Canadian English (CanE, en-CA) is the variety of North American English used in Canada. North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in North America, namely in the United States Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page More than 25 million Canadians (85 percent of the population) have some knowledge of English (2006 census). Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population Approximately 17 million have English as their native language. Excluding Quebec, 76% speak English natively. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk The phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon for most of Canada are very similar to that of the Western and Midlands regions of the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  Canadian English also contains elements of British English in its vocabulary, as well as several distinctive Canadianisms. British English or UK English ( BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the The spelling is a blend of American and British spelling. Many areas have also been influenced by French, and there are notable local variations. However, Canada has very little dialect diversity compared to the United States and other English speaking countries.  The phonological system of western Canadian English is identical to that of the Pacific Northwest of the United States, and the phonetics very similar. Pacific Northwest English is a Dialect of the English language spoken in the Pacific Northwest. 
The term "Canadian English" is first attested in a speech by the Reverend A. Constable Geikie in an address to the Canadian Institute in 1857. Geikie, a Scottish-born Canadian, reflected the Anglocentric attitude prevalent in Canada for the next hundred years when he referred to the language as "a corrupt dialect," in comparison to what he considered the proper English spoken by immigrants from Britain. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one's own Culture. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands 
Canadian English is the product of four waves of immigration and settlement over a period of almost two centuries. The first large wave of permanent English-speaking settlement in Canada, and linguistically the most important, was the influx of British Loyalists fleeing the American Revolution, chiefly from the Mid-Atlantic States. This article concerns Loyalists in the American Revolution. For information on the role of those Loyalists in Canadian history after their emigration see United Empire In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The Mid-Atlantic States (also called Middle Atlantic States or simply Mid Atlantic) form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that The second wave from Britain and Ireland was encouraged to settle in Canada after the War of 1812 by the governors of Canada, who were worried about anti-English sentiment among its citizens. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies The following is a list of the Governors and Governors General of Canada, and of the previous territories and colonies that now make up the country Waves of immigration from around the globe peaking in 1910 and 1960 had a lesser influence, but they did make Canada a multicultural country, ready to accept linguistic change from around the world during the current period of globalization. The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones 
The languages of Canadian Aboriginal peoples started to influence European languages used in Canada even before widespread settlement took place, and the French of Lower Canada provided vocabulary to the English of Upper Canada. Aboriginal people in Canada, also known as Canadian aboriginal citizens, are people who belong to recognized indigenous groups in the Canadian Constitution Act Quebec French ( le français québécois, le français du Québec) or less often Québécois French, is the predominant varieties The Province of Lower Canada (French Province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the The Province of Upper Canada (French Province du Haut-Canada) was a British colony located in what is now the southern portion of the Province of Ontario 
Canadian spelling of the English language combines British and American rules. Most notably, French-derived words that in American English end with -or and -er, such as color or center, usually retain British spellings (colour, honour and centre), although American spellings are not uncommon. Also, while the U. S. uses the Anglo-French spelling defense (noun), Canada uses the British spelling defence. (Note that defensive is universal. ) In other cases, Canadians and Americans stand at odds with British spelling, such as in the case of nouns like tire and curb, which in British English are spelled tyre and kerb. Words such as realize and recognize are usually spelled with -ize rather than -ise. (The etymological convention that verbs derived from Greek roots are spelled with -ize and those from Latin with -ise is preserved in that practice. )
Canadian spelling rules can be partly explained by Canada's trade history. For instance, the British spelling of the word cheque probably relates to Canada's once-important ties to British financial institutions. Canada's automobile industry, on the other hand, has been dominated by American firms from its inception, explaining why Canadians use the American spelling of tire and American terminology for the parts of automobiles.
A contemporary reference for formal Canadian spelling is the spelling used for Hansard transcripts of the Parliament of Canada. Hansard is the traditional name for the printed transcripts of Parliamentary debates in the Westminster system of Government. The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada is Canada 's legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. Many Canadian editors, though, use the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, 2nd ed. The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (abbreviated CanOD) is a Dictionary of Canadian English. (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2004), often along with the chapter on spelling in Editing Canadian English, and, where necessary (depending on context) one or more other references. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " (See Further reading below. )
The first Canadian dictionaries of Canadian English were edited by Walter Spencer Avis and published by Gage Ltd. Toronto. The Beginner's Dictionary (1962), the Intermediate Dictionary (1964) and, finally, the Senior Dictionary (1967) were milestones in CanE lexicography. Many secondary schools in Canada use these dictionaries. The dictionaries have regularly been updated since, the Senior Dictionary was renamed Gage Canadian Dictionary and exists in what may be called its 5th edition from 1997. Gage was acquired by Thomson Nelson around 2003. Concise versions and paperback version are available.
In 1997, the ITP Nelson Dictionary of the Canadian English Language was another product, but has not been updated since.
In 1998, Oxford University Press produced a Canadian English dictionary, after five years of lexicographical research, entitled The Oxford Canadian Dictionary. A second edition, retitled The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, was published in 2004. Just as the older dictionaries it includes uniquely Canadian words and words borrowed from other languages, and surveyed spellings, such as whether colour or color was the most popular choice in common use. Paperback and concise versions (2005, 2006), with minor updates, are available.
The scholarly Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles (DCHP) was first published in 1967 by Gage Ltd. It was a partner project of the Senior Dictionary (and appeared only a few weeks apart from each other). The DCHP can be considered the "Canadian OED", as it documents the historical development of CanE words that can be classified as "Canadianisms". It therefore includes words such as mukluk, Canuck, bluff and grow op, but does not list common core words such as desk, table or car. It is a specialist, scholarly dictionary, but is not without interest to the general public. After more than 40 years, a second edition has been commenced at UBC in Vancouver in 2006 (see www.dchp.ca for details).
The pronunciation of certain words has both American and British influence.
Canada has very little dialect diversity compared to the United States. The provinces east of Ontario show the largest dialect diversity. Northern Canada is, according to Labov, a dialect region in formation, and a homogenous dialect has not yet formed.  A very homogeneous dialect exists in Western and Central Canada, a situation that is similar to that of the Western United States. William Labov identifies an inland region that concentrates all of the defining features of the dialect centred on the Prairies, with periphery areas with more variable patterns including the metropolitan areas of Vancouver and Toronto. William Labov (ləˈboʊv born December 4, 1927) is an American linguist widely regarded as the founder of the discipline of variationist Sociolinguistics  This dialect forms a dialect continuum with the far Western United States, however it is sharply differentiated from the Inland Northern United States. This is a result of the relatively recent phenomenon known as the Northern cities vowel shift; see below. The Northern cities vowel shift is a Chain shift in the sounds of some Vowels in the Dialect region of American English known as the
As a variety of North American English, this variety is similar to most other forms of North American speech in being a rhotic accent, which is historically a significant marker in differentiating different English varieties. English pronunciation is divided into two main accent groups the rhotic (ˈroʊtɪk and non-rhotic, depending on when the sound typically represented
Like General American, this variety possesses the merry-Mary-marry merger (except in Montreal, which tends towards a distinction between marry and merry), as well as the father-bother merger. Father-bother merger The father-bother merger is a merger of the Early Modern English vowels /ɑː/ and /ɒ/ that occurs in almost all varieties of North American English
Perhaps the most recognizable feature of CanE is Canadian raising. Canadian raising is a phonetic phenomenon that occurs in varieties of the English language, especially Canadian English, in which Diphthongs are "raised" The diphthongs /aɪ/ and /aʊ/ are "raised" before voiceless consonants, namely /p/, /t/, /k/, /s/, and /f/. In these environments, /aɪ/ becomes [ʌɪ], while the raised allophone of /aʊ/ varies regionally: it is more fronted in Ontario (closer to [ɛʊ]) but more retracted in the West and the Maritimes (closer to [ʌʊ]).  Canadian raising is found throughout Canada, including much of the Atlantic Provinces. Atlantic Canada, also known as the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Canada comprising four provinces located on the Atlantic coast:  It is the strongest in the Inland region, and is receding in younger speakers in Lower Mainland British Columbia, as well as certain parts of Ontario. British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C
Because the nucleus of the diphthong is raised to a mid position, speakers of dialects that do not possess Canadian raising will hear that the diphthong sounds different, and will approximate it with the closest sound in their dialect, which is usually /o/. As a result, the Canadian pronunciation of about to American ears, may sound like "a boat", or sometimes even exaggerated to "a boot". This is more noticeable in Eastern Canada (with the exception of Newfoundland) and least so in Vancouver. However there is no region in Canada that pronounces it like [əbut] "a boot", although in parts of the Prairies and Nova Scotia it may be so retracted as to be very similar to "a boat". 
Many Canadians, especially in parts of the Atlantic provinces, do not possess Canadian raising. In the U. S. , this feature can be found in areas near the border such as the Upper Midwest, although it is much less common than in Canada; raising of /aɪ/ alone, however, is increasing in the U. S. , and unlike raising of /aʊ/, is generally not noticed by people who do not have the raising.
Because of Canadian raising, many speakers are able to distinguish between words such as writer and rider--a feat otherwise impossible, because North American dialects turn intervocalic /t/ into an alveolar flap. Thus writer and rider are distinguished solely by their vowels, even though the distinction between their consonants has since been lost. Speakers who do not have raising cannot distinguish between these two words.
CanE also contains the cot-caught merger, which also occurs in the Western U. Father-bother merger The father-bother merger is a merger of the Early Modern English vowels /ɑː/ and /ɒ/ that occurs in almost all varieties of North American English S. Almost all Canadians have this merger. Speakers do not distinguish between the open-mid back rounded vowel /ɔ/ and open back unrounded vowel /ɑ/. The merger causes speakers not only to produce the vowels in words like cot and caught identically, but also fail to hear the difference when speakers who preserve the distinction (e. g. speakers of Conservative General American and Inland Northern American English) say these words. General American is an accent of American English within American English General American and accents approximating it are contrasted with Southern American The Inland North dialect of American English is spoken in a region that includes the cities along the Erie Canal and south of the Great Lakes, as well as This merger has existed in Canada for several generations. 
This creates a hole in the short vowel sub-system and triggers a sound change known as the Canadian Shift, mainly found in Ontario, English-speaking Montreal and further west, and led by Ontarians and women; it involves the front lax vowels /æ, ɛ, ɪ/. The Canadian Shift is a linguistic Vowel shift found in Canadian English.
The vowels in the words cot and caught merge in low back position. The /æ/ of bat is lowered and retracted in the direction of [a] (except in some environments, see below). Indeed, /æ/ is backer in this variety than almost all other North American dialects; the retraction of /æ/ was independently observed in Vancouver and is more advanced for Ontarians and women than for people from the Prairies or Atlantic Canada and men. Vancouver (vænˈkuːvɚ is a coastal The Canadian Prairies is a region in western Canada, which may correspond to several different definitions natural or political Atlantic Canada, also known as the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Canada comprising four provinces located on the Atlantic coast:  Then, /ɛ/ and /ɪ/ may be lowered (in the direction of [æ] and [ɛ]) and/or retracted; studies actually disagree on the trajectory of the shift. 
Therefore, in Canadian English, the short-a and the short-o are shifted in opposite directions to that of the Northern Cities vowel shift, found across the border in the Inland Northern U.S., which is causing these two dialects to diverge: the Canadian short-a is very similar in quality to the Inland Northern short-o; for example, the production [maːp] would be recognized as map in Canada, but mop in the Inland North. The Northern cities vowel shift is a Chain shift in the sounds of some Vowels in the Dialect region of American English known as the The Inland North dialect of American English is spoken in a region that includes the cities along the Erie Canal and south of the Great Lakes, as well as
Traditionally diphthongal vowels such as /oʊ/ (as in boat) and /eɪ/ (as in bait) have qualities much closer to monophthongs in some speakers especially in the Inland region. Like the Northern U. S. , /oʊ/ and /aʊ/ are conservative--they are pronounced back and rounded. However, /u/ is fronted after coronals. /u/ is becoming more fronted in recent generations. This fronting is led by women, and is strongest in Ontario and British Columbia. 
Unlike most varieties of North American English, in this dialect /æ/ is raised more before velar stops rather than before /d/.  For example, bag has a vowel that is similar to the vowel in beg. Before nasals, /æ/ is usually raised, but to a lesser degree than in most of the U. S. 
Some older speakers still maintain a distinction between whale and wail, and do and dew. 
The first element of /ɑr/ (as in car) tends to be raised to at least lower-mid position. 
British Columbia English has several words still in current use borrowed from the Chinook Jargon. Chinook Jargon originated as a Pidgin trade language of the Pacific Northwest, and spread quickly up the West Coast from modern Oregon to the regions now Most famous and widely used of these terms are skookum and saltchuck. Skookum is a Chinook jargon word that has come into general use in British Columbia and Yukon Territory in Canada, and in the U In the Yukon, cheechako is used for newcomers or greenhorns. A study shows that people from Vancouver exhibit more vowel retraction of /æ/ before nasals than people from Toronto, and this retraction may become a regional marker of West Coast English.
A strong Canadian raising exists in the prairie regions together with certain older usages such as chesterfield and front room also associated with the Maritimes. Aboriginal Canadians are a larger and more conspicuous population in prairie cities than elsewhere in the country and certain elements of aboriginal speech in English are sometimes to be heard. Similarly, the linguistic legacy, mostly intonation but also speech patterns and syntax, of the Scandinavian, Slavic and German settlers — who are far more numerous and historically important in the Prairies than in Ontario or the Maritimes — can be heard in the general milieu. Again, the large Métis population in Saskatchewan and Manitoba also carries with it certain linguistic traits inherited from French, Aboriginal and Celtic forebears. A Métis is a person born to parents who belong to different groups defined by visible physical differences regarded as racial or the descendant of such persons Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts Some terms are derived from immigrant groups or are just local inventions: shinny (elsewhere ball hockey or street hockey), slough, ginch/gonch/gitch/gotch (underpants), bluff (small group of trees isolated by prairie), bunny hug (elsewhere hoodie). Shinny (or shinney is an informal type of hockey played on ice or the street The word slough (in British English ˈslaʊ to rhyme with "cow" in American and Canadian English pronounced /ˈsluː/ "slew" has Prairie, from the French prairie ("meadow" "grassland" "pasture" refers to an area of land of low topographic relief that historically The Bunny hug was a dancing style performed by young people in the early 20th century A hoodie (or hoody) short for hooded sweatshirt, is a heavy upper-body garment with a hood. In farming communities with substantial Ukrainian, German, or Mennonite populations, accents and sentence structure influenced by these languages is common. The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496&ndash1561 though his teachings were a relatively
The area to the north and west of Ottawa is heavily influenced by original Scottish, Irish, and German settlers, with many French loanwords. Ottawa Valley Twang refers to the English spoken in the Ottawa Valley by Anglophones and Francophones alike This is frequently referred to as the Valley Accent. This dialect is heavy with slang phrases and terminology.
Although only 1% of Torontonians speak French, only about 60% are native speakers of English. The West / Central Canadian English dialect is one of the largest and most homogeneous dialect areas in North America, ranging from As a result Toronto shows a more variable speech pattern.  Although slang terms used in Toronto are synonymous with those used in other major North American cities, there is also a heavy influx of slang terminology originating from Toronto's many immigrant communities. These terms originate mainly from various European, Asian, and African words. Among youths in ethnically diverse areas, a large number of words borrowed from Jamaican patois can be heard, owing to the large number of Jamaican immigrants in Toronto.
Many in the Maritime provinces – Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island – have an accent that sounds more like Scottish English and, in some places, Irish English than General American. The phonology of Maritimer English has some unique features:
The dialect spoken in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, an autonomous dominion until March 31, 1949, is often considered the most distinctive Canadian dialect. Newfoundland English is a name for several Dialects of English found in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, often regarded as the most distinctive A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of Newfoundland and Labrador (ˈnuːfɨn(dlənd ən(d ˈlæbrəˌdɔr (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador is a province of Canada, the tenth and latest to join the Confederation Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Some Newfoundland English differs in vowel pronunciation, morphology, syntax, and preservation of archaic adverbal-intensifiers. In Phonetics, a vowel is a Sound in spoken Language, such as English ah! or oh!, pronounced with an open Vocal tract Morphology is the field of Linguistics that studies the internal structure of words In Linguistics, syntax (from Ancient Greek grc συν- syn-, "together" and grc τάξις táxis, "arrangement" is the In Language, an archaism is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current The dialect can vary markedly from community to community, as well as from region to region, reflecting ethnic origin as well as a past in which there were few roads and many communities, and fishing villages in particular remained very isolated. A few speakers have a transitional pin-pen merger. 
Where CanE shares vocabulary with other English dialects, it tends to share most with American English; many terms in standard CanE are, however, shared with Britain, but not with the majority of American speakers. In some cases the British and the American term coexist, to various extents; a classic example is holiday, often used interchangeably with vacation. In addition, the vocabulary of CanE also features words that are seldom (if ever) found elsewhere.
As a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Canada shares many items of institutional terminology with the countries of the former British Empire – e. g. , constable, for a police officer of the lowest rank, and chartered accountant.
The term college, which refers to post-secondary education in general in the U. S. , refers in Canada to either a post-secondary technical or vocational institution, or to one of the colleges that exist as federated schools within some Canadian universities. A federated school, federated college, federated university, or affiliated school is an educational institution which is independent in some respects but Most often, a college is a community college, not a university. It may also refer to a CEGEP in Quebec. A CEGEP (ˈseɪʒɛp or /ˈsiːʤɛp/ French: Cégep) is a post-secondary education institution exclusive to the province of Quebec in In Canada, college student might denote someone obtaining a diploma in business management while university student is the term for someone earning a bachelor's degree. A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and For that reason, going to college does not have the same meaning as going to university, unless the speaker clarifies the specific level of post-secondary education that is meant.
Canadian universities publish calendars or schedules, not catalogs as in the U. S. . Students write or sometimes take exams, they do not sit them. Those who supervise students during an exam are generally called invigilators as in Britain, or sometimes proctors as in the U. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland S. ; usage may depend on the region or even the individual institution.
Successive years of school are often, if not usually, referred to as grade one, grade two, and so on. In Quebec English, however, the speaker will often say primary one, primary two, (a direct translation from the French), and so on. Quebec English is the common term for the set of various linguistic and social phenomena affecting the use of English in the predominantly French -speaking French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people (Compare American first grade, second grade, sporadically found in Canada, and British Year 1, Year 2. ) In the U. S. , the four years of high school are termed the freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years (terms also used for college years); in Canada, these are simply grades 9 through 12.  As for higher education, only the term freshman (usually reduced to frosh) has some currency in Canada.  The specific high-school grades and university years are therefore stated and individualized; for example, the grade 12s failed to graduate; John is in his second year at McMaster. The "first year", "third year" designation also applies to Canadian law school students, as opposed to the common American usage of "1L", "2L" and "3L. "
Canadian students use the term marks (more common in England) or grades to refer to their results; usage is very mixed. 
Use of metric units is more widespread in Canada than in the U. S. as a result of the national adoption of the Metric System during the late 1970s by the government of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. Official measurements are given in metric, including highway speeds and distances, fuel volume and consumption, and weather measurements (with temperatures in degrees Celsius). However, it is not uncommon for Canadians to use British imperial units such as pounds, feet, and inches to measure their bodies. Older generations are more likely to use miles for distances. The term klicks is sometimes used interchangeably with kilometres because both the demotic and metric (with the first syllable stressed) pronunciations are widespread. Both metric and Imperial measures for cups, teaspoons, and tablespoons are used in cooking, as well as degrees Fahrenheit in baking.
Lawyers in all parts of Canada, except Quebec, which has its own civil law system, are called "barristers and solicitors" because any lawyer licensed in any of the common law provinces and territories is permitted to engage in both types of legal practice in contrast to other common-law jurisdictions such as England, Wales, and Ireland where the two are traditionally separated (i. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Civil law or Romano-Germanic law or Continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. A barrister is a Lawyer found in many Common law Jurisdictions that employ a split profession (as opposed to a Fused profession) in relation A "solicitor" is a term used in many Common law jurisdictions for a lawyer who offers legal services outside of the courts e. , Canada has a fused legal profession). Fused profession is a term relating to jurisdictions where the Legal profession is not divided between Barristers and Solicitors. Yet the words lawyer and counsel (not counsellor) predominate in everyday contexts; the word attorney is not used to refer to a Canadian lawyer.
The equivalent of an American district attorney is called a crown attorney (in Ontario), crown counsel (in British Columbia), crown prosecutor or the crown, on account of Canada's status as a constitutional monarchy in which the Monarch (or rather, The Crown) is the locus of state power, as opposed to the American republican system. A district attorney (DA is in some US jurisdictions the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of alleged criminals Crown Attorneys or Crown Counsel (or in Alberta, Crown Prosecutors) are the Public prosecutors in the legal system of Canada Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is Throughout the Commonwealth realms The Crown is an abstract metonymic concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its
The words advocate and notary – two distinct professions in Quebec civil law – are used to refer to that province's equivalent of barrister and solicitor, respectively. Civil law notaries are trained Jurists who often receive the same training as advocating jurists &mdash those with a legal education who become litigators such as Barristers In Canada's common law provinces and territories, the word notary means strictly a notary public. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive A notary public is an officer who can administer Oaths and Statutory Declarations Witness and authenticate documents
Within the Canadian legal community itself, the word solicitor is often used to refer to any Canadian lawyer in general (much like the way the word attorney is used in the United States to refer to any American lawyer in general). Despite the conceptual distinction between barrister and solicitor, Canadian court documents would contain a phrase such as "John Smith, solicitor for the Plaintiff" even though "John Smith" may well himself be the barrister who argues the case in court. In a letter introducing him/herself to an opposing lawyer, a Canadian lawyer normally writes something like "I am the solicitor for Mr. Tom Jones. "
The word litigator is also used by lawyers to refer to a fellow lawyer who specializes in lawsuits even though the more traditional word barrister is still employed to denote the same specialization.
As in England, a serious crime is called an indictable offence, while a less-serious crime is called a summary offence. In many Common law Jurisdictions (eg the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Canada, United States, India, A summary offense, also known as a petty crime, is a criminal act in some Common law jurisdictions that can be proceeded with summarily without the right The older words felony and misdemeanour, which are still used in the United States, are not used in Canada's current Criminal Code (R. In Common law legal systems a felony is a serious Crime, often contrasted with a Misdemeanor. A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems is a "lesser" criminal act The Criminal Code of Canada (long title An Act respecting the criminal law, R S. C. 1985, c. C-46) or by today's Canadian legal system. As noted throughout the Criminal Code, a person accused of a crime is called the accused and not the defendant, a term used instead in civil lawsuits.
Distinctive Canadianisms are:
Terms common in Canada, Britain, and Ireland but less frequent or nonexistent in the U. S. are:
The following are more or less distinctively Canadian:
The following are common in Canada, but not in the U. S. or the UK.
The following are Canadianisms:
A rubber in the U. S. and Canada is slang for a condom. However, in Canada it is sometimes another term for eraser (as it is in the United Kingdom) and, in the plural, for overshoes or galoshes (as it is in the U. S. ). It is also used to refer to the tie-breaking match in a card game, especially in the Maritimes. The terms booter and soaker refer to getting water in one's shoe. The former is generally more common in the prairies, the latter in the rest of Canada.
The word bum can refer either to the buttocks (as in Britain), or, derogatorily, to a homeless person (as in the U. Homelessness is the condition and social category of people who lack housing because they cannot afford or are otherwise unable to maintain regular safe and adequate shelter S. ). However, the "buttocks" sense does not have the indecent character it retains in British and Australian use, as it is commonly used as a polite or childish euphemism for ruder words such as arse (commonly used in Atlantic Canada and among older people in Ontario and to the west) or ass, or mitiss (used in the Prairie Provinces, especially in northern and central Saskatchewan; probably originally a Cree loanword). Arse is an informal English term referring to the Buttocks, which is commonly used in English speaking countries such as the United Kingdom,
Similarly the word pissed can refer either to being drunk (as in Britain), or being mad or angry (as in the U. S. ), though anger is often said as pissed off, while piss drunk or pissed up is said to describe inebriation.
One of the most distinctive Canadian phrases is the spoken interjection eh, which is stereotyped as being said by all Canadians in modern culture. Eh (ˈeɪ or /ˈɛ/ in English is a spoken Interjection in Armenian, Japanese, English, Dutch, Italian, The only usage of eh exclusive to Canada, according to the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, is for "ascertaining the comprehension, continued interest, agreement, etc. , of the person or persons addressed" as in, "It's four kilometres away, eh, so I have to go by bike. " In that case, eh? is used to confirm the attention of the listener and to invite a supportive noise such as mm or oh or okay. Other uses of eh—for instance, in place of huh? or what? meaning "please repeat or say again"—are also found in parts of the British Isles and Australia. This term in particular is also common in some border areas such as Northern Michigan and in the Detroit metropolitan region.
The word hoser, used extensively in Bob and Doug McKenzie skits, refers to an uncouth, beer drinking man. Hoser is both a slang term and a Stereotype, originating from and used primarily in Canada. Bob and Doug McKenzie are a pair of fictional Canadian brothers who hosted "The Great White North" a  A keener is someone who is keen or enthusiastic to do a task; in some contexts derogatory.
A Canuck is a Canadian and used by Canadians with pride; it is not a derogatory term.
A "Newf" or Newfie is someone from Newfoundland and Labrador; sometimes considered derogatory.
en-CAis the language code for Canadian English , as defined by ISO standards (see ISO 639-1 and ISO 3166-1 alpha-2) and Internet standards (see IETF language tag). A language code is a Code that assigns letters or numbers as identifiers for Languages These codes are often used to organize library collections to choose the correct ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter Country codes in the ISO 3166-1 standard to represent countries and dependent territories. In Computer network Engineering, an Internet Standard (STD is a Specification, put forward by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF for IETF language tags are defined by BCP 47, which is currently RFC 4646 and RFC 4647