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Capital punishment series
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the execution of a person by the state as punishment for a crime. The debate about Capital punishment, colloquially known as the death penalty, is highly controversial Most major world religions take an ambiguous position on the morality of Capital punishment. Wrongful execution is a Miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by Capital punishment, the "death penalty Capital punishment was last used in Australia in 1967, when Ronald Ryan was hanged in Victoria, he was the last Capital punishment in Brazil was last used in 1861 and has not been officially used since the proclamation of the Republic in 1889. The only method used in Canada for Capital punishment was Hanging. The People's Republic of China currently uses Capital punishment for many crimes from Tax evasion and Political corruption to The death penalty has been totally abolished in almost all European countries (47 out of 50 Capital punishment in France existed officially from the Middle Ages and was abolished in 1981 Capital punishment in Germany has been abolished The current Constitution of Germany ("Grundgesetz" as adopted in 1949, does not allow Capital Capital punishment in India is legal but rareDuring the late 1900's, about 40 people were executed In Italy, the first pre-unitarian state to abolish the Death penalty was the Grand Duchy of Tuscany as of November 30, 1786, under the reign Capital punishment in Iraq was commonly used by the government of Saddam Hussein. Capital punishment is legal in Japan, with the only crimes for which this is the statutory punishment being Homicide and Treason. Capital punishment in Malaysia applies to Murder, Drug trafficking, Treason, and waging war against Yang di-Pertuan Agong Capital punishment in New Zealand first appeared in a codified form when New Zealand became a British territory in 1840 and was first employed in in 1842 Capital punishment was legal in Pakistan since its inception till 2008 Capital punishment in the Philippines has a varied history and on June 24 2006, was abolished Both the legal and moral status of Capital punishment in Russia are currently controversial Capital punishment is a legal form of Punishment in Singapore. Capital punishment is a legal form of Punishment in the Republic of China ( Taiwan) Capital punishment of a Felon in the United States, in modern times is employed and in practice only in cases involving murder Methods of capital punishment Methods of execution used to carry out Capital punishment have varied over time and include Burning, especially Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head or beheading, is the cutting off of the head of a person or animal Execution by electrocution (usually referred to after its method of implementation as the Electric Chair) is an execution method originating in the United States in which the Execution by firing squad is a method of Capital punishment, particularly common in times of war A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing consisting of a sealed chamber into which a Poisonous or Asphyxiant gas is introduced Hanging is the lethal suspension of a person by a ligature The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death Execution by shooting is a form of Capital punishment whereby an executed person is shot by one or more Firearms It is the most common method of execution Methods of capital punishment Methods of execution used to carry out Capital punishment have varied over time and include Burning, especially A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment Crimes that can result in a death penalty are known as capital crimes or capital offences. The term capital origins from Latin capitalis, literally "regarding the head" (Latin caput). Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Hence, a capital crime originally was to be punished by the loss of the head. Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head or beheading, is the cutting off of the head of a person or animal
Historically, the execution of criminals and political opponents was used by nearly all societies—both to punish crime and to suppress political dissent. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment Political dissent refers to any expression designed to convey dissatisfaction with or opposition to the policies of a governing body In most places that practice capital punishment today, the death penalty is reserved as punishment for premeditated murder, espionage, treason, or as part of military justice. Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation. Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of Armed forces are subject In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery and sodomy, carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as apostasy (the formal renunciation of the State religion). Rape, also referred to as Sexual assault, is an Assault by a person involving Sexual intercourse with or Sexual penetration of another person Adultery is the voluntary Sexual intercourse between a married person and another person who is not his or her Spouse, though in many places it is Sodomy (ˈsɒdəmi is a term used today predominantly in Law (derived from traditional Christian usage to describe the act of Anal intercourse, Oral intercourse In many retentionist countries (countries that use the death penalty), drug trafficking is also a capital offense. At one time Capital punishment was used in almost every part of the globe but over the last few decades many Countries have abolished it The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs In China human trafficking and serious cases of corruption are also punished by the death penalty. Human trafficking is the recruitment transportation harbouring or receipt of people for the purposes of slavery forced labor (including bonded labor or debt bondage and servitude Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offenses such as cowardice, desertion, insubordination, and mutiny. A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a Military court. These military courts can determine Punishments for members of the Military subject Coward redirects here For other meanings including as a surname see Coward (disambiguation. In Military terminology desertion is the Abandonment of a " Duty " or post without permission from one's Government or superior Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order Mutiny is a conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the Military; or the Crew of any ship even 
Among countries around the world, almost all European and many Pacific Area states (including Australia, New Zealand and Timor Leste), and Canada have abolished capital punishment. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island East Timor, also known as Timor-Leste (officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste) is a country in Southeast Asia. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page In Latin America, most states have completely abolished the use of capital punishment, while some countries, such as Brazil, allow for capital punishment only in exceptional situations, such as treason committed during wartime. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The United States (the federal government and 36 of its states), Guatemala, most of the Caribbean and the majority of democracies in Asia (e. Capital punishment of a Felon in the United States, in modern times is employed and in practice only in cases involving murder Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting g. Japan and India) and Africa (e. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country g. Botswana and Zambia) retain it. The Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana is a Landlocked nation in Southern Africa. The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. South Africa, which is probably the most developed African nation, and which has been a democracy since 1994, does not have the death penalty. This fact is currently quite controversial in that country, due to the high levels of violent crime, including murder and rape. 
Capital punishment is a contentious issue in some cultures. Supporters of capital punishment argue that it deters crime, prevents recidivism, that it is less expensive than life imprisonment and is an appropriate form of punishment for some crimes. Recidivism ( IPA: /ɹɪˈsɪdɪvɪzm̩/ From recidive + ism, from Latin recidīvus "recurring" from re- Opponents of capital punishment argue that it has led to the execution of wrongfully convicted, that it discriminates against minorities and the poor, that it does not deter criminals more than life imprisonment, that it encourages a "culture of violence", that it is more expensive than life imprisonment, and that it violates human rights. Wrongful execution is a Miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by Capital punishment, the "death penalty Life imprisonment or life incarceration is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime often for most Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled
The latest countries to abolish the death penalty de facto for all crimes were Gabon, which announced on September 14, 2007 that they would no longer apply capital punishment and South Korea in practice on December 31, 2007 after ten years of disuse. Gabon (gəˈbɒn or /gaˈbõ/ in French) is a country in west central Africa sharing borders with Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Republic Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The latest to abolish executions de jure was Uzbekistan on January 1, 2008. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
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Since World War II there has been a consistent trend towards abolishing the death penalty. Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated Criminal law. The rights of the accused is a class of rights that apply to a person in the time period between when they are formally accused of a crime and when they are either convicted or acquitted The right to fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the Rule of law. Speedy trial refers to one of the rights guaranteed by the United States Constitution to defendants in criminal proceedings Right to counsel is nowadays generally regarded as a constituent of the Right to a fair trial, allowing for the defendant to be assisted by counsel (i The presumption of innocence being innocent until proven guilty is a legal Right that the Accused in Criminal trials has The exclusionary rule is a legal principle in the United States, under constitutional law, that holds that evidence collected or analyzed in violation of The United States federal courts are the system of Courts organized under the Constitution and laws of the Federal government of the United States Self-incrimination is the act of accusing oneself of a Crime for which a person can then be Prosecuted. Double jeopardy (non bis in idem is a Procedural defense (and in many countries such as the United States, Canada, Mexico and India Her Majesty's Courts of Justice of England and Wales are the civil and criminal Courts responsible for the administration of Justice in England In Law, a verdict is the formal finding of fact made by a Jury on matters or questions submitted to the jury by a judge In Criminal law, an acquittal is a verdict of not guilty, or some similar end of the proceeding that terminates it with prejudice without a verdict In Law, a conviction is the Verdict that results when a Court of law finds a Defendant guilty of a Crime. Not proven is a Verdict available to a court in Scotland. Under Scots law, a criminal trial may end in one of three verdicts The civil, criminal and heraldic Courts of Scotland are responsible for the administration of Justice. In Law, a directed Verdict is ruling by a Judge presiding over a Jury trial typically made after the plaintiff has presented all of her evidence In Law, a sentence forms the final act of a Judge -ruled process and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function A mandatory sentence is a court decision setting where Judicial discretion is limited by Law. A suspended sentence is a legal construct Unless a minimum punishment is prescribed by law the Court has the power to suspend the passing of sentence (generally A custodial sentence is a judicial sentence imposing a punishment (and hence the resulting punishment itself consisting of mandatory custody of the convict either in prison In Canada, England and Wales, certain convicted persons may be designated as dangerous offenders and subject to a longer or indefinite term of imprisonment The court system of Canada is made up of many Courts differing in levels of legal superiority and separated by jurisdiction Her Majesty's Courts of Justice of England and Wales are the civil and criminal Courts responsible for the administration of Justice in England An execution warrant or death warrant is a warrant which authorizes the execution of a judgment of death ( Capital punishment) on an individual Parole may have different meanings depending on the field and judiciary system Probation is the suspension of all or part of a jail sentence the Criminal who is "on probation" has been convicted of a crime but instead of serving jail Under the criminal law of England and Wales, a tariff is the minimum period that a person serving an indefinite Prison sentence must serve before that person becomes The United Kingdom does not have a single unified Judicial system, but separate judicial systems serving England and Wales, Scotland and Northern In the British criminal justice system a life licence specifies the conditions under which a prisoner sentenced to life in jail may be released The United Kingdom does not have a single unified Judicial system, but separate judicial systems serving England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Exoneration occurs when a person who has been convicted of a Crime is later proved to have been innocent of that crime A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different Jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential The Law of evidence governs the use of Testimony (eg oral or written statements such as an Affidavit) and exhibits (e Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the process that Courts will follow when hearing cases of a civil nature (a " Civil action " as opposed to World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In 1977, 16 countries were abolitionist. As of June 1 2008, 92 countries had abolished capital punishment altogether, 11 had done so for all offences except under special circumstances, and 34 others had not used it for at least 10 years or under a moratorium- while 60 countries actively retained the death penalty. 
At least 3,000 people (and probably considerably more) were sentenced to death during 2007, and at the end of the year around 25,000 were on death row around the world, with Pakistan and the USA accounting for about half this figure between them. China carries out by far the greatest number of actual executions - while Amnesty International has confirmed at least 470 executions there during 2007 the true figure has been estimated at up to 6,000. Outside China, at least 800 people were put to death in 23 countries during 2007, with Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Iraq and the USA the main contributors. Iran, Saudi Arabia and Yemen executed people for crimes committed when they were juveniles, in contravention of international law. 
Executions are known to have been carried out in the following countries in 2007:
In 2007 the largest number of verifiable executions were carried out in the six countries listed below (note though that with the exception of the US, the figures for other countries are believed to be under-estimates):
Most Executions carried out in 2007
|1. Based on publicly available reports. Other sources suggest the real tally in China for example may be as high as 6,000. |
The use of the death penalty is becoming increasingly restrained in retentionist countries. Singapore, Japan, Taiwan and the U. S. are the only fully developed countries that have retained the death penalty. The death penalty was overwhelmingly practiced in poor and authoritarian states, which often employed the death penalty as a tool of political oppression. During the 1980s, the democratization of Latin America swelled the rank of abolitionist countries. This was soon followed by the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe, which then aspired to enter the EU. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in In these countries, the public support for the death penalty varies but it is decreasing . The European Union and the Council of Europe both strictly require member states not to practice the death penalty (see Capital punishment in Europe). The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 A Member State of the European Union is any one of the twenty-seven sovereign Nation states that have acceded the European Union (EU since its De facto The death penalty has been totally abolished in almost all European countries (47 out of 50 On the other hand, rapid industrialization in Asia has been increasing the number of developed retentionist countries . In these countries, the death penalty enjoys strong public support, and the matter receives little attention from the government or the media. This trend has been followed by some African and Middle Eastern countries where support for the death penalty is high.
Some countries have resumed practicing the death penalty after having suspended executions for long periods. Notably, the United States suspended executions in 1973 but resumed them in 1977; there was no execution in India between 1995 and 2004; and Sri Lanka recently declared an end to its moratorium on the death penalty, although it has not yet performed any executions. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island The Philippines had re-introduced the death penalty in 1993 after abolishing it in 1987, but abolished it again in 2006. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP
For further information about capital punishment in these countries, see: Australia · Belarus · Canada · People's Republic of China (excluding Hong Kong and Macau) · Denmark · Europe · France · India · Iraq · Japan · The Netherlands · New Zealand ·Pakistan· Philippines · Russia · Singapore · Sweden · Taiwan · United Kingdom · United States
The death penalty for juvenile offenders (criminals aged under 18 years at the time of their crime) has become increasingly rare. At one time Capital punishment was used in almost every part of the globe but over the last few decades many Countries have abolished it Capital punishment was last used in Australia in 1967, when Ronald Ryan was hanged in Victoria, he was the last The provision for Capital Punishment in Belarus has been a part of this country since gaining independence from the Soviet Union. The only method used in Canada for Capital punishment was Hanging. The People's Republic of China currently uses Capital punishment for many crimes from Tax evasion and Political corruption to Capital punishment in Denmark (Dødsstraf has been entirely abolished in Danish law The death penalty has been totally abolished in almost all European countries (47 out of 50 Capital punishment in France existed officially from the Middle Ages and was abolished in 1981 Capital punishment in India is legal but rareDuring the late 1900's, about 40 people were executed Capital punishment in Iraq was commonly used by the government of Saddam Hussein. Capital punishment is legal in Japan, with the only crimes for which this is the statutory punishment being Homicide and Treason. Capital punishment (" Doodstraf " in Dutch) in the Netherlands was first abolished in 1870, though only in Criminal law, by Capital punishment in New Zealand first appeared in a codified form when New Zealand became a British territory in 1840 and was first employed in in 1842 Capital punishment was legal in Pakistan since its inception till 2008 Capital punishment in the Philippines has a varied history and on June 24 2006, was abolished Both the legal and moral status of Capital punishment in Russia are currently controversial Capital punishment is a legal form of Punishment in Singapore. Capital punishment in Sweden (Dödsstraff was practiced up until 1910 Capital punishment is a legal form of Punishment in the Republic of China ( Taiwan) Capital punishment of a Felon in the United States, in modern times is employed and in practice only in cases involving murder The only countries still officially supporting the practice are Bangladesh, Iran, Iraq, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia,. ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Since 1990, nine countries have executed offenders who were juveniles at the time of their crimes; China, D.R. Congo, Iran, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, the United States and Yemen. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya China, Pakistan, the United States and Yemen have since raised the minimum age to 18,  Amnesty International has recorded 54 verified executions since then, in several countries, of both juveniles and adults who had been convicted of committing their offenses as juveniles. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to  China does not allow for the execution of those under 18; nevertheless, child executions have reportedly taken place.  The United States Supreme Court abolished capital punishment for offenders under the age of 16 in Thompson v. Oklahoma (1988), and for all juveniles in Roper v. Simmons (2005). Thompson v Oklahoma, 487 US 815 ( 1988) was the first case since the moratorium on Capital punishment was lifted in the United States Roper v Simmons, was a decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that it is unconstitutional to impose Capital punishment for crimes Starting in 1642 within British America, an estimated 365 juvenile offenders were executed by the states and federal government of the United States. For American people of British descent see British American. British America consisted of the British Empire in continental North America The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  In 2002, the United States Supreme Court declared unconstitutional the execution of individuals with mental retardation. Mental retardation is a generalized triarchic disorder characterized by subaverage cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors with onset before the age 
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which forbids capital punishment for juveniles, has been signed and ratified by all countries except for the United States and Somalia. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, often referred to as CRC or UNCRC, is an international convention setting out the civil political Ratification is the act of giving official sanction or approval to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known  The UN Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights maintains that the death penalty for juveniles has become contrary to a jus cogens of customary international law. A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens or ius cogens, Latin for "compelling law" is a fundamental principle of Customary international law are those aspects of International law that derive from custom.
Japan has what it considers a death penalty for juveniles, but under Japanese law, anyone under 21 is considered a juvenile. There are three men on death row for crimes they committed at age 18 or 19.
There are several methods of execution, including: decapitation, electrocution, the firing squad or other sorts of shooting, the gas chamber, hanging, and lethal injection. Methods of capital punishment Methods of execution used to carry out Capital punishment have varied over time and include Burning, especially Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head or beheading, is the cutting off of the head of a person or animal Execution by electrocution (usually referred to after its method of implementation as the Electric Chair) is an execution method originating in the United States in which the Execution by firing squad is a method of Capital punishment, particularly common in times of war Execution by shooting is a form of Capital punishment whereby an executed person is shot by one or more Firearms It is the most common method of execution A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing consisting of a sealed chamber into which a Poisonous or Asphyxiant gas is introduced Hanging is the lethal suspension of a person by a ligature The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death
"Wrongful execution" is a miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by capital punishment. Wrongful execution is a Miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by Capital punishment, the "death penalty  Many people have been heralded as innocent victims of the death penalty.  At least 39 executions have been carried out in the U. S. in face of compelling evidence of innocence or serious doubt about guilt.  Newly-available DNA evidence has allowed the exoneration of more than 15 death row inmates since 1992 in the U. Exoneration occurs when a person who has been convicted of a Crime is later proved to have been innocent of that crime Death row is a term that refers to the section of a Prison that houses individuals awaiting execution. S. , but DNA evidence is only available in a fraction of capital cases. In the UK, reviews prompted by the Criminal Cases Review Commission have resulted in one pardon and three exonerations with compensation paid for people executed between 1950 and 1953, when the execution rate in England and Wales averaged 17 per year. The Criminal Cases Review Commission is an Non-Departmental Public Body set up following the Royal Commission on Criminal Justice itself a continuation of the History The Roman occupation of Britain was the first period in which the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit (with the exception
The use of formal execution extends at least to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records as well as various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing generally included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning, banishment and execution. Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain intended to Punish a person or change his/her behavior Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with and habitually keeping away from an individual or group Exile means to be away from one's home (ie city state or country while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return However, within a small community, crimes were rare and murder was almost always a crime of passion. A crime of passion, in popular usage refers to a crime in which the perpetrator commits a crime especially assault or Murder, against a Spouse or other loved one Moreover, most would hesitate to inflict death on a member of the community. For this reason, execution and even banishment were extremely rare. Usually, compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice.
However, these are not effective responses to crimes committed by outsiders. Nikolai Getman (Николай Гетман Микола Ґетьман an artist was born in 1917 in Kharkiv, Ukraine, and died at his home in Orel, The Jamestown Foundation is a Washington DC -based Think tank, whose stated mission is to "inform and educate" policy makers about events and trends which Consequently, even small crimes committed by outsiders were considered to be an assault on the community and were severely punished. The methods varied from beating and enslavement to executions. However, the response to crime committed by neighbouring tribes or communities included formal apology, compensation or blood feuds. A feud (ˈfjuːd (referred to in more extreme cases as a blood feud or vendetta) is a long-running argument or fight between parties&mdashoften through Guilt
A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. A feud (ˈfjuːd (referred to in more extreme cases as a blood feud or vendetta) is a long-running argument or fight between parties&mdashoften through Guilt A feud (ˈfjuːd (referred to in more extreme cases as a blood feud or vendetta) is a long-running argument or fight between parties&mdashoften through Guilt This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organised religion. It may result from crime, land disputes or a code of honour. "Code of honor" redirects here for the first season episode of Star Trek The Next Generation see Code of Honor. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies (as well as potential allies) that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished. " However, in practice, it is often difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units
For most of recorded history, capital punishments were often cruel and inhumane. Severe historical penalties include breaking wheel, boiling to death, flaying, slow slicing, disembowelment, crucifixion, impalement, crushing (including crushing by elephant), stoning, execution by burning, dismemberment, sawing, decapitation, scaphism, or necklacing. The breaking wheel (also known as the Catherine wheel) was a torturous Capital punishment device used in the Middle Ages and early modern times for Boiling to death is a crude and torturous method of execution. Flaying is the removal of Skin from the Body. Generally an attempt is made to keep the removed portion of skin intact For the Belgian grindcore band see Leng Tch'e. For the Naked City album see Leng Tch'e (album. Disembowelment ( evisceration) is the removing of some or all of the vital organs usually from the Abdomen. Crucifixion (from Latin crucifixio, noun of process crucifixio, from perfect passive participle crucifixus, fixed to a cross from Impalement is a term that refers to situations in which objects are driven through the body causing deep stabbing wounds This article is about the method of execution See Crusher for a description of the manufacturing process and mechanisms for it Crushing by elephant (زير پى ِپيل افكندن literally "casting beneath an Elephant 's feet" was for thousands of years a common method of execution Stoning, or lapidation, refers to a form of Capital punishment whereby an organized group throws stones at the convicted individual until the person dies Execution by burning has a long history as a method of Punishment for Crimes such as Treason, Heresy and Witchcraft Dismemberment is the act of cutting tearing pulling wrenching or otherwise removing the limbs of a living thing This article describes the method of execution Sawing is also a method of manufacturing Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head or beheading, is the cutting off of the head of a person or animal Scaphism, also known as the boats, is an ancient Persian method of execution designed to inflict torturous Death. Necklacing (sometimes metonymically called Necklace) refers to the practice of Summary execution carried out by forcing a rubber Tire, filled
Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements often done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material (e. g. cattle, slave) compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution. Blood money is Money paid as a fine to the next of kin of somebody who was killed intentionally The person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the system was based on tribes, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Viking things. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas See also Medieval Scandinavian laws A thing or ting ( Old Norse, Old English and Icelandic: þing; other modern  Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts (e. g. trial by combat). Trial by combat (also wager of battle, trial by battle or judicial duel) was a method of Germanic law to settle accusations in the absence of One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. As practiced from the 11th to 20th centuries in Western societies a duel is an engagement in combat between two individuals with matched weapons in accordance with their combat
In certain parts of the world, nations in the form of ancient republics, monarchies or tribal oligarchies emerged. These nations were often united by common linguistic, religious or family ties. Moreover, expansion of these nations often occurred by conquest of neighbouring tribes or nations. Consequently, various classes of royalty, nobility, various commoners and slave emerged. Accordingly, the systems of tribal arbitration were submerged into a more unified system of justice which formalised the relation between the different "classes" rather than "tribes". The earliest and most famous example is Code of Hammurabi which set the different punishment and compensation according to the different class/group of victims and perpetrators. The Code of Hammurabi ( Codex Hammurabi) is the best-preserved ancient Law code, created ca The Torah (Jewish Law), also known as the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Christian Old Testament), lays down the death penalty for murder, kidnapping, magic, violation of the Sabbath, blasphemy, and a wide range of sexual crimes, although evidence suggests that actual executions were rare. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. In Criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or Asportation of a person against the person's will usually to hold the person in False imprisonment Magic, sometimes known as sorcery, is a Conceptual system that asserts human ability to control the natural world (including events objects people and Shabbat or Shabbos ( Hebrew: שַׁבָּת, shabbāt, shabbes, "rest/inactivity" is the Weekly Sabbath Blasphemy is the disrespectful use of the name of one or more gods.  A further example comes from Ancient Greece, where the Athenian legal system was first written down by Draco in about 621 BC: the death penalty was applied for a particularly wide range of crimes. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Draco (ˈdreɪkoʊ from Greek, drákɔːn was the first legislator of ancient Athens, Greece, 7th century BC. The word draconian derives from Draco's laws.
Similarly, in medieval and early modern Europe, before the development of modern prison systems, the death penalty was also used as a generalized form of punishment. A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of For example, in 1700s Britain, there were 222 crimes which were punishable by death, including crimes such as cutting down a tree or stealing an animal. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  Thanks to the notorious Bloody Code, 18th century (and early 19th century) Britain was a hazardous place to live. The Bloody Code is a term later used to refer to the system of laws and punishments in England from 1400-1850 For example, Michael Hammond and his sister, Ann, whose ages were given as 7 and 11, were reportedly hanged at King's Lynn on Wednesday, the 28 September 1708 for theft. King's Lynn is a town and Port in Norfolk, England. Over the years the town has been known variously as Bishop's Lynn and Lynn Regis Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 1708 ( MDCCVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a In Criminal law, theft (also known as stealing or filching) is the illegal taking of another person's Property without that person's freely-given The local press did not, however, consider the executions of two children newsworthy. 
Although many are executed in China each year in the modern age, there was a time in Tang Dynasty China when the death penalty was actually abolished altogether. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by  This was in the year 747, enacted by Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. Emperor Taizong of Tang ( January 23, 599 &ndash July 10 649) personal name Lǐ Shìmín ( was the second emperor of the 712–756), who before was the only person in China with the authority to sentence criminals to execution. Even then capital punishment was relatively infrequent, with only 24 executions in the year 730 and 58 executions in the year 736.  Two hundred years later there was a form of execution called Ling Chi, slow slicing, or death by/of a thousand cuts, used in China from roughly 900 CE to its abolition in 1905. For the Belgian grindcore band see Leng Tch'e. For the Naked City album see Leng Tch'e (album.
Despite its wide use, calls for reform were not unknown. The 12th century Sephardic legal scholar, Moses Maimonides, wrote, "It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent man to death. Sephardi Jews ( Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Səfardi Tiberian Səp̄arədî; plural Moses Maimonides ( March 30 1135 – December 13 1204) also known as the Rambam, was a Rabbi, Physician, and " He argued that executing an accused criminal on anything less than absolute certainty would lead to a slippery slope of decreasing burdens of proof, until we would be convicting merely "according to the judge's caprice. Burden of proof (onus probandi is the obligation to prove Allegations which are presented in a Legal action. " His concern was maintaining popular respect for law, and he saw errors of commission as much more threatening than errors of omission.
The last several centuries have seen the emergence of modern nation-states. Almost fundamental to the concept of nation state is the idea of citizenship. This caused justice to be increasingly associated with equality and universality, which in Europe saw an emergence of the concept of natural rights. Another important aspect is that emergence of standing police forces and permanent penitential institutions. The death penalty become an increasingly unnecessary deterrent in prevention of minor crimes such as theft. Additionally, in countries like Britain, law enforcement officials became alarmed when juries tended to acquit non-violent felons rather than risk a conviction that could result in execution. The 20th century was one of the bloodiest of the human history. Massive killing occurred as the resolution of war between nation-states. A large part of execution was summary execution of enemy combatants. Also, modern military organisations employed capital punishment as a means of maintaining military discipline. In the past, cowardice, absence without leave, desertion, insubordination, looting, shirking under enemy fire and disobeying orders were often crimes punishable by death. Coward redirects here For other meanings including as a surname see Coward (disambiguation. In Military terminology desertion is the Abandonment of a " Duty " or post without permission from one's Government or superior Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order Looting ( Hindi lūṭ akin to Sanskrit luṭhati steals also Latin latro, latronis One method of execution since firearms came into common use has almost invariably been firing squad. Execution by firing squad is a method of Capital punishment, particularly common in times of war Moreover, various authoritarian states—for example those with fascist or communist governments—employed the death penalty as a potent means of political oppression. Partly as a response to such excessive punishment, civil organisations have started to place increasing emphasis on the concept of human rights and abolition of the death penalty.
In early New England, public executions were a very solemn and sorrowful occasion, sometimes attended by large crowds, who also listened to a Gospel message and remarks by local preachers and politicians. Dr Joseph-Ignace Guillotin (ɡijɔtɛ̃ May 28, 1738 &ndash March 26, 1814) was a French Physician who proposed on October History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the The Connecticut Courant records one such public execution on December 1, 1803, saying, "The assembly conducted through the whole in a very orderly and solemn manner, so much so, as to occasion an observing gentleman acquainted with other countries as well as this, to say that such an assembly, so decent and solemn, could not be collected anywhere but in New England. The Hartford Courant is the largest daily Newspaper in the US Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican 1803 ( MDCCCIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a "
Trends in most of the world have long been to move to less painful, or more humane, executions. France developed the guillotine for this reason in the final years of the 18th century while Britain banned drawing and quartering in the early 19th century. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The guillotine ( pronounced /ˈgijətin/ or /ˈgɪlətin/ in English in French was a device used for carrying out executions by Decapitation. To be hanged drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for the crime of High treason. Hanging by turning the victim off a ladder or by dangling him from the back of a moving cart, which causes death by suffocation, was replaced by "hanging" where the subject is dropped a longer distance to dislocate the neck and sever the spinal cord. Hanging is the lethal suspension of a person by a ligature The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death The spinal cord is a long thin tubular bundle of Nerves that is an extension of the Central nervous system from the brain and is enclosed in and protected In the U. S. , the electric chair and the gas chamber were introduced as more humane alternatives to hanging, but have been almost entirely superseded by lethal injection, which in turn has been criticized as being too painful. Execution by electrocution (usually referred to after its method of implementation as the Electric Chair) is an execution method originating in the United States in which the A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing consisting of a sealed chamber into which a Poisonous or Asphyxiant gas is introduced Nevertheless, some countries still employ slow hanging methods, beheading by sword and even stoning, although the latter is rarely employed. Stoning, or lapidation, refers to a form of Capital punishment whereby an organized group throws stones at the convicted individual until the person dies
Execution by nitrogen asphyxiation was proposed in 1995 and appears occasionally in online discussions, but as of 2008, it has not been used by any nation. Nitrogen asphyxiation is an occasional cause of accidental death and a theoretical method of Capital punishment advocated by Stuart A
The death penalty was briefly banned in China between 747 and 759. Beccaria redirects here This article is about the philosopher and politician In England, a public statement of opposition was included in The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards, written in 1395. The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards was a document containing statements by followers of the English Medieval sect the Lollards. Thomas More's Utopia, published in 1516, debated the benefits of the death penalty in dialogue form, coming to no firm conclusion. Utopia is a name for an ideal community taken from the title of a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional Island in the More recent opposition to the death penalty stemmed from the book of the Italian Cesare Beccaria Dei Delitti e Delle Pene ("On Crimes and Punishments"), published in 1764. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Beccaria redirects here This article is about the philosopher and politician Dei delitti e delle pene ( English: "On Crimes and Punishments" is a seminal treatise on legal reform written by the Italian philosopher and thinker In this book, Beccaria aimed to demonstrate not only the injustice, but even the futility from the point of view of social welfare, of torture and the death penalty. Social policy relates to guidelines for the changing maintenance or creation of living conditions that are conducive to human welfare. Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally Influenced by the book, Grand Duke Leopold II of Habsburg, famous enlightened monarch and future Emperor of Austria, abolished the death penalty in the then-independent Granducato di Toscana (Grand Duchy of Tuscany), the first permanent abolition in modern times. Leopold II (May 5 1747 March 1 1792 born Peter Leopold Joseph Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana Magnus Ducatus Tusciae was a state in central Italy that existed from 1569 to 1859 replacing the Duchy of Florence On 30 November 1786, after having de facto blocked capital executions (the last was in 1769), Leopold promulgated the reform of the penal code that abolished the death penalty and ordered the destruction of all the instruments for capital execution in his land. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Year 1786 ( MDCCLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common A penal code is a portion of a State 's Laws defining Crimes and specifying the Punishment. In 2000 Tuscany's regional authorities instituted an annual holiday on 30 November to commemorate the event. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats The event is also commemorated on this day by 300 cities around the world celebrating the Cities for Life Day. On the Cities for Life Day, November 30, 573 cities around the world celebrate the first abolition of the Death penalty by a European state decreed by
Abolition of the death penalty was not common and was viewed as unnecessary. The Roman Republic went out on a limb and banned capital punishment. See also Roman Republic, Roman Republic (18th century The Roman Republic was a short-lived (four months state established on February 8 In 1849, this made the Roman Republic the first ever to ban capital punishment. However, Venezuela followed suit and in 1863 abolished the death penalty and San Marino did so in 1865. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the At one time Capital punishment was used in almost every part of the globe but over the last few decades many Countries have abolished it The last execution in San Marino had taken place in 1468. In Portugal, after two legislative proposals, in 1852 and 1863, the death penalty was abolished in 1867. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation
In Great Britain, it was abolished (except for cases of treason) in 1971; France abolished it in 1981. Canada abolished it in 1976; Australia 1985. In 1977, the United Nations General Assembly affirmed in a formal resolution that throughout the world, it is desirable to "progressively restrict the number of offenses for which the death penalty might be imposed, with a view to the desirability of abolishing this punishment". 
In the United States, the state of Michigan was the first state to ban the death penalty, on March 1, 1847. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The 160-year ban on capital punishment has never been repealed. Currently, 12 states of the U. S. and the District of Columbia ban capital punishment. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D
Capital punishment is often the subject of controversy. The debate about Capital punishment, colloquially known as the death penalty, is highly controversial Opponents of the death penalty argue that it has led to the execution of innocent people, that life imprisonment is an effective and less expensive substitute, that it discriminates against minorities and the poor, and that it violates the criminal's right to life. Wrongful execution is a Miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by Capital punishment, the "death penalty Right to life is a phrase that describes the belief that a Human being has an essential Right to live particularly that a human being has the right not to be Supporters believe that the penalty is justified for murderers by the principle of retribution, that life imprisonment is not an equally effective deterrent, and that the death penalty affirms the right to life by punishing those who violate it in the most strict form. Retributive justice is a Theory of Justice that considers that proportionate punishment is a morally acceptable response to Crime, with
Support for the death penalty varies widely. Both in abolitionist and retentionist democracies, the government's stance often has wide public support and receives little attention by politicians or the media. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies At one time Capital punishment was used in almost every part of the globe but over the last few decades many Countries have abolished it In some abolitionist countries, the majority of the public supports or has supported the death penalty. Abolition was often adopted due to political change, such as when countries shifted from authoritarianism to democracy, or when it became an entry condition for the European Union. The United States is a notable exception: some states have had bans on capital punishment for decades (the earliest is Michigan, where it was abolished in 1846), while others actively use it today. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. The death penalty there remains a contentious issue which is hotly debated. Elsewhere, however, it is rare for the death penalty to be abolished as a result of an active public discussion of its merits.
In abolitionist countries, debate is sometimes revived by particularly brutal murders, though few countries have brought it back after abolishing it. A garrote or garrote vil (a Spanish word alternative spellings include garotte and garrotte) is a handheld Weapon, most often referring However, a spike in serious, violent crimes, such as murders or terrorist attacks, has prompted some countries (such as Sri Lanka and Jamaica) to effectively end the moratorium on the death penalty. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. In retentionist countries, the debate is sometimes revived when a miscarriage of justice has occurred, though this tends to cause legislative efforts to improve the judicial process rather than to abolish the death penalty.
A Gallup International poll from 2000 claimed that "Worldwide support was expressed in favour of the death penalty, with just more than half (52%) indicating that they were in favour of this form of punishment. The Gallup Poll is the division of Gallup that regularly conducts public Opinion polls in the United States and more than 140 countries around the world " A number of other polls and studies have been done in recent years with various results.
In the U. S. , surveys have long shown a majority in favor of capital punishment. An ABC News survey in July 2006 found 65 percent in favour of capital punishment, consistent with other polling since 2000. This article is about the American news organization See also ABC News (disambiguation ABC News is a division of American  About half the American public says the death penalty is not imposed frequently enough and 60 percent believe it is applied fairly, according to a Gallup poll from May 2006. The Gallup Poll is the division of Gallup that regularly conducts public Opinion polls in the United States and more than 140 countries around the world  Yet surveys also show the public is more divided when asked to choose between the death penalty and life without parole, or when dealing with juvenile offenders. Life imprisonment or life incarceration is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime often for most  Roughly six in 10 tell Gallup they do not believe capital punishment deters murder and majorities believe at least one innocent person has been executed in the past five years. 
The United Nations introduced a resolution during the General Assembly's 62nd session in 2007 calling for a universal ban. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The UN Moratorium on the Death Penalty was an Italian proposal supported by several countries and NGOs before the General Assembly of the United Nations.  The approval of a draft resolution by the Assembly’s third committee, which deals with human rights issues, voted 99 to 52, with 33 abstentions, in favour of the resolution on November 15, 2007 and was put to a vote in the General Assembly on December 18.  It passed a non-binding resolution (by a 104 to 54 vote, with 29 abstentions) by asking its member states for "a moratorium on executions with a view to abolishing the death penalty". 
A number of regional conventions prohibit the death penalty, most notably, the Sixth Protocol (abolition in time of peace) and the Thirteenth Protocol (abolition in all circumstances) to the European Convention on Human Rights. The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing Human rights provisions ‘solemnly proclaimed’ by the European Parliament The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (also called the "European Convention on Human Rights" and "ECHR" was adopted under the The same is also stated under the Second Protocol in the American Convention on Human Rights, which, however has not been ratified by all countries in the Americas, most notably Canada and the United States. The American Convention on Human Rights (also known as the Pact of San José) is an international human rights instrument. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Most relevant operative international treaties do not require its prohibition for cases of serious crime, most notably, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations Treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in This instead has, in common with several other treaties, an optional protocol prohibiting capital punishment and promoting its wider abolition. 
Several international organisations have made the abolition of the death penalty (during time of peace) a requirement of membership, most notably the European Union (EU) and the Council of Europe. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 The EU and the Council of Europe are willing to accept a moratorium as an interim measure. Thus, while Russia is a member of the Council of Europe, and practices the death penalty in law, it has not made public use of it since becoming a member of the Council. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Other states, while having abolished de jure the death penalty in time of peace and de facto in all circumstances, have not ratified Protocol no.13 yet and therefore have no international obligation to refrain from using the death penalty in time of war or imminent threat of war (Armenia, Latvia, Poland and Spain). Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. France is the most recent to ratify it (October 10, 2007) with the effective date of February 1, 2008. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. 
Turkey has recently, as a move towards EU membership, undergone a reform of its legal system. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Previously there was a de facto moratorium on death penalty in Turkey as the last execution took place in 1984. The death penalty was removed from peacetime law in August 2002, and in May 2004 Turkey amended its constitution in order to remove capital punishment in all circumstances. It ratified Protocol no. 13 to the European Convention on Human Rights in February 2006. As a result, Europe is a continent free of the death penalty in practice (all states but Russia, which has entered a moratorium, having ratified the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights), with the sole exception of Belarus, which is not a member of the Council of Europe. Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has been lobbying for Council of Europe observer states who practice the death penalty, namely the U. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE which held its first session in Strasbourg on 10 August 1949, can be considered the S. and Japan, to abolish it or lose their observer status. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. In addition to banning capital punishment for EU member states, the EU has also banned detainee transfers in cases where the receiving party may seek the death penalty.
Among non-governmental organisations (NGOs), Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch are noted for their opposition to capital punishment. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to Human Rights Watch is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Human rights. A number of such NGOs, as well as trade unions, local councils and bar associations formed a World Coalition Against the Death Penalty in 2002. The World Coalition Against the Death Penalty is an alliance of NGOs, bar associations local bodies and unions whose aim is to strengthen the international dimension
There is disagreement among Buddhists as to whether or not Buddhism forbids the death penalty. Most major world religions take an ambiguous position on the morality of Capital punishment. The first of the Five Precepts (Panca-sila) is to abstain from destruction of life. Chapter 10 of the Dhammapada states:
Chapter 26, the final chapter of the Dhammapada, states, "Him I call a brahmin who has put aside weapons and renounced violence toward all creatures. Brahmin ( Brāhmaṇa, sa ब्राह्मणः is the class of educators scholars and preachers in Brahminical Hinduism. He neither kills nor helps others to kill. " These sentences are interpreted by many Buddhists (especially in the West) as an injunction against supporting any legal measure which might lead to the death penalty. However, as is often the case with the interpretation of scripture, there is dispute on this matter. Thailand, where Buddhism is the official religion, practices the death penalty, as do all other countries where the majority of the population is Buddhist, i. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices e. Sri Lanka, Mongolia, and Myanmar, although the last has had a moratorium on executions since 1997. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Mongolia (mɒŋˈɡoʊliə, literally Mongol country/nation,) is a Landlocked Country in East Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Moreover, throughout almost all history, countries where Buddhism has been the official religion (which includes most of the Far East and Indochina) have practiced the death penalty. The Far East is a term often used by people in the Western world to refer to the countries of East Asia. Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. One exception is the abolition of the death penalty by the Emperor Saga of Japan in 818. Emperor Saga (嵯峨天皇 Saga-tennō) (786&ndash842 was the 52nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. This lasted until 1165, although in private manors executions continued to be conducted as a form of retaliation.
The official teachings of Judaism approve the death penalty in principle but the standard of proof required for application of death penalty is extremely stringent, and in practice, it has been abolished by various Talmudic decisions, making the situations in which a death sentence could be passed effectively impossible and hypothetical. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut "Forty years before the destruction" of the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD, i. Etymology The Hebrew name given in Scripture for the building is Beit HaMikdash or "The Holy House" and only the Temple in Jerusalem is referred to by this name e. in 30 AD, the Sanhedrin effectively abolished capital punishment, making it a hypothetical upper limit on the severity of punishment, fitting in finality for God alone to use, not fallible people. The Sanhedrin (סנהדרין συνέδριον ''synedrion'', "sitting together" hence " assembly " or "council" was an assembly 
In law schools everywhere, students read the famous quotation from the 12th century legal scholar, Maimonides,
Maimonides argued that executing a defendant on anything less than absolute certainty would lead to a slippery slope of decreasing burdens of proof, until we would be convicting merely "according to the judge's caprice. " Maimonides was concerned about the need for the law to guard itself in public perceptions, to preserve its majesty and retain the people's respect. 
Scholars of Islam hold it to be permissible but the victim or the family of the victim has the right to pardon. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. In Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh), to forbid what is not forbidden is wrong. Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the Consequently, it is impossible to make a case for abolition of the death penalty which is explicitly endorsed.
Sharia Law or Islamic law may require capital punishment, there is great variation within Islamic nations as to actual capital punishment. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Apostasy in Islam and Stoning to death in Islam are controversial topics. This is a sub-article to Islamic criminal jurisprudence and Stoning Rajm is an Arabic word that means to stone. Furthermore, as expressed in the Qur'an, capital punishment is condoned. Although the Qur'an prescribes the death penalty for several hadd (fixed) crimes—including rape—murder is not among them. Instead, murder is treated as a civil crime and is covered by the law of qisas (retaliation), whereby the relatives of the victim decide whether the offender is punished with death by the authorities or made to pay diyah (wergild) as compensation. Weregeld (alternative spellings wergild, wergeld, weregeld, etc 
"If anyone kills a person - unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land - it would be as if he killed all people. And if anyone saves a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all people" (Qur'an 5:32). "Spreading mischief in the land" can mean many different things, but is generally interpreted to mean those crimes that affect the community as a whole, and destabilize the society. Crimes that have fallen under this description have included: (1) Treason / Apostasy (when one leaves the faith and joins the enemy in fighting against the Muslim community) (2) Terrorism - Land, sea, or air piracy (3) Rape (4) Adultery (5) Homosexual behavior.  (6) Murder
Although some interpret that John 8:7 of the Bible condemns the death penalty, others consider Romans 13:3-4 to support it. Christian positions on this vary.  The sixth commandment (fifth in the Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches) is preached as 'Thou shalt not kill' by some denominations and as 'Thou shalt not murder' by others. The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives that according to Judeo-Christian tradition were authored by God and given Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther As none of the denominations have a hard-line stance on the subject, Christians are free to make a personal decision. 
The Roman Catholic Church traditionally accepted capital punishment as per the theology of Thomas Aquinas (who accepted the death penalty as a necessary deterrent and prevention method, but not as the means of vengeance; see also Aquinas on the death penalty). This article contains selected thoughts of Thomas Aquinas on various topics Under the pontificate of Pope John Paul II, this position was refined. Pope As stated in John Paul II's encyclical Evangelium Vitae, the Roman Catholic Church holds that capital punishment should be avoided unless it is the only way to defend society from the offender in question, and that with today's penal system such a situation requiring an execution is either rare or non-existent. See also Catholic theology of the body, Teachings of Pope John Paul II Evangelium Vitæ ( Latin: "The Gospel of Life" is the  The Catechism of the Catholic Church states:
Assuming that the guilty party's identity and responsibility have been fully determined, the traditional teaching of the Church does not exclude recourse to the death penalty, if this is the only possible way of effectively defending human lives against the unjust aggressor. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church and the twenty-two If, however, nonlethal means are sufficient to defend and protect people's safety from the aggressor, authority will limit itself to such means, as these are more in keeping with the concrete conditions of the common good and are more in conformity to the dignity of the human person. Today, in fact, as a consequence of the possibilities which the state has for effectively preventing crime, by rendering one who has committed an offense incapable of doing harm - without definitely taking away from him the possibility of redeeming himself - the cases in which the execution of the offender is an absolute necessity are very rare, if not practically nonexistent. 
The Lambeth Conference of Anglican and Episcopalian bishops condemned the death penalty in 1988. The Lambeth Conferences are decennial assemblies of Bishops of the Anglican Communion convened by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
The United Methodist Church, along with other Methodist churches, also condemns capital punishment, saying that it cannot accept retribution or social vengeance as a reason for taking human life. The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination and the second largest Protestant denomination in the United States. Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations  The Church also holds that the death penalty falls unfairly and unequally upon marginalized persons including the poor, the uneducated, ethnic and religious minorities, and persons with mental and emotional illnesses.  The General Conference of the United Methodist Church calls for its bishops to uphold opposition to capital punishment and for governments to enact an immediate moratorium on carrying out the death penalty sentence. The General Conference of The United Methodist Church is the denomination's top legislative body for all matters affecting the United Methodist connection A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight
In a 1991 social policy statement, the ELCA officially took a stand to oppose the death penalty. It states that revenge is a primary motivation for capital punishment policy and that true healing can only take place through repentance and forgiveness. 
Several key leaders early in the Protestant Reformation, including Martin Luther and John Calvin, followed the traditional reasoning in favour of capital punishment, and the Lutheran Church's Augsburg Confession explicitly defended it. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther The Augsburg Confession, also known as the "Augustana" from its Latin name Confessio Augustana is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Some Protestant groups have cited Genesis 9:5–6, Romans 13:3–4, and Leviticus 20:1–27 as the basis for permitting the death penalty. 
On the other hand, the Mennonites and Friends have opposed the death penalty since their founding, and continue to be strongly opposed to it today. The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496&ndash1561 though his teachings were a relatively These groups, along with other Christians opposed to capital punishment, have cited Christ's Sermon on the Mount (transcribed in Mathew Chapter 5–7) and Sermon on the Plain (transcribed in Luke 6:17–49). Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed " In the Gospel of St Matthew, the Sermon on the Mount is a compilation of Jesus' sayings epitomizing his moral teaching. The Sermon on the Plain was a sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth according to the Gospel of Luke; it may be compared to the longer Sermon on the Mount In both sermons, Christ tells his followers to turn the other cheek and to love their enemies, which these groups believe mandates nonviolence, including opposition to the death penalty. Turning the other cheek is to respond to an aggressor without violence (in every sense of the word Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical Violence.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (colloquially known as Mormons) holds a neutral position on the death penalty. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the fourth largest Christian denomination in the United States and the largest and most well-known TalkMormon#Latter Day Saint vs Latter-day Saint --> Mormon
The Rosicrucian Fellowship and many other Christian esoteric schools condemn the capital punishment in all circumstances. The Rosicrucian Fellowship - "An International Association of Christian Mystics" - was founded in 1909/11 by Max Heindel as herald of the Aquarian Age Esoteric Christianity is a term which refers to an ensemble of spiritual currents which regard Christianity as a Mystery religion, and profess the existence 
As a capital punishment forms a more important thematic element. Many of these works are abolitionist in nature, but sometimes capital punishment is used as a metaphor for some other theme, such as sacrifice or mortality.