|République du Cameroun|
Republic of Cameroon
|Motto: "Paix - Travail - Patrie" (French)|
"Peace - Work - Fatherland"
|Anthem: Ô Cameroun, Berceau de nos Ancêtres (French)|
O Cameroon, Cradle of our Forefathers 1
|Official languages||French, English|
|-||Prime Minister||Ephraïm Inoni|
|Independence||from France and the UK|
|-||Date||1 January 1960, 1 October 1961|
|-||Total||475,442 km² (53rd)|
183,568 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||1. The national Flag of Cameroon was adopted in its present form on May 20, 1975 after Cameroon became a unitary state The National Emblem of Cameroon consists of a shield with a banner above and below it A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Chant de Ralliement or The Rallying Song is the National anthem of Cameroon. Yaoundé, (jɑːuːnˈdeɪ is the Capital city of Cameroon and second largest city in the country after Douala. The demographic profile of Cameroon is complex for a country of its population Douala is the largest city in Cameroon and the capital of Cameroon's Littoral Province. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its This is a List of Heads of State of Cameroon. (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office Latest election Affiliations Paul Biya (born 13 February 1933) has been the President of Cameroon since November 6, 1982. Under the current constitution of Cameroon the Prime Minister of Cameroon is a relatively powerless executive Ephraïm Inoni (born 16 August, 1947) is the Prime Minister of Cameroon. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 3|
|-||July 2005 estimate||17,795,000 (58th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2005 estimate|
|-||Total||$43. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 196 billion (84th)|
|-||Per capita||$2,421 (130th)|
|Gini (2001)||44. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 6 (medium)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 532 (medium) (144th)|
|Currency||Central African CFA franc (|
|Time zone||WAT (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+1)|
|1||These are the titles as given in the Constitution of the Republic of Cameroon, Article X. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The Central African CFA franc ( French: franc CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code XAF) is the currency of six independent states ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established West Africa Time, or WAT, is a time zone used in western and west-central Africa (though not in countries west of Benin, which instead use GMT Daylight saving time ( DST A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E The French version of the song is sometimes called "Chant de Ralliement", as in National Anthems of the World, and the English version "O Cameroon, Cradle of Our Forefathers", as in DeLancey and DeLancey 61.|
The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central and western Africa. A unitary state is a State whose three Organs of state are governed Constitutionally as one single unit with one Constitutionally created It borders Nigeria to the west; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo to the south. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. Central Africa|Central African FederationThe Central African Republic ( CAR) République Centrafricaine ʀepyblik sɑ̃tʀafʀikɛn or Centrafrique) is a Landlocked The Republic of Equatorial Guinea ( República de Guinea Ecuatorial,) is a country in Central Africa. Gabon (gəˈbɒn or /gaˈbõ/ in French) is a country in west central Africa sharing borders with Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Republic The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo Kongo: Repubilika ya Kongo; Lingala: Republiki ya Kongó) also known as Congo-Brazzaville Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of Bonny, part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Bight of Bonny (also known as the Bight of Biafra) is a bight off the West African coast in the easternmost part (beyond the Bight of Benin to the West The Gulf of Guinea is the part of the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Africa. The country is called "Africa in miniature" for its geological and cultural diversity. Tourism in Cameroon is a growing but relatively minor industry Natural features include beaches, deserts, mountains, rainforests, and savannas. The highest point is Mount Cameroon in the southwest, and the largest cities are Douala, Yaoundé, and Garoua. Mount Cameroon is an active Volcano in Cameroon near the Gulf of Guinea. Douala is the largest city in Cameroon and the capital of Cameroon's Littoral Province. Yaoundé, (jɑːuːnˈdeɪ is the Capital city of Cameroon and second largest city in the country after Douala. Garoua is the capital of the North Province of Cameroon, lying on the Benue River. Cameroon is home to over 200 different ethnic and linguistic groups. The country is well known for its native styles of music, particularly makossa and bikutsi, and for its successful national football team. Makossa is a type of Music which is most popular in urban areas in Cameroon. Bikutsi is a Musical genre from Cameroon. It developed from the traditional styles of the Beti, or Ewondo people who live around the city of Yaounde The Cameroon national football team, nicknamed Lions Indomptables (Indomitable Lions, is controlled by the Fédération Camerounaise de Football and is Africa's English and French are the official languages.
Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. The Sao or So were an African civilisation that flourished from ca Lake Chad (in French Lac Tchad) is a historically large shallow lake in Africa, whose size has varied greatly over the centuries The Baka, also known as Bebayaka, Bebayaga, Bibaya, or Babinga, are an Ethnic group inhabiting the southeastern Rain forests Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões ("River of Prawns"), the name from which Cameroon derives. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, and various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms. The Fula or Fulbe or Fulani (the latter being an Anglicisation of the word in their language Fulɓe) are an ethnic group of Adamawa or the Adamawa Emirate was a traditional Emirate located in Fumbina, what is now the Adamawa State, Nigeria and the three For other uses see Fon (disambiguation A fon is a chieftain or king of a region of Cameroon, especially among the Tikar Cameroon became a German colony in 1884. The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism After World War I, the territory was divided between France and Britain as League of Nations mandates. The French Third Republic (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. A League of Nations mandate refers to a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I. The Union des Populations du Cameroun political party advocated independence but was outlawed in the 1950s. The Union of the Peoples of Cameroon (Union des Populations du Cameroun is a Political party in Cameroon. It waged war on French and Cameroonian forces until 1971. In 1960, French Cameroun became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo. Cameroun was a French mandate territory in central Africa now constituting the majority of the territory of the Republic of Cameroon. Ahmadou Babatoura Ahidjo ( 24 August 1924 - 30 November 1989) was the first President of Cameroon from 1960 until 1982 The southern part of British Cameroons merged with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. Southern Cameroons was the southern part of the British Mandate territory of Cameroons in West Africa. British Cameroons was a British Mandate territory in West Africa, now divided between Nigeria and Cameroon. A federal republic is a Federation of States with a republican form of government The country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984. A unitary state is a State whose three Organs of state are governed Constitutionally as one single unit with one Constitutionally created
Compared with other African countries, Cameroon enjoys political and social stability. This has permitted the development of agriculture, roads, railways, and large petroleum and timber industries. Nevertheless, large numbers of Cameroonians live in poverty as subsistence farmers. Power lies firmly in the hands of the president, Paul Biya, and his Cameroon People's Democratic Movement party, and corruption is widespread. Paul Biya (born 13 February 1933) has been the President of Cameroon since November 6, 1982. The Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (Rassemblement démocratique du Peuple Camerounais RDPC) is the ruling Political party in Cameroon. Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain The Anglophone community has grown increasingly alienated from the government, and Anglophone politicians have called for greater decentralisation and even the secession of the former British-governed territories. Anglophone Cameroonians are the people of various cultural backgrounds who hail from the English-speaking provinces of Cameroon ( Northwest and Southwest
The territory of present day Cameroon was first settled during the Neolithic. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos The longest continuous inhabitants are the Pygmy groups such as the Baka. Pygmies (singular Pygmy) refers to a member of any human group whose adult males grow to less than 150 cm (4 feet 11 inches in average height or less than 155 cm The Baka, also known as Bebayaka, Bebayaga, Bibaya, or Babinga, are an Ethnic group inhabiting the southeastern Rain forests  The Sao culture arose around Lake Chad c. The Sao or So were an African civilisation that flourished from ca Lake Chad (in French Lac Tchad) is a historically large shallow lake in Africa, whose size has varied greatly over the centuries AD 500 and gave way to the Kanem and its successor state, the Bornu empire. The Kanem Empire (700 - 1376 was located in the present countries of Chad and Libya. The Bornu Empire (1396-1893 was a medieval African state of Niger from 1389 to 1893 Kingdoms, fondoms, and chiefdoms arose in the west. For other uses see Fon (disambiguation A fon is a chieftain or king of a region of Cameroon, especially among the Tikar
Portuguese sailors reached the coast in 1472. They noted an abundance of prawns and crayfish in the Wouri River and named it Rio dos Camarões, Portuguese for "River of Prawns", and the phrase from which Cameroon is derived. The Wouri (also Vouri or Vuri) is a river in Cameroon. The river is formed at the confluence of the rivers Ykam and Makombé, 32 km Over the following few centuries, European interests regularised trade with the coastal peoples, and Christian missionaries pushed inland. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. In the early 19th century, Modibo Adama led Fulani soldiers on a jihad in the north against non-Muslim and partially Muslim peoples and established the Adamawa Emirate. Adama bi Ardo Hassana (c 1786 – c 1847 more commonly known as Modibo Adama, was a Fulani Scholar and holy warrior The Fula or Fulbe or Fulani (the latter being an Anglicisation of the word in their language Fulɓe) are an ethnic group of Jihad (جهاد ʤɪhæːd an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. Adamawa or the Adamawa Emirate was a traditional Emirate located in Fumbina, what is now the Adamawa State, Nigeria and the three Settled peoples who fled the Fulani caused a major redistribution of population. 
The German Empire claimed the territory as the colony of Kamerun in 1884 and began a steady push inland. The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism Kamerun was an African colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1916 in the region of today's Republic of Cameroon. They initiated projects to improve the colony's infrastructure, relying on a harsh system of forced labour. Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations especially in modern or early modern history in which people are employed against their will  With the defeat of Germany in World War I, Kamerun became a League of Nations mandate territory and was split into French Cameroun and British Cameroons in 1919. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All A League of Nations mandate refers to a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I. The French Third Republic (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe Cameroun was a French mandate territory in central Africa now constituting the majority of the territory of the Republic of Cameroon. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. British Cameroons was a British Mandate territory in West Africa, now divided between Nigeria and Cameroon. The French carefully integrated the economy of Cameroun with that of France and improved the infrastructure with capital investments, skilled workers, and continued forced labour.  The British administered their territory from neighbouring Nigeria. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Natives complained that this made them a neglected "colony of a colony". Nigerian migrant workers flocked to Southern Cameroons, ending forced labour but angering indigenous peoples.  The League of Nations mandates were converted into United Nations Trusteeships in 1946, and the question of independence became a pressing issue in French Cameroun. The United Nations Trusteeship Council, one of the principal organs of the United Nations, was established to help ensure that non-self-governing territories were administered  France outlawed the most radical political party, the Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC), on 13 July 1955. The Union of the Peoples of Cameroon (Union des Populations du Cameroun is a Political party in Cameroon. Events 1174 - William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-1174, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) This prompted a long guerrilla war and the assassination of the party's leader, Ruben Um Nyobé. Ruben Um Nyobé ( 1913 - September 13, 1958) was an Anti-imperialist Cameroonian leader slain by the French army on September 13 1958  In British Cameroons, the question was whether to reunify with French Cameroun or join Nigeria.
On 1 January 1960, French Cameroun gained independence from France under President Ahmadou Ahidjo, and on 1 October 1961, the formerly-British Southern Cameroons united with its neighbour to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Ahmadou Babatoura Ahidjo ( 24 August 1924 - 30 November 1989) was the first President of Cameroon from 1960 until 1982 Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Southern Cameroons was the southern part of the British Mandate territory of Cameroons in West Africa. Ahidjo used the ongoing war with the UPC and fears of ethnic conflict to concentrate power in the presidency, continuing with this even after the suppression of the UPC in 1971.  His political party, the Cameroon National Union (CNU), became the sole legal political party on 1 September 1966 and in 1972, the federal system of government was abolished in favour of a United Republic of Cameroon, headed from Yaoundé. The Cameroon National Union ( CNU) ( French Union Nationale Camerounaise) was Cameroon's sole legal Political party until 1990 Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. A federation ( Latin: foedus, covenant is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central ("federal" Yaoundé, (jɑːuːnˈdeɪ is the Capital city of Cameroon and second largest city in the country after Douala.  Ahidjo pursued an economic policy of planned liberalism, prioritising cash crops and petroleum exploitation. Planned liberalism is an economic policy followed in Cameroon since the 1960s that aims to merge the best concepts of Capitalism and Socialism The government used oil money to create a national cash reserve, pay farmers, and finance major development projects; however, many initiatives failed when Ahidjo appointed unqualified allies to direct them. 
Ahidjo stepped down on 4 November 1982 and left power to his constitutional successor, Paul Biya. Events 1333 - Flood of the Arno River, causing massive damage in Florence as recorded by the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) Paul Biya (born 13 February 1933) has been the President of Cameroon since November 6, 1982. However, Ahidjo remained in control of the CNU and tried to run the country from behind the scenes until Biya and his allies pressured him into resigning. Biya began his administration by moving toward a more democratic government, but a failed coup d'état nudged him toward the leadership style of his predecessor.  An economic crisis took effect in the mid-1980s to late 1990s as a result of international economic conditions, drought, falling petroleum prices, and years of corruption, mismanagement, and cronyism. The Cameroonian economic crisis was a downturn in the Economy of Cameroon from the mid-1980s to the early 2000s Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain For the record label see Crony Records Cronyism is partiality to long-standing friends especially by appointing them to positions of authority Cameroon turned to foreign aid, cut government spending, and privatised industries. Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business With the reintroduction of multi-party politics in December 1990, Anglophone pressure groups called for greater autonomy, with some advocating complete secession as the Republic of Ambazonia. Anglophone Cameroonians are the people of various cultural backgrounds who hail from the English-speaking provinces of Cameroon ( Northwest and Southwest Ambazonia or Ambazania is the name given to the Southern Cameroons by organisations that struggle for the dissolution of the 1961 union of the Southern Cameroons  In February 2008, Cameroon experienced its worse violence in 15 years when a transport union strike in Douala escalated into violent protests in 31 municipal areas. The 2008 Cameroon protests were a series of violent demonstrations in Cameroon 's biggest cities that took place from 25 February to 29 February 2008 
The President of Cameroon has broad, unilateral powers to create policy, administer government agencies, command the armed forces, negotiate and ratify treaties, and declare a state of emergency. This is a List of Heads of State of Cameroon. (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office Latest election Affiliations The Cameroonian Military generally has been an apolitical force dominated by civilian control.  The president appoints government officials at all levels, from the prime minister (considered the official head of government), to the provincial governors, divisional officers, and urban-council members in large cities. Under the current constitution of Cameroon the Prime Minister of Cameroon is a relatively powerless executive The president is selected by popular vote every seven years. In smaller municipalities, the public elects mayors and councilors. Corruption is rife at all levels of government. In 1997, Cameroon established anti-corruption bureaus in 29 ministries, but only 25% became operational, and in 2007, Transparency International placed Cameroon at number 138 on a list of 163 countries ranked from least to most corrupt. Transparency International ( TI) is a leading international Non-governmental organization addressing corruption  On 18 January 2006, Biya initiated an anti-corruption drive under the direction of the National Anti-Corruption Observatory. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The National Anti-Corruption Observatory is a government body in Cameroon that investigates Political corruption, organises anti-corruption initiatives and monitors 
Cameroon's legal system is largely based on French civil law with common law influences. In academic terms French law can be divided into two main categories private law (" droit privé " and public law (" droit public "  Although nominally independent, the judiciary falls under the authority of the executive's Ministry of Justice. The Ministry of Justice of Cameroon is the Department responsible for administering the Cameroon justice system  The president appoints judges at all levels. The judiciary is officially divided into tribunals, the court of appeal, and the supreme court. The Courts of Appeal are appellate courts in Cameroon. They are defined in Part V of the Constitution of Cameroon as being under the Supreme Court The Supreme Court ( French Cour Suprême) is the highest judicial body in Cameroon. The National Assembly elects the members of a nine-member High Court of Justice that judges high-ranking members of government in the event they are charged with high treason or harming national security. The High Court of Justice is a Political court in Cameroon. The court judges high-ranking members of the government of Cameroon including the president
Human rights organisations accuse police and military forces of mistreating and even torturing criminal suspects, ethnic minorities, homosexuals, and political activists. In the African country of Cameroon, homosexuality is punishable according to Article 347 of the penal code with a prison sentence of 6 months to 5 years and/or a fine of 200000 CFA  Prisons are overcrowded with little access to adequate food and medical facilities, and prisons run by traditional rulers in the north are charged with holding political opponents at the behest of the government.  However, since the early 2000s, an increasing number of police and gendarmes have been prosecuted for improper conduct. 
The National Assembly makes legislation. The National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale is the Parliament of Cameroon. The body consists of 180 members who are elected for five-year terms and meet three times per year. Laws are passed on a majority vote. Rarely has the assembly changed or blocked legislation proposed by the president.  The 1996 constitution establishes a second house of parliament, the 100-seat Senate, but this body has never been put into practice.  The government recognises the authority of traditional chiefs, fons, and lamibe to govern at the local level and to resolve disputes as long as such rulings do not conflict with national law. Lamido (plural Lamibe) is the Anglicisation of a term from the Fula language or Fulfulde used to refer to a ruler 
President Paul Biya's Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (CPDM) was the only legal political party until December 1990. The Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (Rassemblement démocratique du Peuple Camerounais RDPC) is the ruling Political party in Cameroon. Numerous ethnic and regional political groups have since formed. The primary opposition is the Social Democratic Front (SDF), based largely in the Anglophone region of the country and headed by John Fru Ndi. The Social Democratic Front (Front Social-Démocratique is the main opposition party of Cameroon. Ni John Fru Ndi (born 7 July 1941) is the founder and leader of Cameroon 's Social Democratic Front (SDF  Biya and his party have maintained control of the presidency and the National Assembly in national elections, but rivals contend that these have been unfair.  Human rights organisations allege that the government suppresses the freedoms of opposition groups by preventing demonstrations, disrupting meetings, and arresting opposition leaders and journalists.  Freedom House ranks Cameroon as "not free" in terms of political rights and civil liberties. Freedom House is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Democracy, political  The last parliamentary elections were held on 22 July 2007. A parliamentary election was held in Cameroon on 22 July 2007, with some polls held again on 30 September 2007. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
Cameroon is a member of both the Commonwealth of Nations and La Francophonie. La Francophonie is an international organisation of French-speaking countries and governments and in French, the community of French-speaking peoples Its foreign policy closely follows that of its main ally, France. Cameroon 's noncontentious low-profile approach to foreign relations puts it squarely in the middle of other African and developing country states on major issues  The country relies heavily on France for its defence, although military spending is high in comparison to other sectors of government.  Biya has clashed with the government of Nigeria over possession of the Bakassi peninsula and with Gabon's president, El Hadj Omar Bongo, over personal rivalries. Bakassi is the Peninsular extension of the African territory of Calabar into the Atlantic Ocean. Gabon (gəˈbɒn or /gaˈbõ/ in French) is a country in west central Africa sharing borders with Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Republic El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba (born Albert-Bernard Bongo on 30 December 1935) became President of Gabon in 1967  Nevertheless, civil war presents a more credible threat to national security, as tensions between Christians and Muslims and between Anglophones and Francophones remain high. 
Most children have access to free, state-run schools or subsidised, private and religious facilities.  The educational system is a mixture of British and French precedents with most instruction in English or French. Education in Cameroon is among the best in Africa. Primary and secondary school Education is compulsory through the age of 14 years  Cameroon has one of the highest school attendance rates in Africa.  Girls attend school less regularly than boys do because of cultural attitudes, domestic duties, early marriage and pregnancy, and sexual harassment. Although attendance rates are higher in the south, a disproportionate number of teachers are stationed there, leaving northern schools chronically understaffed. 
Six state-run universities serve Cameroon's student population. More than 60,000 students were enrolled for the 1998–1999 school year. A council of deans, school directors, and representatives of state ministries governs the schools under the leadership of a vice-chancellor. State funding for universities is low, and student registrations nominally make up 25% of the higher education budget. However, students have fought these fees since their introduction in 1993. Universities have resisted the urge to increase the selectiveness of admissions in an effort to increase revenue from student fees, and the student populations have increased well beyond the 5,000 they were built to educate. Likewise, cuts in faculty salaries in 1993 have made it difficult to find and keep qualified staff. 
Since 1990, private institutions have sprung up in five provinces. These schools charge fees that are five to ten times those levied by state schools. Nevertheless, they offer short professional-training programmes in areas such as accounting, management, journalism, and Internet technologies, so they are popular with students. Many of these schools fall short of government minimum standards of infrastructure and faculty and must operate unlicensed. 
The quality of health care is generally low.  Outside the major cities, facilities are often dirty and poorly equipped.  Endemic diseases include dengue fever, filariasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, meningitis, schistosomiasis, and sleeping sickness. See special page for Filariasis in domestic animals Lymphatic Filariasis (Philariasis is a parasitic and Leishmaniasis is a Disease caused by Protozoan Parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of certain Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including Meningitis is Inflammation of the protective membranes covering the Brain and Spinal cord, known collectively as the Meninges. Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia, bilharziosis or snail fever) is a Parasitic disease caused by several species of fluke Sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis is a Parasitic Disease of people and animals caused by Protozoa of species  The HIV/AIDS seroprevalence rate is estimated at 5. Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is a Lentivirus (a member of the Retrovirus family that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 4% for those aged 15–49, although a strong stigma against the illness keeps the number of reported cases artificially low.  Traditional healers remain a popular alternative to Western medicine. The term traditional medicine ( Indigenous medicine or folk medicine) describes medical knowledge systems which developed over centuries within various societies 
The constitution divides Cameroon into 10 semi-autonomous regions, each under the administration of an elected Regional Council. The Constitution of Cameroon is the supreme Law of the Republic of Cameroon. Regional Councils are nominally the governing bodies of the Regions of Cameroon. In practice, Cameroon still follows the system that was in place prior to the adoption of a new constitution in 1996. The country is divided into 10 provinces, each headed by a presidentially appointed governor. These leaders are charged with implementing the will of the president, reporting on the general mood and conditions of the provinces, administering the civil service, keeping the peace, and overseeing the heads of the smaller administrative units. Governors have broad powers: they may order propaganda in their area and call in the army, gendarmes, and police. A gendarmerie or gendarmery (dʒɛnˈdɑrməriː or /ˌʒɑndɑrməˈriː/ after the French is a Military body charged with Police duties among civilian  The provinces are subdivided into 58 divisions (French départements). These are headed by presidentially appointed divisional officers (prefets), who perform the governors' duties on a smaller scale. Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: "make in front" i The divisions are further sub-divided into sub-divisions (arrondissements), headed by assistant divisional officers (sous-prefets). Cameroon is divided into a number of Administrative divisions These are known by two terms one English and one French. The districts, administered by district heads (chefs de district), are the smallest administrative units. These are found in large sub-divisions and in regions that are difficult to reach.
The three northernmost provinces are the Far North (Extrême Nord), North (Nord), and Adamawa (Adamaoua). The Far North Province, also known as the Extreme North Province (from French Province de l'Extrême-Nord) is the northernmost constituent province of The North Province ( French Province du Nord) makes up 66000 km² of the northern half of The Republic of Cameroon. The Adamawa Province ( French Province de l'Adamaoua) is a constituent province of the Republic of Cameroon. Directly south of them are the Centre (Centre) and East (Est). The Centre Province ( French Province du Centre) occupies 69000 km² of the central plains of the Republic of Cameroon. The East Province (Province de l'Est occupies the southeastern portion of the Republic of Cameroon. The South Province (Sud) lies on the Gulf of Guinea and the southern border. The South Province ( French Province du Sud) is located in the southwestern and south-central portion of the Republic of Cameroon. Cameroon's western region is split into four smaller provinces: The Littoral (Littoral) and Southwest (Sud-Ouest) provinces are on the coast, and the Northwest (Nord-Ouest) and West (Ouest) provinces are in the western grassfields. "Littoral Province" redirects here For other uses see Litoral Province (Equatorial Guinea and Litoral Province (Bolivia. The Southwest Province is a Province of Cameroon. Its capital is Buea. The North-West Province (in French Province du Nord-Ouest) is found in the western highlands of Cameroon. The West Province ( French Province de l'Ouest) is 14000 km² of territory located in the central-western portion of the Republic of Cameroon. The Northwest and Southwest were once part of British Cameroons; the other provinces were in French Cameroun.
At 475,442 square kilometres (183,569 sq mi), Cameroon is the world's 53rd-largest country. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile.  It is comparable in size to Papua New Guinea and somewhat larger than the U. Papua New Guinea (or ˈpæpjuːə in Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini) officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania S. state of California. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean.  The country is located in Central and West Africa on the Bight of Bonny, part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Central Africa is a core Region of the African Continent often considered to include Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. The Bight of Bonny (also known as the Bight of Biafra) is a bight off the West African coast in the easternmost part (beyond the Bight of Benin to the West The Gulf of Guinea is the part of the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Africa. Tourist literature describes Cameroon as "Africa in miniature" because it exhibits all major climates and vegetation of the continent: coast, desert, mountains, rainforest, and savanna.  The country's neighbours are Nigeria to the west; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo to the south. Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. Central Africa|Central African FederationThe Central African Republic ( CAR) République Centrafricaine ʀepyblik sɑ̃tʀafʀikɛn or Centrafrique) is a Landlocked The Republic of Equatorial Guinea ( República de Guinea Ecuatorial,) is a country in Central Africa. The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo Kongo: Repubilika ya Kongo; Lingala: Republiki ya Kongó) also known as Congo-Brazzaville
Cameroon is divided into five major geographic zones distinguished by dominant physical, climatic, and vegetative features. The coastal plain extends 15 to 150 kilometres (10 to 90 mi) inland from the Gulf of Guinea and has an average elevation of 90 metres (295 ft).  Exceedingly hot and humid with a short dry season, this belt is densely forested and includes some of the wettest places on earth. The dry season is a term commonly used when describing the weather in the Tropics.  The South Cameroon Plateau rises from the coastal plain to an average elevation of 650 metres (2,130 ft). The South Cameroon Plateau or Southern Cameroon Plateau (Plateau Sud-Camerounais is the dominant geographical feature of Cameroon.  Equatorial rainforest dominates this region, although its alternation between wet and dry seasons makes it is less humid than the coast. A wet season or rainy season is a Season in which the average Rainfall in a region is significantly increased
An irregular chain of mountains, hills, and plateaus known as the Cameroon range extends from Mount Cameroon on the coast—Cameroon's highest point at 4,095 metres (13,435 ft)—almost to Lake Chad at Cameroon's northern tip. The Cameroon line is a Geologic fault or Rift zone that extends along the border region of eastern Nigeria and western Cameroon, from Mount Mount Cameroon is an active Volcano in Cameroon near the Gulf of Guinea. This region has a mild climate, particularly on the Western High Plateau, although rainfall is high. The Western High Plateau, Western Highlands, or Bamenda Grassfields is a region of Cameroon characterised by high relief cool temperatures heavy rainfall Its soils are among Cameroon's most fertile, especially around volcanic Mount Cameroon.  Volcanism here has created crater lakes. Crater Lake is a Caldera Lake located in the US state of Oregon. On 21 August 1986, one of these, Lake Nyos, belched carbon dioxide and killed between 1,700 and 2,000 people. Events 1192 - Minamoto Yoritomo becomes Seii Tai Shōgun and the De facto ruler of Japan. Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) Lake Nyos is a Crater lake in the Northwest Province of Cameroon. 
The southern plateau rises northward to the grassy, rugged Adamawa Plateau. The Adamawa Plateau (also spelled Adamaoua) is a Plateau region in west-central Africa stretching from south-eastern Nigeria through north-central This feature stretches from the western mountain area and forms a barrier between the country's north and south. Its average elevation is 1,100 metres (3,600 ft), and its temperature ranges from 22 to 25 °C (72 to 77 °F) with high rainfall.  The northern lowland region extends from the edge of the Adamawa to Lake Chad with an average elevation of 300 to 350 metres (980 to 1,150 ft).  Its characteristic vegetation is savanna scrub and grass. This is an arid region with sparse rainfall and high median temperatures.
Cameroon has four patterns of drainage. In the south, the principal rivers are the Ntem, Nyong, Sanaga, and Wouri. The Ntem is a border river in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. The Nyong is a River in Cameroon. The river flows approximately 640 km to empty into the Gulf of Guinea. The Sanaga River is a River of South Province Cameroon, Centre Province Cameroon, and West Province Cameroon. These flow southwestward or westward directly into the Gulf of Guinea. The Dja and Kadéï drain southeastward into the Congo River. The Dja River (also known as the Ngoko River) is a stream in west-central Africa The Kadéï River is a Tributary of the Sangha River that flows through Cameroon and the Central African Republic. The Congo River (for a time known as the Zaire River) is the largest River in Western Central Africa. In northern Cameroon, the Bénoué River runs north and west and empties into the Niger. The Benue River (la Bénoué is the major Tributary of the Niger River. The Niger River (ˈnaɪdʒɚ NYE-jer) is the principal River of western Africa, extending about 4180 km (2600 miles The Logone flows northward into Lake Chad, which Cameroon shares with three neighbouring countries. The Logon or Logone River is a major Tributary of the Chari River.
Cameroon's per-capita GDP (PPP) was estimated as US$2,421 in 2005, one of the ten highest in sub-Saharan Africa. For a quarter-century following independence Cameroon was one of the most prosperous countries in Africa. The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been  Major export markets include France, Italy, South Korea, Spain, and the United Kingdom.  Cameroon is part of the Bank of Central African States (of which it is the dominant economy) and the Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (UDEAC). The Bank of Central African States (Banque des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale BEAC is a Central bank that serves six Central African countries which form the Economic The Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (or UDEAC from its name in French, Union Douanière et Économique de l’Afrique Centrale) established Its currency is the CFA franc. The CFA franc (in French: franc CFA, "céfa" or just franc colloquially is a currency used in twelve formerly French -ruled Red tape, high taxes, and endemic corruption have impeded growth of the private sector.  Unemployment was estimated at 30% in 2001, and about 48% of the population was living below the poverty threshold in 2000.  Since the late 1980s, Cameroon has been following programmes advocated by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to reduce poverty, privatise industries, and increase economic growth. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic  Tourism is a growing sector, particularly in the coastal area, around Mount Cameroon, and in the north. Tourism in Cameroon is a growing but relatively minor industry 
Cameroon's natural resources are better suited to agriculture and forestry than to industry. An estimated 70% of the population farms, and agriculture comprised an estimated 45. 2% of GDP in 2006.  Most agriculture is done at the subsistence scale by local farmers using simple tools. They sell their surplus produce, and some maintain separate fields for commercial use. Urban centres are particularly reliant on peasant agriculture for their foodstuffs.  Soils and climate on the coast encourage extensive commercial cultivation of bananas, cocoa, oil palms, rubber, and tea. Inland on the South Cameroon Plateau, cash crops include coffee, sugar, and tobacco. Coffee is a major cash crop in the western highlands, and in the north, natural conditions favour crops such as cotton, groundnuts, and rice. Reliance on agricultural exports makes Cameroon vulnerable to shifts in their prices. 
Livestock are raised throughout the country. Fishing employs some 5,000 people and provides 20,000 tons of seafood each year.  Bushmeat, long a staple food for rural Cameroonians, is today a delicacy in the country's urban centres. Bushmeat ( Calque from the French viande de brousse) is the term commonly used for Meat of terrestrial wild animals killed for The commercial bushmeat trade has now surpassed deforestation as the main threat to wildlife in Cameroon. 
The southern rainforest has vast timber reserves, estimated to cover 37% of Cameroon's total land area.  However, large areas of the forest are difficult to reach. Logging, largely handled by foreign-owned firms, provides the government US$60 million a year, and laws mandate the safe and sustainable exploitation of timber. Nevertheless, in practice, the industry is one of the least regulated in Cameroon. 
Factory-based industry accounted for an estimated 16. 1% of GDP in 2006.  More than 75% of Cameroon's industrial strength is located in Douala and Bonabéri. Douala is the largest city in Cameroon and the capital of Cameroon's Littoral Province. Bonabéri is a port in the Littoral Province of Cameroon. It is located across the harbour from the larger port of Douala.  Cameroon possesses substantial mineral resources, but these are not extensively mined. Cameroon Overview Cameroon has a total area of approximately 475 thousand square kilometers a coastline of some 400 kilometers and a population approaching 18 million people  Petroleum exploitation has fallen since 1985, but this is still a substantial sector such that dips in prices have a strong effect on the economy.  Rapids and waterfalls obstruct the southern rivers, but these sites offer opportunities for hydroelectric development and supply most of Cameroon's energy.  The Sanaga River powers the largest hydroelectric station, located at Edéa.  The rest of Cameroon's energy comes from oil-powered thermal engines. Much of the country remains without reliable power supplies. 
Transport in Cameroon is often difficult. Railways Railways in Cameroon are operated by Camrail, a Subsidiary of French investment group Bolloré. Roads are poorly maintained and subject to inclement weather, since only 10% of the roadways are tarred.  Roadblocks often serve little other purpose than to allow police and gendarmes to collect bribes from travellers.  Road banditry has long hampered transport along the eastern and western borders, and since 2005, the problem has intensified in the east as the Central African Republic has further destabilised.  Rail service runs from Kumba in the west to Bélabo in the east and north to Ngaoundéré. For the roller coaster at Busch Gardens Tampa see Kumba (roller coaster. Bélabo is a town in Cameroon, lying on the Yaoundé – N'Gaoundéré Railway line. International airports are located in Douala and Garoua with a smaller facility at Yaoundé. Garoua is the capital of the North Province of Cameroon, lying on the Benue River. The Wouri River estuary provides a harbour for Douala, the country's principal seaport. In the north, the Bénoué River is seasonally navigable from Garoua across into Nigeria.
Although press freedoms have improved since the early 2000s, the press is corrupt and beholden to special interests and political groups.  Newspapers routinely self-censor to avoid government reprisals.  The major radio and television stations are state-run, and other communications, such as land-based telephones and telegraphs, are largely under government control. Telephones - main lines in use 60000 (1995 Telephones - mobile cellular 2800 (1995 Telephone system available only to business and government  However, cell phone networks and Internet providers have increased dramatically since the early 2000s and are largely unregulated. 
2005 estimates place Cameroon's population at 17,795,000.  This population is young: an estimated 41. 2% are under 15, and 96. 7% are under 65. The birth rate is estimated at 33. 89 births per 1,000 people, the death rate at 13. 47.  The life expectancy is 51. 16 years (50. 98 years for males and 51. 34 years for females). 
Cameroon's population is almost evenly divided between urban and rural dwellers.  Population density is highest in the large urban centres, the western highlands, and the northeastern plain.  Douala, Yaoundé, and Garoua are the largest cities. Douala is the largest city in Cameroon and the capital of Cameroon's Littoral Province. Yaoundé, (jɑːuːnˈdeɪ is the Capital city of Cameroon and second largest city in the country after Douala. Garoua is the capital of the North Province of Cameroon, lying on the Benue River. In contrast, the Adamawa Plateau, southeastern Bénoué depression, and most of the South Cameroon Plateau are sparsely populated.  People from the overpopulated western highlands and the underdeveloped north are moving to the coastal plantation zone and urban centres for employment.  Smaller movements are occurring as workers seek employment in lumber mills and plantations in the south and east.  Although the national sex ratio is relatively even, these out-migrants are primarily males, which leads to unbalanced ratios in some regions. 
Both monogamous and polygamous marriage are practiced, and the average Cameroonian family is large and extended. Monogamy is the custom or condition of having only one mate in a Relationship, thus forming a Couple. The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage" is used in related ways in Social anthropology, Sociobiology, and  In the north, women tend to the home, and men herd cattle or work as farmers. In the south, women grow the family's food, and men provide meat and grow cash crops. Cameroonian society is male-dominated, and violence and discrimination against women is common.  At the onset of puberty, an estimated 26% of girls are subjected to breast ironing, a practice by which their breasts are pounded or massaged with heated objects to prevent them from developing. Breast ironing is a form of Body modification practiced in parts of Cameroon. The goal is to prevent the girls from becoming precociously sexually active and to protect them from sexual assault.  Female genital mutilation is practiced in portions of the Far North and Southwest provinces. The terms genital modification and genital mutilation can refer to permanent or temporary changes to Human Genitals. 
Estimates identify anywhere from 230 to 282 different ethnic and linguistic groups in Cameroon.  The Adamawa Plateau broadly bisects these into northern and southern divisions. The northern peoples are Sudanese ethnic groups, who live in the central highlands and the northern lowlands, and the Fulani, who are spread throughout northern Cameroon. A small number of Shuwa Arabs live near Lake Chad. The Baggara Arabs or Baqqarah ( البقارة) are a nomadic Bedouin people inhabiting Africa from between Lake Chad and the Nile Southern Cameroon is inhabited by speakers of Bantu and Semi-Bantu languages. Bantu may refer to Bantu expansion, a series of migrations of Bantu speakers Bantu languages Bantu people Semi-Bantu or Grassfields Bantu refers to a group of related African languages spoken by the inhabitants of the Western grassfields of Cameroon Bantu-speaking groups inhabit the coastal and equatorial zones, while speakers of Semi-Bantu languages live in the Western grassfields. Some 5,000 Pygmies roam the southeastern and coastal rainforests or live in small, roadside settlements.  War in the Central African Republic has driven more than 20,000 refugees to Cameroon's Adamawa and East provinces since 2002, and kidnappings of Cameroonian citizens by Central African bandits have increased since 2005.  Nigerians, especially Igbo, make up the largest group of foreign nationals. The Igbo [iɡɓo] ( Igbo: Igbo, sometimes Nd'Igbo) sometimes referred to (usually formerly as the Ibo, Eboe, Ebo 
Cameroon has a high level of religious freedom and diversity. Muslim centres and Christian churches of various denominations operate freely throughout Cameroon  The northern peoples are predominantly Muslim, although some ethnic groups retain native animist beliefs and are called Kirdi ("pagan") by the Fulani. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals The Kirdi are an ethnic group of people living mostly in the Mandara Mountains in northwestern Cameroon and northeastern Nigeria. The U.S. Department of State claims that some Muslims discriminate against Christians and followers of traditional beliefs in the north.  Southern ethnic groups predominantly follow Christian or animist beliefs, or a syncretic combination of the two. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory beliefs often while melding practices of various schools of thought People widely believe in witchcraft, and the government outlaws such practices.  Suspected witches are often subject to mob violence. 
The European languages introduced during colonialism have created a linguistic divide between the English-speaking fifth of the population who live in the Northwest and Southwest provinces and the French-speaking remainder of the country.  Both English and French are official languages. Cameroonian Pidgin English is the most common lingua franca, especially in the formerly British-administered territories. Cameroonian Pidgin English, or Cameroonian Creole, is a linguistic entity of Cameroon.  A mixture of English, French, and Pidgin called Camfranglais has been gaining popularity in urban centres since the mid-1970s. Camfranglais, Frananglais, or Franglais ( Portemanteau between French terms camerounais, français and anglais 
|1 January||New Year's Day|
|11 February||National Youth Day|
|1 May||Labour Day|
|20 May||National Day|
|1 October||Unification Day|
Each of Cameroon's ethnic groups has its own unique cultural forms. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC New Year's Day is the first day of the Year. On the modern Gregorian calendar, it is celebrated on January 1, as it was also in ancient Rome (though Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Youth Day in India is celebrated on 12 January on the birthday of Swami Vivekananda. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Labour Day is an annual Holiday celebrated all over the world that resulted from efforts of Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held National Day is a Holiday in Cameroon celebarated on 20 May. Cameroon has no single date of independence Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed This article is about the theological concept For the works of art with this title see Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Art and Roman Catholic Marian art. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Unification Day is a holiday in Cameroon that is celebrated on 1 October, marking the anniversary of British Southern Cameroons ' independence Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Typical celebrations include births, deaths, plantings, harvests, and religious rituals. Seven national holidays are observed throughout the year, and movable holidays include the Christian holy days of Good Friday, Easter Sunday, Easter Monday, and Ascension; and the Muslim holy days of 'Id al-Fitr, 'Id al-Adha, and Eid Milad Nnabi. This is a list of Holidays in Cameroon Movable holidays The following holidays are public holidays but the date on Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday ("Pascha" Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is celebrated as a Holiday in some largely Christian cultures especially Roman Catholic The general and most common understanding of the Christian Doctrine of Ascension holds that Jesus bodily ascended to Heaven in the presence Eid ul-Fitr or Id-ul-Fitr (عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiṭr) often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim Holiday that marks the end of Eid al-Adha ( Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd ul-’Aḍḥā, Urdu: بقرعید or the Festival of Sacrifice is a religious festival celebrated Mawlid ( Eid Milad an Nabi ( Turkish:Mevlid ( Qur'anic مَوْلِدُ آلنَبِيِّ mawlidu n-nabiyyi, “Birth of the Prophet”
Music and dance are an integral part of Cameroonian ceremonies, festivals, social gatherings, and storytelling. The best-known Music of Cameroon is Makossa, a popular style that has gained fans across Africa, and its related dance craze Bikutsi. Dance in Cameroon is an integral part of the tradition religion and socialising of the country's people  Traditional dances are highly choreographed and separate men and women or forbid participation by one sex altogether.  The goals of dances range from pure entertainment to religious devotion.  Traditionally, music is transmitted orally. In a typical performance, a chorus of singers echoes a soloist.  Musical accompaniment may be as simple as clapping hands and stomping feet, but traditional instruments include bells worn by dancers, clappers, drums and talking drums, flutes, horns, rattles, scrapers, stringed instruments, whistles, and xylophones; the exact combination varies with ethnic group and region. The talking drum is a West African Drum whose pitch can be regulated to the extent that it is said the drum " talks " Some performers sing complete songs by themselves, accompanied by a harplike instrument. 
Popular music styles include ambasse bey of the coast, assiko of the Bassa, mangambeu of the Bangangte, and tsamassi of the Bamileke. Ambasse bey or ambas-i-bay is a style of folk music and dance from Cameroon. The Assiko is a popular Dance from the South of Cameroon. Originally based in the Bassa country this rhythmed dance takes its name from two words Mangambeu is a popular musical style of the Bangangte people of Cameroon. "Bazu" redirects here For the Romanian aviator see Constantin Cantacuzino. Tsamassi is a popular musical style of the Bamileke of Cameroon.  Nigerian music has influenced Anglophone Cameroonian performers, and Prince Nico Mbarga's highlife hit "Sweet Mother" is the top-selling African record in history. The music of Nigeria includes many kinds of Folk and Popular music, some of which are known worldwide Distinguish from Dr Nico. Prince Nico Mbarga ( 1 January 1950 &ndash 24 June, 1997) was a highlife Highlife is a Musical genre that originated in Ghana and spread to Sierra Leone and Nigeria in the 1920s and other West African " Sweet Mother " is a Highlife song by the Nigeria / Cameroonian singer Prince Nico Mbarga and his band Rocafil Jazz.  The two most popular styles are makossa and bikutsi. Makossa is a type of Music which is most popular in urban areas in Cameroon. Bikutsi is a Musical genre from Cameroon. It developed from the traditional styles of the Beti, or Ewondo people who live around the city of Yaounde Makossa developed in Douala and mixes folk music, highlife, soul, and Congo music. Highlife is a Musical genre that originated in Ghana and spread to Sierra Leone and Nigeria in the 1920s and other West African Soul music is a Music genre that combines Rhythm and blues and Gospel music, originating in the United States. Soukous (also known as Lingala or Congo, and previously as African rumba) is a Musical genre that originated in the two neighbouring countries Performers such as Manu Dibango, Francis Bebey, Moni Bilé, and Petit-Pays popularised the style worldwide in the 1970s and 1980s. Manu Dibango (born 12 December 1933 in Douala, Cameroon) is a Cameroonian Saxophonist and Vibraphone player Francis Bebey (1929–2001 was a Cameroonian artist, Musician, and Writer. Mono Bilé is a Cameroonian Makossa musician He was the best-selling makossa performer of the 1980s and his album Amour & Espérance was an Petit-Pays born Adolphe Claude Moundi in Douala Cameroon (1969 Bikutsi originated as war music among the Ewondo. Artists such as Anne-Marie Nzié developed it into a popular dance music beginning in the 1940s, and performers such as Mama Ohandja and Les Têtes Brulées popularised it internationally during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Anne-Marie Nzié is a Cameroonian Bikutsi singer In the 1940s Nzié began performing bikutsi the music native to her home in central Cameroon Mama Ohandja is a Cameroonian singer musical arranger dancer and choreographer Les Têtes Brulées are a Cameroonian band known for a mellow pop version of the Bikutsi Dance music. 
Cuisine varies by region, but a large, one-course, evening meal is common throughout the country. The Cuisine of Cameroon is one of the most varied in Africa due to its location on the crossroads between the north west and centre of the continent added to this A typical dish is based on cocoyams, maize, manioc, millet, plantains, potatoes, rice, or yams, often pounded into dough-like fufu (cous-cous). Fufu, variants include foofoo, foufou, foutou or fu fu, is a Staple food of West and Central Africa. This is served with a sauce, soup, or stew made from greens, groundnuts, palm oil, or other ingredients.  Meat and fish are popular but expensive additions.  Dishes are often quite hot, spiced with salt, red pepper, and Maggi. Maggi is a Nestlé Brand of instant Soups, stocks, Bouillons Ketchups Sauces  Water, palm wine, and millet beer are the traditional mealtime drinks, although beer, soda, and wine have gained popularity. Palm Wine also called Palm Toddy or simply Toddy is an Alcoholic beverage created from the Sap of various species of Palm tree such Millet beer, also known as Bantu beer, kaffir beer, or opaque beer, is an Alcoholic beverage made from malted Millet.  Silverware is common, but food is traditionally manipulated with the right hand. Breakfast consists of leftovers or bread and fruit with coffee or tea. Snacks are popular, especially in larger towns where they may be bought from street vendors.
Traditional arts and crafts are practiced throughout the country for commercial, decorative, and religious purposes. Woodcarvings and sculptures are especially common.  The high-quality clay of the western highlands is suitable for pottery and ceramics.  Other crafts include basket weaving, beadworking, brass and bronze working, calabash carving and painting, embroidery, and leather working. Traditional housing styles make use of locally available materials and vary from temporary wood-and-leaf shelters of nomadic Mbororo to the rectangular mud-and-thatch homes of southern peoples. Dwellings made from materials such as cement and tin are increasingly common. 
Cameroonian literature and film have concentrated on both European and African themes. This is a list of Films produced in Cameroon: A Afrique je te plumerai (1993 Anna Makossa (1980 Colonial-era writers such as Louis-Marie Pouka and Sankie Maimo were educated by European missionary societies and advocated assimilation into European culture as the means to bring Cameroon into the modern world. Louis-Marie Pouka was a Cameroonian Poet who advocated the assimilation of Cameroonian peoples into French culture. Sankie Maimo was a writer from British Southern Cameroons. Maimo moved to Ibadan, Nigeria, where he worked as a school teacher A region or society where several different groups are spontaneously assimilated is sometimes referred to as a Melting pot.  After World War II, writers such as Mongo Beti and Ferdinand Oyono analysed and criticised colonialism and rejected assimilation. Alexandre Biyidi Awala ( June 30, 1932 - October 8, 2001) known as Mongo Beti, was a Cameroonian writer Ferdinand Léopold Oyono (born 14 September 1929) is an Author from Cameroon whose work is recognized for Irony that shows how easily  Shortly after independence, filmmakers such as Jean-Paul Ngassa and Thérèse Sita-Bella explored similar themes. Jean-Paul Ngassa is a Cameroonian filmmaker He made the films Adventure en France (1962 and La Grande Case Bamiléké (1965 after French Cameroun Thérèse Sita-Bella (1933-2006 born Thérèse Bella Mbida was a Cameroonian filmmaker and pilot and Cameroon 's first female Journalist.  In the 1960s, Mongo Beti and other writers explored post-colonialism, problems of African development, and the recovery of African identity.  Meanwhile, in the mid-1970s, filmmakers such as Jean-Pierre Dikongué Pipa and Daniel Kamwa dealt with the conflicts between traditional and post-colonial society. Jean-Pierre Dikongué Pipa is a Cameroonian film director and writer Daniel Kamwa (born April 14, 1943) is a filmmaker and actor from Nkongsamba, Cameroon. Literature and films during the next two decades concentrated more on wholly Cameroonian themes. 
National policy strongly advocates sport in all forms. Traditional sports include canoe racing and wrestling, and several hundred runners participate in the 40 km (24. 8 mi) Mount Cameroon Race of Hope each year. The Mount Cameroon Race of Hope is an annual televised footrace held at Mount Cameroon in the Southwest Province of Cameroon in the last weekend  Cameroon is one of the few tropical countries to have competed in the Winter Olympics. Cameroon competed in the Winter Olympic Games for the first time at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, United States The Winter Olympic Games are a winter Multi-sport event held every four years However, sport in Cameroon is dominated by football (soccer). Sport in Cameroon is practiced widely by the population and advocated by the national government. Amateur football clubs abound, organised along ethnic lines or under corporate sponsors. The Cameroon national football team has been one of the most successful in the world since its strong showing in the 1990 FIFA World Cup. The Cameroon national football team, nicknamed Lions Indomptables (Indomitable Lions, is controlled by the Fédération Camerounaise de Football and is Africa's Cameroon has won four African Cup of Nations titles and the gold medal at the 2000 Olympics. The Africa Cup of Nations, also referred to as the African Nations Cup (ANC is the main international Association football competition in Africa.