Cannabis (Cán-na-bis) is a genus of flowering plants that includes three putative species, Cannabis sativa L. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group Magnoliopsida is the Botanical name for a class of Flowering plants By definition the class will include the family Magnoliaceae, but its For other meanings see Rosales (disambiguation. Rosales is an order of Flowering plants including nine families Cannabaceae is a small family of Flowering plants According to the Royal Botanical Gardens database there are 170 species grouped in nine to fifteen Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for Cannabis sativa is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family It is a Herb that has been used throughout recorded history by humans for various purposes Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp Syllable stress of botanical names varies with the language spoken A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group , Cannabis indica Lam. , and Cannabis ruderalis Janisch. These three taxa are indigenous to central Asia and surrounding regions. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Cannabis has long been used for fibre (hemp), for medicinal purposes, and as a psychoactive. This article is about the cultivation and uses of industrial hemp not its psychoactive cousin Cannabis (drug. Medical cannabis refers to the use of the Cannabis plant as a physician-recommended Herbal therapy as well as synthetic THC and Cannabinoids Cannabis, also known as marijuana or marihuana, or ganja (from Hindi / Sanskrit: गांजा gānjā hemp) is a Industrial hemp products are made from Cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber and minimal levels of THC (Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol), one psychoactive molecule that produces the "high" associated with marijuana. This article is about the cultivation and uses of industrial hemp not its psychoactive cousin Cannabis (drug. A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a Chemical substance that acts primarily upon the Central nervous system where it alters Brain Cannabis, also known as marijuana or marihuana, or ganja (from Hindi / Sanskrit: गांजा gānjā hemp) is a The drug consists of dried flowers and leaves of plants selected to produce high levels of THC. Various extracts including hashish and hash oil are also produced. Hashish (from Arabic: ar حشيش, lit "grass" also hash) is a preparation of cannabis composed of the compressed  The cultivation and possession of Cannabis for recreational use is outlawed in most countries.
The plant name cannabis is from Greek κάνναβις (kánnabis), via Latin cannabis, originally a Scythian or Thracian word, also loaned into Persian as kanab. The plant name Cannabis is from Greek grc κάνναβις ( grc kánnabis) via Latin la cannabis, originally a Scythian The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Scythian languages form a North Eastern branch of the Iranian language family and comprise the distinctive languagesspoken by the Scythian ( Sarmatian The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe English hemp (Old English hænep) may be an early loan (predating Grimm's Law) from the same source. This article is about the cultivation and uses of industrial hemp not its psychoactive cousin Cannabis (drug. Grimm's law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or the Rask's-Grimm's rule) named for Jacob Grimm, is a set of statements describing In Hebrew the word is קַנַּבּוֹס [qan:a'bos].
The further origin of the Scythian term is uncertain, although it is possible that it traces back to the Assyrian word 'qunubu' (way to produce smoke) which was used to refer to the plant. 
Cannabis is an annual, dioecious, flowering herb. Botanically an annual plant is a Plant that usually germinates, Flowers and dies in one Year. Plant sexuality covers the wide variety of Sexual reproduction systems found across the Plant kingdom The flowering plants or angiosperms ( Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta) are the most widespread group A(n herb (ˈhɝb or /ˈɝb/ see pronunciation differences) is a plant that is valued for qualities such as medicinal properties flavor scent or the like The leaves are palmately compound, with serrate leaflets. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. In Botany, the following terms are used to describe the shape of plant leaves: Acicular ( acicularis) Slender and pointed needle-like A leaflet in Botany is a part of a compound Leaf. A leaflet may resemble an entire leaf but it is not borne on a stem as a leaf is but rather The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant. In Botany, phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy is the arrangement of the leaves on the stem of a Plant.
Cannabis usually has imperfect flowers with staminate "male" and pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants, although hermaphroditic plants sometimes occur. Plant sexuality covers the wide variety of Sexual reproduction systems found across the Plant kingdom A flower, also known as a bloom or Blossom, is the reproductive structure found in Flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also The stamen ( Plural stamina or stamens, from Latin stamen meaning "thread of the warp " is the male A gynoecium (from Ancient Greek gyne, "woman" is the Female reproductive part of a Flower. A hermaphrodite is an organism having both male and female reproductive organs  Male flowers are borne on loose panicles, and female flowers are borne on racemes. A panicle is a compound Raceme, a loose much-branched indeterminate Inflorescence with pedicellate Flowers (and Fruit A raceme is a type of Inflorescence that is unbranched and indeterminate and bears pedicellate Flowers &mdash flowers having short  It is not unusual for individual plants to bear both male and female flowers, though these are referred to as 'intersexual' or hermaphroditic rather than monoecious, since staminate and pistillate structures appear at different points on the plant, not within the same flower.
Cannabinoids, terpenoids, and other compounds are secreted by glandular trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes and bracts of female plants. Cannabinoids ( are a group of terpeno[[phenol]]ic compounds present in Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa L The terpenoids, sometimes referred to as isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally-occurring organic chemicals similar to Terpenes derived Trichomes, from the Greek meaning "growth of Hair " are fine outgrowths or appendages on Plants and certain Protists These are of diverse A sepal (from Latin separatus "separate" + petalum "petal" is a part of the flower of Angiosperms or flower plants In Botany, a bract is a modified or specialized Leaf. Bracts are ordinarily associated with reproductive structures (subtending Flowers Inflorescence 
All known strains of Cannabis are wind-pollinated and produce "seeds" that are technically called achenes. See also Pollination syndrome Anemophily or wind pollination is a form of Pollination whereby Pollen is distributed by Wind A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored An achene is a type of simple dry Fruit produced by many species of Flowering plants Achenes are "monocarpellate" (formed from one Carpel  Most strains of Cannabis are short day plants, with the possible exception of C. A short day plant is a Plant that cannot Flower under the long days of summer sativa subsp. sativa var. spontanea (= C. ruderalis), which is commonly described as "auto-flowering" and may be day-neutral. A day neutral plant does not require a specific day length to flower
Cannabis is naturally diploid, having a chromosome complement of 2n=20, although polyploid individuals have been artificially produced. "Haplo" redirects here For the fictional character see The Death Gate Cycle. A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and Protein that is found in cells.  Cannabis is a genus of flowering plant which includes one or more species. The plant is believed to have originated in the mountainous regions just north west of the Himalayas. It is also known as hemp, although this term usually refers to varieties of Cannabis cultivated for non-drug use. Cannabis plants produce a group of chemicals called cannabinoids which produce mental and physical effects when consumed. As a drug it usually comes in the form of dried buds or flowers (marijuana), resin (hashish), or various extracts collectively known as hashish oil. Cannabis, also known as marijuana or marihuana, or ganja (from Hindi / Sanskrit: गांजा gānjā hemp) is a Resin, not to be confused with Rosin, is a Hydrocarbon Secretion of many Plants particularly coniferous trees. Hashish (from Arabic: ar حشيش, lit "grass" also hash) is a preparation of cannabis composed of the compressed Hashish (from Arabic: ar حشيش, lit "grass" also hash) is a preparation of cannabis composed of the compressed  In the early 20th century, it became illegal in most of the world to cultivate or possess Cannabis for drug purposes.
The genus Cannabis was formerly placed in the Nettle (Urticaceae) or Mulberry (Moraceae) family, but is now considered along with hops (Humulus sp. Nettle is the common name for between 30-45 species of Flowering plants of the genus Urtica in the family Urticaceae, with a cosmopolitan though Urticaceae, or the nettle family is a family of Flowering plants The family name comes from the genus Urtica (nettles Moraceae is a family of Flowering plants commonly known as the mulberry or fig family The hop ( Humulus) is a small genus of Flowering plants native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. ) to belong to the Hemp family (Cannabaceae). This article is about the cultivation and uses of industrial hemp not its psychoactive cousin Cannabis (drug. Cannabaceae is a small family of Flowering plants According to the Royal Botanical Gardens database there are 170 species grouped in nine to fifteen  Recent phylogenetic studies based on cpDNA restriction site analysis and gene sequencing strongly suggest that the Cannabaceae arose from within the Celtidaceae clade, and that the two families should be merged to form a single monophyletic group. Chloroplasts are Organelles found in Plant cells and eukaryotic Algae that conduct Photosynthesis. Restriction sites, or restriction recognition sites, are specific sequences of Nucleotides that are recognized by Restriction enzymes The sites are generally The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the Nucleotide bases Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine For the German Renaissance scholar see Conrad Celtes. For the town see Celtis Missouri. A clade is a taxonomic group comprising a single Common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor A clade is a taxonomic group comprising a single Common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor 
Cannabis plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds called cannabinoids, which produce the "high" one experiences from smoking marijuana. The two cannabinoids usually produced in greatest abundance are cannabidiol (CBD) and/or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but only THC is psychoactive. Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is a cannabinoid found in Cannabis. Since the early 1970s, Cannabis plants have been categorized by their chemical phenotype or "chemotype," based on the overall amount of THC produced, and on the ratio of THC to CBD. A phenotype is any observable characteristic of an Organism, such as its morphology, Development, biochemical or physiological properties  Although overall cannabinoid production is influenced by environmental factors, the THC/CBD ratio is genetically determined and remains fixed throughout the life of a plant. Cannabinoids ( are a group of terpeno[[phenol]]ic compounds present in Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa L  Non-drug plants produce relatively low levels of THC and high levels of CBD, while drug plants produce high levels of THC and low levels of CBD. When plants of these two chemotypes cross-pollinate, the plants in the first filial (F1) generation have an intermediate chemotype and produce similar amounts of CBD and THC. Female plants of this chemotype may produce enough THC to be utilized for drug production. 
Whether the drug and non-drug, cultivated and wild types of Cannabis constitute a single, highly variable species, or the genus is polytypic with more than one species, has been a subject of debate for well over two centuries. This is a contentious issue because there is no universally accepted definition of a species. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank.  One widely applied criterion for species recognition is that species are "groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups. " Populations that are physiologically capable of interbreeding, but morphologically or genetically divergent and isolated by geography or ecology, are sometimes considered to be separate species.  Physiological barriers to reproduction are not known to occur within Cannabis, and plants from widely divergent sources are interfertile. An important concept in evolutionary biology reproductive isolation is a category of mechanisms that prevent two or more Populations from exchanging genes  However, physical barriers to gene exchange (such as the Himalayan mountain range) might have enabled Cannabis gene pools to diverge before the onset of human intervention, resulting in speciation.  It remains controversial whether sufficient morphological and genetic divergence occurs within the genus as a result of geographical or ecological isolation to justify recognition of more than one species. 
The Cannabis genus was first classified using the "modern" system of taxonomic nomenclature by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753, who devised the system still in use for the naming of species. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for  He considered the genus to be monotypic, having just a single species that he named Cannabis sativa L. (L. stands for Linnaeus, and indicates the authority who first named the species). Linnaeus was familiar with European hemp, which was widely cultivated at the time. In 1785, noted evolutionary biologist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis, which he named Cannabis indica Lam. Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Chevalier de Lamarck ( August 1, 1744 &ndash December 18, 1829) was a French Soldier  Lamarck based his description of the newly named species on plant specimens collected in India. He described C. indica as having poorer fiber quality than C. sativa, but greater utility as an inebriant. A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a Chemical substance that acts primarily upon the Central nervous system where it alters Brain Additional Cannabis species were proposed in the 19th century, including strains from China and Vietnam (Indo-China) assigned the names Cannabis chinensis Delile, and Cannabis gigantea Delile ex Vilmorin.  However, many taxonomists found these putative species difficult to distinguish. In the early 20th century, the single-species concept was still widely accepted, except in the Soviet Union where Cannabis continued to be the subject of active taxonomic study. The name Cannabis indica was listed in various Pharmacopoeias, and was widely used to designate Cannabis suitable for the manufacture of medicinal preparations. Pharmacopoeia (literally the art of the drug compounder in its modern technical sense is a book containing directions for the identification of samples and the preparation of compound 
In 1924, Russian botanist D. E. Janichevsky concluded that ruderal Cannabis in central Russia is either a variety of C. A ruderal species is a Plant Species that is first to colonise disturbed lands sativa or a separate species, and proposed C. sativa L. var. ruderalis Janisch. and Cannabis ruderalis Janisch. as alternative names.  In 1929, renown plant explorer Nikolai Vavilov assigned wild or feral populations of Cannabis in Afghanistan to C. Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov (Николай Иванович Вавилов ( &ndash January 26 1943) was a prominent Russian and Soviet Botanist indica Lam. var. kafiristanica Vav. , and ruderal populations in Europe to C. sativa L. var. spontanea Vav.  In 1940, Russian botanists Serebriakova and Sizov proposed a complex classification in which they also recognized C. sativa and C. indica as separate species. Within C. sativa they recognized two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp. culta Serebr. (consisting of cultivated plants), and C. sativa L. subsp. spontanea (Vav. ) Serebr. (consisting of wild or feral plants). Serebriakova and Sizov split the two C. sativa subspecies into 13 varieties, including four distinct groups within subspecies culta. However, they did not divide C. indica into subspecies or varieties.  This excessive splitting of C. sativa proved too unwieldy, and never gained many adherents.
In the 1970s, the taxonomic classification of Cannabis took on added significance in North America. Laws prohibiting Cannabis in the United States and Canada specifically named products of C. sativa as prohibited materials. Enterprising attorneys for the defense in a few drug busts argued that the seized Cannabis material may not have been C. sativa, and was therefore not prohibited by law. Attorneys on both sides recruited botanists to provide expert testimony. Among those testifying for the prosecution was Dr. Ernest Small, while Dr. Richard E. Schultes and others testified for the defense. The botanists engaged in heated debate (outside of court), and both camps impugned the other's integrity.  The defense attorneys were not often successful in winning their case, because the intent of the law was clear. 
In 1976, Canadian botanist Ernest Small and American taxonomist Arthur Cronquist published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a single species of Cannabis with two subspecies: C. Arthur John Cronquist (1919&ndash1992 was a North American botanist and a specialist on Compositae. sativa L. subsp. sativa, and C. sativa L. subsp. indica (Lam. ) Small & Cronq.  The authors hypothesized that the two subspecies diverged primarily as a result of human selection; C. sativa subsp. sativa was presumably selected for traits that enhance fiber or seed production, whereas C. Artificial selection is the intentional breeding for certain traits or combinations of traits over others and is synonymous with " Selective breeding " sativa subsp. indica was primarily selected for drug production. Within these two subspecies, Small and Cronquist described C. sativa L. subsp. sativa var. spontanea Vav. as a wild or escaped variety of low-intoxicant Cannabis, and C. sativa subsp. indica var. kafiristanica (Vav. ) Small & Cronq. as a wild or escaped variety of the high-intoxicant type. This classification was based on several factors including interfertility, chromosome uniformity, chemotype, and numerical analysis of phenotypic characters. A phenotype is any observable characteristic of an Organism, such as its morphology, Development, biochemical or physiological properties 
Professors William Emboden, Loran Anderson, and Harvard botanist Richard E. Schultes and coworkers also conducted taxonomic studies of Cannabis in the 1970s, and concluded that stable morphological differences exist that support recognition of at least three species, C. Richard Evans Schultes ( January 12, 1915 &ndash April 10, 2001) may be considered the father of modern Ethnobotany The term morphology in Biology refers to the outward appearance ( Shape, Structure, Colour, Pattern) of an Organism sativa, C. indica, and C. ruderalis.  For Schultes, this was a reversal of his previous interpretation that Cannabis is monotypic, with only a single species.  According to Schultes' and Anderson's descriptions, C. sativa is tall and laxly branched with relatively narrow leaflets, C. indica is shorter, conical in shape, and has relatively wide leaflets, and C. ruderalis is short, branchless, and grows wild in central Asia. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south This taxonomic interpretation was embraced by Cannabis aficionados who commonly distinguish narrow-leafed "sativa" drug strains from wide-leafed "indica" drug strains. Cannabis sativa is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family It is a Herb that has been used throughout recorded history by humans for various purposes 
Molecular analytical techniques developed in the late twentieth century are being applied to questions of taxonomic classification. Molecular biology is the study of Biology at a molecular level This has resulted in many reclassifications based on evolutionary systematics. The history of plant systematics &mdashthe Biological classification of Plants mdashstretches from the work of ancient Greek to modern evolutionary biologists Several studies of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and other types of genetic markers have been conducted on drug and fiber strains of Cannabis, primarily for plant breeding and forensic purposes. RAPD stands for R andom A mplification of P olymorphic D NA It is a type of PCR reaction but the segments of DNA that are amplified  Dutch Cannabis researcher E. P. M. de Meijer and coworkers described some of their RAPD studies as showing an "extremely high" degree of genetic polymorphism between and within populations, suggesting a high degree of potential variation for selection, even in heavily selected hemp cultivars.  They also commented that these analyses confirm the continuity of the Cannabis gene pool throughout the studied accessions, and provide further confirmation that the genus comprises a single species.
Karl W. Hillig, a graduate student in the laboratory of long-time Cannabis researcher Paul G. Mahlberg at Indiana University, conducted a systematic investigation of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation among 157 Cannabis accessions of known geographic origin, including fiber, drug, and feral populations. Indiana University is the flagship campus of the Indiana University system. Chemotaxonomy (from Chemistry and Taxonomy) also called chemosystematics, is the attempt to classify and identify Organisms (originally In 2004, Hillig and Mahlberg published a chemotaxomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in their Cannabis germplasm collection. A germplasm is a collection of genetic resources for an organism They used gas chromatography to determine cannabinoid content and to infer allele frequencies of the gene that controls CBD and THC production, within the studied populations. Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC, or simply gas chromatography (GC, is a type of Chromatography in which the mobile phase is a carrier gas usually an Inert An allele (ˈæliːl (UK /əˈliːl/ (US (from the Greek αλληλος allelos, meaning each other) is one member of a pair or series of different forms History See also History of genetics The existence of genes was first suggested by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884 who in the 1860s studied inheritance  Hillig and Mahlberg concluded that the patterns of cannabinoid variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species, but not C. ruderalis. The authors assigned fiber/seed landraces and feral populations from Europe, central Asia, and Asia Minor to C. sativa. Narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug accessions, southern and eastern Asian hemp accessions, and feral Himalayan populations were assigned to C. indica. In 2005, Hillig published a genetic analysis of the same set of accessions (this paper was submitted ahead of his 2004 manuscript with Mahlberg, but was delayed in publication), and proposed a three-species classification, recognizing C. sativa, C. indica, and (tentatively) C. ruderalis.  In his doctoral dissertation published the same year, Hillig stated that principal components analysis of phenotypic (morphological) traits failed to differentiate the putative species, but that canonical variates analysis resulted in a high degree of discrimination of the putative species and infraspecific taxa. A dissertation (also called thesis or disquisition) is a document that presents the author's Research and findings and is submitted in support of candidature A phenotype is any observable characteristic of an Organism, such as its morphology, Development, biochemical or physiological properties In Statistics, canonical analysis (from Gk κανων bar Measuring rod, ruler belongs to the family of regression methods for data analysis  Another paper published by Hillig on chemotaxonomic variation in the terpenoid content of the essential oil of Cannabis revealed that several wide-leaflet drug strains in their collection had relatively high levels of certain sesquiterpene alcohols, including guaiol and isomers of eudesmol, that set them apart from the other putative taxa. The terpenoids, sometimes referred to as isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally-occurring organic chemicals similar to Terpenes derived Sesquiterpenes are a class of Terpenes that consist of three Isoprene units and have the molecular formula C15H24  Hillig concluded that the patterns of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species. He also concluded there is little support to treat C. ruderalis as a separate species from C. sativa at this time, but more research on wild and weedy populations is needed because they were underrepresented in their collection.
The scientific debate regarding taxonomy has had little effect on the terminology in widespread use among cultivators and users of drug-type Cannabis. Cannabis aficionados recognize three distinct types based on such factors as morphology, native range, aroma, and subjective psychoactive characteristics. "Sativa" is the term used to describe the most widespread variety, which is usually tall, laxly branched, and found in warm lowland regions. "Indica" is used to designate shorter, bushier plants adapted to cooler climates and highland environments. "Ruderalis" is the term used to describe the short plants that grow wild in Europe and central Asia.
Breeders, seed companies, and cultivators of drug type Cannabis often describe the ancestry or gross phenotypic characteristics of cultivars by categorizing them as "pure indica," "mostly indica," "indica/sativa," "mostly sativa", or "pure sativa. A phenotype is any observable characteristic of an Organism, such as its morphology, Development, biochemical or physiological properties A cultivar is a cultivated Plant that has been selected and given a unique name because of its decorative or useful characteristics it is usually distinct from similar "
In September of 2005, New Scientist reported that researchers at the Canberra Institute of Technology had identified a new type of Cannabis based on analysis of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA. New Scientist is a weekly International science magazine and website covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English -speaking In Cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed Organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. Chloroplasts are Organelles found in Plant cells and eukaryotic Algae that conduct Photosynthesis.  The New Scientist story, which was picked up by many news agencies and web sites, indicated that the research was to be published in the journal Forensic Science International. As of 25 Feb 2007 the article is listed as "in press," and there is no mention in the abstract of "Rasta. "
Wild C. sativa subsp. indica is mainly confined to hash producing areas such as Afghanistan, and parts of Morocco. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa In the U. S. wild cannabis can grow wild in mid-west areas such as Kansas and Nebraska. This type is not valued for recreational use and is viewed as a weed by farmers. Wild C. sativa subsp. sativa shows great local variation; for example, in warm places, it can reach heights up to 20 feet (6 m) tall, but in colder climates it can be as short as 1 foot (30 cm) in height. Almost every single flower branch bears a seed. The wild C. sativa subsp. sativa has long, thin and airy buds and a Christmas tree shape structure. Wild C. sativa subsp. indica remains compact and bushy with thick buds for the most part, and is sometimes used by the locals for hashish production. Generally, there are far fewer seeds in wild C. sativa subsp. indica.
In many areas, wild or naturalized populations of Cannabis are considered invasive species, and are often targeted by government-sponsored eradication programmes. Introduced species|Weed Invasive species is a phrase with several definitions
Cannabis is predominantly dioecious, although many monoecious varieties have been described. Plant sexuality covers the wide variety of Sexual reproduction systems found across the Plant kingdom  Subdioecy (the occurrence of monoecious individuals and dioecious individuals within the same population) is widespread.  Many populations have been described as sexually labile. 
As a result of intensive selection in cultivation, Cannabis exhibits many sexual phenotypes that can be described in terms of the ratio of female to male flowers occurring in the individual, or typical in the cultivar.  Dioecious varieties are preferred for drug production, where the female plants are preferred. Legal issues of cannabis article The matter has been discussed to death and does not belong in this article Dioecious varieties are also preferred for textile fiber production, whereas monoecious varieties are preferred for pulp and paper production. It has been suggested that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate between licit crops of monoecious hemp and illicit dioecious drug crops. 
Cannabis has been described as having one of the most complicated mechanisms of sex determination among the dioecious plants. A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an Organism.  Many models have been proposed to explain sex determination in Cannabis.
Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp, it was first reported by K. This article is about the cultivation and uses of industrial hemp not its psychoactive cousin Cannabis (drug. Hirata in 1924 that an XY sex-determination system is present. The XY sex-determination system is the Sex-determination system found in Humans most other Mammals some insects ( Drosophila) and some  At the time, the XY system was the only known system of sex determination. The X:A system was first described in Drosophila spp in 1925. The X0 sex-determination system is a system that Grasshoppers, Crickets, Cockroaches, and some other Insects use to determine the sex of their  Soon thereafter, Schaffner disputed Hirata's interpretation, and published results from his own studies of sex reversal in hemp, concluding that an X:A system was in use and that furthermore sex was strongly influenced by environmental conditions. 
Since then, many different types of sex determination systems have been discovered, particularly in plants.  Dioecy is relatively uncommon in the plant kingdom, and a very low percentage of dioecious plant species have been determined to use the XY system. In most cases where the XY system is found it is believed to have evolved recently and independently. 
Since the 1920s, a number of sex determination models have been proposed for Cannabis. Ainsworth describes sex determination in the genus as using "an X/autosome dosage type". 
The question of whether heteromorphic sex chromosomes are indeed present is most conveniently answered if such chromosomes were clearly visible in a karyotype. A karyotype is the characteristic Chromosome complement of a Eukaryote Species. Cannabis was one of the first plant species to be karyotyped; however, this was in a period when karyotype preparation was primitive by modern standards (see History of Cytogenetics). Cytogenetics is a branch of Genetics that is concerned with the study of chromosomes and cell division Heteromorphic sex chromosomes were reported to occur in staminate individuals of dioecious "Kentucky" hemp, but were not found in pistillate individuals of the same variety. Dioecious "Kentucky" hemp was assumed to use an XY mechanism. Heterosomes were not observed in analyzed individuals of monoecious "Kentucky" hemp, nor in an unidentified German cultivar. These varieties were assumed to have sex chromosome composition XX.  According to other researchers, no modern karyotype of Cannabis had been published as of 1996.  Proponents of the XY system state that Y chromosome is slightly larger than the X, but difficult to differentiate cytologically. 
More recently, Sakamoto and various co-authors have used RAPD to isolate several genetic marker sequences that they name Male-Associated DNA in Cannabis (MADC), and which they interpret as indirect evidence of a male chromosome. RAPD stands for R andom A mplification of P olymorphic D NA It is a type of PCR reaction but the segments of DNA that are amplified A genetic marker is a known DNA sequence. It can be described as a variation which may arise due to mutation or alteration in the genomic loci that can be observed Several other research groups have reported identification of male-associated markers using RAPD and AFLP. Amplified fragment length polymorphism PCR (or AFLP-PCR or just AFLP) is a PCR-based tool used in Genetics research DNA fingerprinting  Ainsworth commented on these findings, stating,
It is not surprising that male-associated markers are relatively abundant. In dioecious plants where sex chromosomes have not been identified, markers for maleness indicate either the presence of sex chromosomes which have not been distinguished by cytological methods or that the marker is tightly linked to a gene involved in sex determination. 
Environmental sex determination is known to occur in a variety of species.  Many researchers have suggested that sex in Cannabis is determined or strongly influenced by environmental factors.  Ainsworth reviews that treatment with auxin and ethylene have feminizing effects, and that treatment with cytokinins and gibberellins have masculinizing effects. Auxins are a class of Plant growth substance (often called Phytohormone or Plant hormone) Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Cytokinins (CK are a class of Plant growth substances ( Plant Hormones that promote Cell division. Gibberellins (GAs are Plant hormones that regulate growth and influence various developmental processes, including "stem elongation Secondary growth  It has been reported that sex can be reversed in Cannabis using chemical treatment.  A PCR-based method for the detection of female-associated DNA polymorphisms by genotyping has been developed. Polymorphism in biology occurs when two or more clearly different Phenotypes exist in the same population of a species — in other words the occurrence of more than one Genotyping refers to the process of determining the Genotype of an individual by the use of biological assays. 
Although there are hundreds of strains of cannabis in existence, there are also many rumors and urban legends. Many alleged strains, such as Purple Haze, are very predominant in pop-culture (see right), but the actual existence of many of these strains is uncertain and the slang terms used to refer to these strains do not appear to be used by botanists. Purple Haze is a song recorded in 1966 by The Jimi Hendrix Experience, released as a single in both the United Kingdom and the United States. Some strains, such as G-13, are acknowledged to be urban legends. This article is about a type of cannabis for the group of research intensive Canadian universities see Group of Thirteen (Canadian universities, for the engine see Suzuki G An urban legend or urban myth is a form of modern Folklore consisting of stories thought to be factual by those circulating them 
Strains of cannabis:
Some of the strains' names, such as Chocolate Thai, popular in the early 1990s due to its supposed high potency, entered the mass culture. Acapulco Gold is the traditional name of a legendary potent strain of cannabis ( Cannabis sativa L Panama Red, Panamanian Red, or PR is a Cultivar of cannabis, popular among cannabis afficiandos of the 1960s and 1970s and renowned for its This article is about a type of cannabis for the group of research intensive Canadian universities see Group of Thirteen (Canadian universities, for the engine see Suzuki G Kush refers to a subset of strains of indica cannabis. The origins of Kush cannabis are from Landrace plants in Afghanistan and Northern Northern Lights is a strain of cannabis. It is one of the first successful hybrids of Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa Purple Haze is a term used to describe a specific vividly purple strain of cannabis White Widow is a strain of Cannabis. It has won the Cannabis Cup and is named for the abundance of Trichomes, giving the plant a whitish tint For example, Chocolate Thai was adopted as a stage name of a jazz performer, whose album The Real McCoy was released in 2006. A stage name, also called a screen name, is a Pseudonym used by Performers and Entertainers such as . It should be noted, however, that because there is no manufacturing or state control over the process of production of cannabis, many "strains" may in fact be just marketing brands adopted by drug dealers to increase sales. A brand is a collection of Images and ideas representing an economic producer more specifically it refers to the descriptive verbal attributes and concrete symbols such as a The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs