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Administrative divisions of France
(incl. |||} Metropolitan France As of January 1, 2008, Metropolitan France is divided into 22 regions (including Corsica, although |||} Metropolitan France As of January 1, 2008, Metropolitan France is divided into 22 regions (including Corsica, although France is divided into 26 regions or régions (in French of which 21 are in continental Metropolitan France, one is the island of Corsica, overseas regions)
(incl. Overseas region (Région d'outre-mer is a recent designation given to the overseas departments which have similar powers to those of the regions of Metropolitan In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division overseas departments)
Others in Overseas France
The cantons of France are territorial subdivisions of the French Republic's 341 arrondissements and 100 departments. Overseas department (départements d’outre-mer or DOM) is a designation under the 1946 Constitution of the Fourth Republic that was given to the The 100 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements, which may be translated into English as districts. The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. In France urban communities (communauté urbaine are the most integrated form of intercommunality in France. An agglomeration community ( French: communauté d'agglomération) is a metropolitan government structure in France, created by the Chevènement A communauté de communes (French for "community of communes " is a federation of municipalities (communes in France. The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. In France associated communes (communes associées were created by the Commune Merger Act of July 16 1971 (also called the Marcellin Act) The municipal arrondissement (arrondissement municipal pronounced /aʀɔ̃dismɑ̃ mynisipal/ is a subdivision of the commune, used in the three largest cities Paris The French Overseas Departments and Territories ( French: départements d'outre-mer and territoires d'outre-mer or DOM-TOM) consist broadly of The French overseas collectivities ( collectivités d'outre-mer or COM) like the French regions, themselves are first-order Administrative divisions For the former North American fur-trading district see New Caledonia (Canada, and for the Scottish colony in Panama see Darien scheme. Overseas country ( French: pays d'outre-mer or POM) is the new designation for the Overseas collectivity of French Polynesia. Clipperton Island ( French: Île de Clipperton or Île de la Passion) is a nine-square-kilometre coral Atoll in the Eastern Pacific This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The 100 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements, which may be translated into English as districts. In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division
Apart from their role as organizational units in certain aspects of the administration of public services and justice, the chief purpose of the cantons today is to serve as constituencies for the election of the members of the representative assembly (General Council) in each department. A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures goals or loyalty For this reason, such elections are known in France as "cantonal elections".
There are currently 4,032 cantons.  Most of them group together a number of communes (the lowest administrative division of the French Republic), although larger communes may comprise a number of cantons, since the cantons are intended to be roughly equal in size of population – unlike the communes which range in size from more than two million inhabitants (Paris) to just one person (Rochefourchat). The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Rochefourchat is a commune in the Drôme department in the Rhône-Alpes region in southeastern France.
The role of the canton is, essentially, to provide a framework for departmental elections. In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division Each canton elects a person to represent it at the conseil général du département — or general council for the department, which is the principal administrative division of the French Republic. In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division
In urban areas, a single commune generally includes several cantons. Conversely, in rural areas, a canton may comprise several smaller communes. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time In which case, administrative services, the gendarmerie headquarters for example, are often situated in the principal town (chef-lieu) of the canton,although exceptions, such as cantons Gaillon-Campagne and Sarreguemines-Campagne, which have in common a "chief-town" which does not belong to either canton, occur. A gendarmerie or gendarmery (dʒɛnˈdɑrməriː or /ˌʒɑndɑrməˈriː/ after the French is a Military body charged with Police duties among civilian A chef-lieu is a town or city that is pre-eminent from an administrative perspective in any given sub-division of territory in France and some French-speaking countries
For statistical (INSEE) purposes, the twenty arrondissements of Paris — the administrative subdivision of that city — are sometimes considered cantons, but they serve no greater electoral function. INSEE ( French: I nstitut N ational de la S tatistique et des É tudes É conomiques; inse (not) in French is the The city of Paris is divided into twenty arrondissements municipaux, more simply referred to as arrondissements (əˈɹɒndɨsmənt in Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city
Cantons also form legal districts, as seats of Tribunaux d'instance or "Courts of First Instance" (also, "TI". In France, the Tribunal d'instance (Court of Instance is a civil court for minor litigation and a criminal court for minor offences ( contraventions) . . ). Historically, the cantons are called justices de paix or "district courts".
The cantons were created in 1790 at the same time as the départements by the Revolutionary Committee for the Division of Territory (Comité de division). Year 1790 ( MDCCXC) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an They were more numerous than today (between 40 and 60 to each département). Cantons were, at first, grouped into what were called districts. After the abolition of the district in 1800, they were reorganized by the Consulate into arrondissements. Year -of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, but 12 days ahead since Saturday. The Consulate was the government of France between the fall of the Directory in the coup of 18 Brumaire in 1799 until the start of the The number of cantons was then drastically reduced (between 30 and 50 units) by the Loi du 8 pluviôse an IX (January 28, 1801), or the "Law for the Reduction of the Number of District Courts", or Loi portant réduction du nombre de justices de paix in French. Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The département prefects were told by the government to group the communes within newly established cantons. Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front" i The département lists, once approved by the government, were published in the Bulletin des Lois in 1801 and 1802; these lists are still the basis of the administrative divisions of France in place today, although cantons with small populations have been eliminated and new cantons created in areas of strong demographic growth. Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday Year 1802 ( MDCCCII) was a Common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting on Wednesday of the In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology On the whole, their number has increased appreciably.
The number of cantons varies from one département to another; the Territoire de Belfort, for example, has 15, while Nord has 79. The Territoire de Belfort is a department in the Franche-Comté region of eastern France. Nord (North is a department in the far north of France. It is the country's most populated department The island of Mayotte, which has an administrative form similar to that of a département, is divided into 19 cantons.