the Italian Baroque painter Caravaggio. Portrait of Alof de Wignacourt with his Page (c 1607-1608 is a painting by the Italian master Caravaggio, in the Louvre of Paris Yet by late August of 1608 he was arrested and imprisoned. The circumstances surrounding this abrupt change of fortune have long been a matter of speculation, but recent investigation has revealed it to have been the result of yet another brawl, during which the door of a house was battered down and a knight seriously wounded.  By December he had been expelled from the Order "as a foul and rotten member. "
Before the expulsion Caravaggio had escaped to Sicily and the company of his old friend Mario Minniti, who was now married and living in Syracuse. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Syracuse (Siracusa Sicilian: Sarausa, Classical Greek: / transliterated Syrakousai) is a historic City in Together they set off on what amounted to a triumphal tour from Syracuse to Messina and on to the island capital, Palermo. Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in In each city Caravaggio continued to win prestigious and well-paid commissions. Among other works from this period are a Burial of St. Lucy, a The Raising of Lazarus, and an Adoration of the Shepherds. Burial of St Lucy is a painting by the Italian artist Caravaggio. The Raising of Lazarus, c 1609 in the Museo Regionale, Messina, is a painting by the Italian artist Caravaggio ( 1571 - The Adoration of the Shepherds is a 1609 painting by the Italian artist Caravaggio. His style continued to evolve, showing now friezes of figures isolated against vast empty backgrounds. "His great Sicilian altarpieces isolate their shadowy, pitifully poor figures in vast areas of darkness; they suggest the desperate fears and frailty of man, and at the same time convey, with a new yet desolate tenderness, the beauty of humility and of the meek, who shall inherit the earth. " Contemporary reports depict a man whose behaviour was becoming increasingly bizarre, sleeping fully armed and in his clothes, ripping up a painting at a slight word of criticism, mocking the local painters. 
After only nine months in Sicily Caravaggio returned to Naples. According to his earliest biographer he was being pursued by enemies while in Sicily and felt it safest to place himself under the protection of the Colonnas until he could secure his pardon from the pope (now Paul V) and return to Rome. For Napoleon's brother-in-law see Camillo Filippo Ludovico Borghese.  In Naples he painted The Denial of Saint Peter, a final John the Baptist (Borghese), and, his last picture, The Martyrdom of Saint Ursula. The Denial of Saint Peter is a painting finished around 1610 by the Italian painter Caravaggio. John the Baptist (sometimes called John in the Wilderness) was the subject of at least eight paintings by the Italian Baroque artist The Martyrdom of Saint Ursula (1610 is a painting by the Italian artist Caravaggio ( 1571 - 1610) His style continued to evolve — Saint Ursula is caught in a moment of highest action and drama, as the arrow fired by the king of the Huns strikes her in the breast, unlike earlier paintings which had all the immobility of the posed models. This article is about the saint For schools by the same name see St The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy The brushwork was much freer and more impressionistic. Had Caravaggio lived, something new would have come.
In Naples an attempt was made on his life, by persons unknown. At first it was reported in Rome that the "famous artist" Caravaggio was dead, but then it was learned that he was alive, but seriously disfigured in the face. He painted a Salome with the Head of John the Baptist (Madrid), showing his own head on a platter, and sent it to de Wignacourt as a plea for forgiveness. Salome with the Head of John the Baptist (Madrid, c 1609 is a painting by the Italian master Caravaggio in the Palacio Real, Madrid Perhaps at this time he painted also a David with the Head of Goliath, showing the young David with a strangely sorrowful expression gazing on the wounded head of the giant, which is again Caravaggio's. David with the Head of Goliath is a painting finished around 1609-1610 by the Italian Baroque painter Caravaggio. This painting he may have sent to the unscrupulous art-loving cardinal-nephew Scipione Borghese, who had the power to grant or withhold pardons. Cardinal Scipione Borghese (1576 – October 2, 1633) was an Italian Renaissance prelate Art collector and member of the noble 
In the summer of 1610 he took a boat northwards to receive the pardon, which seemed imminent thanks to his powerful Roman friends. With him were three last paintings, gifts for Cardinal Scipione.  What happened next is the subject of much confusion and conjecture. The bare facts are that on 28 July an anonymous avviso (private newsletter) from Rome to the ducal court of Urbino reported that Caravaggio was dead. Events 1540 - Thomas Cromwell is executed at the order of Henry VIII of England on charges of Treason. Three days later another avviso said that he had died of fever. These were the earliest, brief accounts of his death, which later underwent much elaboration. No body was found.  A poet friend of the artist later gave 18 July as the date of death, and a recent researcher claims to have discovered a death notice showing that the artist died on that day of a fever in Porto Ercole, near Grosseto in Tuscany. Events 390 BC - Roman - Gaulish Wars Battle of the Allia - a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, Grosseto is a town and Comune in the central Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of the Province of Grosseto. Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3
Caravaggio “put the oscuro (shadows) into chiaroscuro. ” Chiaroscuro was practiced long before he came on the scene, but it was Caravaggio who made the technique definitive, darkening the shadows and transfixing the subject in a blinding shaft of light. Chiaroscuro ( Italian for light-dark) is a term in Art for a contrast between light and dark With this came the acute observation of physical and psychological reality which formed the ground both for his immense popularity and for his frequent problems with his religious commissions. He worked at great speed, from live models, scoring basic guides directly onto the canvas with the end of the brush handle. The approach was anathema to the skilled artists of his day, who decried his refusal to work from drawings and to idealise his figures. Yet the models were basic to his realism. Some have been identified, including Mario Minniti and Francesco Boneri, both fellow-artists, Mario appearing as various figures in the early secular works, the young Francesco as a succession of angels, Baptists and Davids in the later canvasses. Mario Minniti ( 8 December 1577 – 22 November 1640) was an Italian artist active in Sicily after 1606 Cecco del Caravaggio (active c1610-mid 1620s is the name used for a Baroque artist working in Rome in the early decades of the 17th century an important early follower of His female models include Fillide Melandroni, Anna Bianchini, and Maddalena Antognetti (the "Lena" mentioned in court documents of the "artichoke" case as Caravaggio's concubine), all well-known prostitutes, who appear as female religious figures including the Virgin and various saints. Portrait of a Courtesan (also known as Portrait of Fillide) was a painting by the Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio Martha and Mary Magdalene (c 1598) is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio.  Caravaggio himself appears in several paintings, his final self-portrait being as the witness on the far right to the Martyrdom of Saint Ursula. The Martyrdom of Saint Ursula (1610 is a painting by the Italian artist Caravaggio ( 1571 - 1610) 
Caravaggio had a noteworthy ability to express in one scene of unsurpassed vividness the passing of a crucial moment. The Supper at Emmaus depicts the recognition of Christ by his disciples: a moment before he is a fellow traveler, mourning the passing of the Messiah, as he never ceases to be to the inn-keeper’s eyes, the second after, he is the Saviour. The Supper at Emmaus is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio, executed in 1601. In The Calling of St Matthew, the hand of the Saint points to himself as if he were saying “who, me?”, while his eyes, fixed upon the figure of Christ, have already said, “Yes, I will follow you”. The Calling of Saint Matthew is a masterpiece by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio completed in 1599-1600 for the Contarelli Chapel in the church of With The Resurrection of Lazarus, he goes a step further, giving us a glimpse of the actual physical process of resurrection. The Raising of Lazarus, c 1609 in the Museo Regionale, Messina, is a painting by the Italian artist Caravaggio ( 1571 - The body of Lazarus is still in the throes of rigor mortis, but his hand, facing and recognizing that of Christ, is alive. Other major Baroque artists would travel the same path, for example Bernini, fascinated with themes from Ovid’s Metamorphoses. "Bernini" redirects here For people named Bernini see Bernini (surname. The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a narrative poem
The installation of the St. Matthew paintings in the Contarelli Chapel had an immediate impact among the younger artists in Rome, and Caravaggism became the cutting edge for every ambitious young painter. The first Caravaggisti included Giovanni Baglione (although his Caravaggio phase was short-lived) and Orazio Gentileschi. Giovanni Baglione (1566&ndash December 30 1643) was an Italian early Baroque painter and art historian Orazio Lomi Gentileschi (1563 - 1639 was an Italian Baroque painter one of more important painters influenced by Caravaggio (the so-called Caravaggisti In the next generation there were Carlo Saraceni, Bartolomeo Manfredi and Orazio Borgianni. Carlo Saraceni ( Venice 1579-Venice 16 June 1620) was an Italian early- Baroque painter whose reputation as a "first-class Bartolomeo Manfredi (baptised 25 August 1582 – 12 December 1622) was an Italian painter a leading member of the Caravaggisti Orazio Borgianni (c 1575 - buried 15 January 1616 was an Italian painter and etcher of the Mannerist and early- Baroque periods Gentileschi, despite being considerably older, was the only one of these artists to live much beyond 1620, and ended up as court painter to Charles I in England. His daughter Artemisia Gentileschi was also close to Caravaggio, and one of the most gifted of the movement. Artemisia Gentileschi ( July 8 1593 &ndash 1651/1653 was an Italian Early Baroque painter today considered one of the most accomplished painters Yet in Rome and in Italy it was not Caravaggio, but the influence of Annibale Carracci, blending elements from the High Renaissance and Lombard realism, which ultimately triumphed. Annibale Carracci ( November 3, 1560 - July 15, 1609) was an Italian Baroque painter. The High Renaissance, in the History of art, denotes the culmination of the art of the Italian Renaissance between 1450 and 1527
Caravaggio’s brief stay in Naples produced a notable school of Neapolitan Caravaggisti, including Battistello Caracciolo and Carlo Sellitto. Giovanni Battista Caracciolo (also called Battistello; 1578 &ndash 1635 was an Italian artist and important Neapolitan follower of Caravaggio Carlo Sellitto ( 1581 - 2 October 1614) was an Italian painter of the Baroque period The Caravaggisti movement there ended with a terrible outbreak of plague in 1656, but the Spanish connection – Naples was a possession of Spain – was instrumental in forming the important Spanish branch of his influence.
A group of Catholic artists from Utrecht, the "Utrecht Caravaggisti", travelled to Rome as students in the first years of the 17th century and were profoundly influenced by the work of Caravaggio, as Bellori describes. Utrecht ( city and municipality is the capital and most populous city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. Utrecht Caravaggism refers to those Baroque artists all distinctly influenced by the art of Caravaggio, who were active mostly in the Dutch city of On their return to the north this trend had a short-lived but influential flowering in the 1620s among painters like Hendrick ter Brugghen, Gerrit van Honthorst, Andries Both and Dirck van Baburen. Hendrick Jansz ter Brugghen, or Terbrugghen, (1588 &ndash Nov 1 1629) was a Dutch painter and a leading member of the Dutch followers Gerard van Honthorst ( November 4 1592 - April 27 1656) also known as Gerrit van Honthorst and Gherardo della Notte, was Andries Both (1612/1613 Utrecht - March 23 1642, Venice) Dutch genre painter, one of the Bamboccianti, and brother Dirck Jaspersz van Baburen (c 1595 – February 21, 1624) was a Dutch painter associated with the Utrecht caravaggisti. In the following generation the effects of Caravaggio, although attenuated, are to be seen in the work of Rubens (who purchased one of his paintings for the Gonzaga of Mantua and painted a copy of the Entombment of Christ), Vermeer, Rembrandt, and Velazquez, the last of whom presumably saw his work during his various sojourns in Italy. The Entombment of Christ (1602&ndash1603 is a painting by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. Johannes or Jan Vermeer (baptized in Delft with the name Joannis on October 31 1632, and buried in the same city under the name Jan Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (July 15 1606 &ndash October 4 1669 was a Dutch painter and etcher. Velázquez, also Velazquez, Velásquez or Velasquez, is a surname of Spanish origin
Caravaggio’s fame scarcely survived his death. His innovations inspired the Baroque, but the Baroque took the drama of his chiaroscuro without the psychological realism. He directly influenced the style of his companion Orazio Gentileschi, and his daughter Artemisia Gentileschi, and, at a distance, the Frenchmen Georges de La Tour and Simon Vouet, and the Spaniard Giuseppe Ribera. Orazio Lomi Gentileschi (1563 - 1639 was an Italian Baroque painter one of more important painters influenced by Caravaggio (the so-called Caravaggisti Artemisia Gentileschi ( July 8 1593 &ndash 1651/1653 was an Italian Early Baroque painter today considered one of the most accomplished painters Georges de La Tour ( Vic-sur-Seille, March 13, 1593 &ndash Lunéville, January 30, 1652) was a painter, Simon Vouet ( 9 January 1590 - 30 June 1649) was a French painter and draftsman who helped introduce the Italian Baroque Jusepe de Ribera ( January 12, 1591 - 1652 was a Spanish Tenebrist painter and Printmaker, also known as José de Ribera in Spanish Yet within a few decades his works were being ascribed to less scandalous artists, or simply overlooked. The Baroque, to which he contributed so much, had moved on, and fashions had changed, but perhaps more pertinently Caravaggio never established a workshop as the Carracci's did, and thus had no school to spread his techniques. Nor did he ever set out his underlying philosophical approach to art, the psychological realism which can only be deduced from his surviving work. Thus his reputation was doubly vulnerable to the critical demolition-jobs done by two of his earliest biographers, Giovanni Baglione, a rival painter with a personal vendetta, and the influential 17th century critic Giovan Bellori, who had not known him but was under the influence of the French Classicist Poussin, who had not known him either but hated his work. Giovanni Baglione (1566&ndash December 30 1643) was an Italian early Baroque painter and art historian Gian Pietro Bellori (also known as Giovanni Pietro Bellori or Giovan Pietro Bellori, 1613 - 1696 was a prominent biographer of the Italian Baroque "Classical literature" redirects here For literature in Classical languages outside the Graeco-Roman sphere see Ancient literature. Nicolas Poussin (15 June 1594 – 19 November 1665 was a French painter in the classical style 
In the 1920s art critic Roberto Longhi brought Caravaggio's name once more to public attention, and placed him in the European tradition: “Ribera, Vermeer, La Tour and Rembrandt could never have existed without him. Johannes or Jan Vermeer (baptized in Delft with the name Joannis on October 31 1632, and buried in the same city under the name Jan And the art of Delacroix, Courbet and Manet would have been utterly different. Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 &ndash 13 August 1863 was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of For the French Admiral see Admiral Courbet (1828-1885 Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet ( 10 June 1819 &ndash ” The influential Bernard Berenson agreed: “With the exception of Michelangelo, no other Italian painter exercised so great an influence. Bernard Berenson (born June 26, 1865 Butrimonys (now in Alytus district of Lithuania) &ndash October 6, 1959 Florence Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all ”
Many large museums of art, for example those in Detroit and New York, contain rooms where dozens of paintings by as many artists display the characteristic look of the work of Caravaggio — nighttime setting, dramatic lighting, ordinary people used as models, honest description from nature. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous In modern times, painters like the Norwegian Odd Nerdrum and the Hungarian Tibor Csernus make no secret of their attempts to emulate and update him, and the contemporary American artist Doug Ohlson pays homage to Caravaggio's influence on his own work. Odd Nerdrum (born April 8 1944) in Sweden is a Norwegian figurative painter Filmmaker Derek Jarman turned to the Caravaggio legend when creating his movie Caravaggio; and Dutch art forger Han van Meegeren used genuine Caravaggios when creating his ersatz Old Masters. Derek Jarman ( January 31 1942 – February 19 1994) was an English Film director, Stage designer Caravaggio ( 1986) is a British film directed by Derek Jarman. Han van Meegeren (10 October 1889 in Deventer, Overijssel – 30 December 1947 in Amsterdam) born Henricus Antonius van Meegeren, was a
Only about 50 works by Caravaggio survive. One, The Calling of Saints Peter and Andrew, was recently authenticated and restored. The Calling of Saints Peter and Andrew is a painting by the Italian Baroque master Caravaggio. It had been in storage in Hampton Court, mislabeled as a copy. Hampton Court Palace is a former royal palace in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, south west London, England. At least a couple of his paintings have been or may have been lost in recent times. Richard Francis Burton writes of a "picture of St. Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton KCMG FRGS (19 March 1821 &ndash 20 October 1890 was an English Explorer, Translator, writer Rosario (in the museum of the Grand Duke of Tuscany), showing a circle of thirty men turpiter ligati" which is not known to have survived. Furthermore, a painting of an Angel was destroyed during the bombing of Dresden, though there are black and white photographs of the work. The Bombing of Dresden by the British Royal Air Force (RAF and United States Army Air Force (USAAF between 13 February and 15 February 1945 12 weeks
The main primary sources for Caravaggio's life are:
All have been reprinted in Howard Hibbard's "Caravaggio" and in the appendices to Catherine Puglisi's "Caravaggio", while Baglione's biography is available online (see External links section).
Articles and essays
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da|
|DATE OF BIRTH||29 September 1571|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Milan|
|DATE OF DEATH||18 July 1610|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Porto Ercole, near Grosseto in Tuscany|
Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Events 390 BC - Roman - Gaulish Wars Battle of the Allia - a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, Grosseto is a town and Comune in the central Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of the Province of Grosseto. Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3